International Students

To analyze What To Analyze The Motivational Factor For International Students And Professionals To Study/ Work in the UK ?

Introduction

Background

In the current scenario, where student faced a problem-related to the limited expertise university and job opportunities. So this gives rise to the high migration of student to the international market (Douglas et al., 2015).

In respect to this, UK is one of the countries which have gained countless high education institution and these educational organizations provide the bright future opportunity to the international student to study there and get the job at the same place.

For example, Oxford and Cambridge are the names that consider as the biggest brand in the education sector, as these firms are known for their quality courses and devotion to education quality and performances. This area can be one of the forces that attract the international student towards the UK market.

Other than that, there are various other motivation factors that influence the student to pursue their career in the UK. It mainly includes quality skill development as UK universities focus hard on making student expertise so it provides both theoretical and practical understanding to individuals.

Moreover, the opportunity of high income and personal growth also encouraged the international student to pursue their career in the UK so that professional development can be gained in the fullest manner.

Similarly, these opportunities are not easy to grab for various international students due to the involvement of various challenges in the form of high costing of education, cultural differences and many more.

These areas challenge the international student to chase their career in other countries like the UK which is a developed country (Souto-Otero et al., 2013).

Besides that, still, student prefers to pursue their study or work life in the UK due to the availability of high opportunities. So this study will help to analyze the factors that push the international student to study and work in the UK.

Research Aims & objective

The aim of this research is to analyze the motivational factor for international students and professionals to Study/ Work in the UK. However, the researcher will be included as the following objective for achieving the positive research outcome.

  • To determine the factors that motivate the student to study and work in the UK
  • To analyze the challenges that students face to study/work in the UK
  • To suggest the ways to overcome such challenges

Research Questions

  • What are the motivational factors influencing the international students and professionals to study and work in the UK?
  • What are the challenges that international students faced to study/work in the UK?
  • What are the solutions which help the international student to effectively study/work in the UK?

Research significances

This research study will prove to be useful for both international students and universities in a way to create awareness among the student about the factors that affect them when they pursue their study in international like the UK.

Moreover, the study will also allow the universities of UK to underline the area which can attract the maximum student. Thus, this research work assists the future researcher to make a detailed understanding of this research topic so that they could make a better further research study.

Literature Review

The factor to influences the international student and professional to study/work in the UK

Motivation factors are important in regards to push the individual to towards performing a certain activity. Similarly, Safiullah (2015) mentioned that there are numerous motivation factors present that influence the international student and professional one to achieve better job opportunity and quality education.

Wilkins et al. (2013), identified that quality educational institution in the UK could be the major motivational factor that attract larger student to become a part of such universities.

The UK famous universities are Oxford and Cambridge and student has a dream to take quality education from given universities. This area make student inspires to pursue their career to these universities for achieving quality education in the form of brings high skill development.

Freeman et al. (2017) found that high job opportunity in the UK tends to be another motivational factor that pushes the student to move towards a country which allows attaining higher growth and development.

For example, the UK market consists of big organizations such as Tesco plc, HSBC (Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation) and Sainsbury & many more. These different sectors provide various job opportunities for individuals.

So these area influences the international students, especially which belong to developing countries to explore these changes and make their career secure.

Wilkins & Stephens Balakrishnan (2013) determined that favorable work condition is also considered as a vital force to encourage professional people to switch towards the UK MNCs (multi-national companies).

Moreover, UK companies follow various employment acts such as Fair remuneration, Work, health & safety and this support individual personal development. The adaptation of acts could help the firm to create a positive work environment for the employees.

It results in attracting the professionals to capture the job role in such firms in the UK. Thus, these are the factors which influence international students and professionals to grab the available opportunity in the UK.

According to Faletar et al. (2016), Hertzberg’s Two-Factor theory poised that there are two factors such as motivator factors and hygiene factors that influence employee motivation and satisfaction.

Motivator factors include the area which leads to huge satisfaction and this is done through enjoying the work, feeling recognized and career progression. Other than that, hygiene factors can lead to dissatisfaction among the employees when there is absent of the right salary, company policies and healthy relationship with co-workers etc.

In relation to this theory, the international student attracts more on the UK due to presences of both motivator or Hygiene factor in the form of providing heavy recognition to professionals while the student gets the career progression to students.

Thus, these factors influences the student and professional to study/work in the UK region. In a similar manner, expectancy theory stated that people would choose their behavior and acts based on the expectation and how much it is fulfilled.

Likewise, an international student has a perception and behavior that UK education and job system is quite authentic and possess quality so the student and professional feel motivated when they get admission or achieve job opportunities in the UK.

This is because their expectation related to study/work in the UK gets fulfilled.

In opposition to this study, Osabiya (2015) underlined the external factors like the political one which majorly influences the student and professional decision to study/ work internationally. This is because the government has a major role in the running of the education system and job availability.

So the government policies of the UK are also considered as an important factor for influencing the student behavior in regards to explore the quality education of the UK. UK government provide various opportunities to the international individual by reserving various seats for the non-resident student in order to avail quality education and career enhancement. Therefore, it can be stated that external factors also consider as forces which support the students/ professionals to explore the UK to a larger extent.

Challenges and issues faced in study/work in context to the UK

In respect to work/ study in the UK, there are various challenges that student and professionals faced in a way to adjust and handle the complex situation. According to Ozturk& Rumens (2014), high expenses of UK can be the major challenge that sometimes restricts the individuals to move towards the UK region. Likewise, universities such as Oxford and Cambridge involve high fees due to which people hesitate. Besides that, heavy expenses related to accommodation, food, and traveling also limit the people to sustain in the UK. Thus, student and professional may face the challenges about the expenses in this region.

In support of this study, Jiang & Carpenter (2013), stated that cultural differences are another problem which usually international student face when it comes to interacting with local once. Likewise, often student finds the admission in the university but they still feel unhappy due to lack of support system from local people in the term to communication or language barrier. At the same time, professionals also faced such challenges at the workplace when it comes to communicating the information to the colleagues (Brown & Jones, 2013). This is because of the language barrier due to which individuals can’t make proper coordination which results in low satisfaction level.

Durkin et al. (2012) identified that health issue is something which international student usually faced when it comes to moving to another country. However, student due to change in climate may feel lethargic and uncomfortable. It results in improper concentrating on the work or study. So this creates the biggest hindrances for individual sustainability in the different country.

Similarly, Bisin et al. (2015), observed that change in government policy could also affect the student as well as professional to study/work properly in the UK. This can be explained with the financial crises which broke in 2008.

At that time, the UK government takes strict action by reducing employment opportunities to international professionals. This affects the international professionals in a way that they are asked to leave the organization and return their home country. Sothis practice also affects the international student and professionals regards to pursue their career in the UK. Thus, government policy is the major factor that affects the student in the international market. So, the major challenges occur with the political and social factors for international student/ professionals.

The solution for an international student to effectively study/work in the UK

In the views of Bright & Miller (2012), it is suggested to UK universities to save quota for the non-resident student in respect to provide some rebate over the fees so that a large number of the individual can assess the quality education. Similarly, there is also a need to take initiatives like provide accommodation to those individuals who belong to another country. This helps them to reduce their expenses. Moreover, the scholarship exam is also something which could support the student to easily access the quality education at proper costing. Additionally, Hooker (2012) stated that MNCs should also focus on the cultural differences by taking various steps like conduct proper communication network so that people can easily gel up. This practice also allows to contributing positive work result. In respect to this solution, professional or student needs to take equally participation in making the proper relationship with different cultural people. This practice could help the international people to easily adjust in the UK by making a healthy relationship with the diversified cultural group.

Ingersoll (2012) stated that organization should conduct a proper induction process for the professional that belong to a different cultural background as the induction help the individuals to familiar with the environment and people. Based on this practice, people encourage to work and contribute productive results.

In a similar manner, organize of weekly training provides recognition like reward can also be useful to the firm for achieving the encouraged workforces as every individual cultural people wants a motivational force. So, the training and reward practice allows to satisfying the employee in the fullest manner. Thus, these are the areas that could help the international student as well as professionals to study/work properly without any major challenges.

In concern to international student/ professionals, Alvesson &Sköldberg (2017) recommended that students should perform proper research before making the decision about moving to an international country like the UK so that they can gain proper knowledge about the culture and education system. This process could help the student to easily deal with different culture. Besides that, the international student should also take participant in the scholarship examination for achieving some benefit in universities fees. Moreover, professionals could also effectively work in the UK through take participate in the firm events and this allows to make a healthy relationship with co-workers. Thus, these areas would assist the individuals to more efficiently deal with various situations and smoothly perform their study/work in the UK.

Additionally, UK government financial support for the international student could allow the individual to achieve a quality education. This area contributes benefit for the UK equally in the term to attract the talent individual at the region. The skilled workforces always support economic development and growth. In regards to implementing such actions, the government should direct the universities and company in a way that supports the individual to easily grab the quality education and job opportunities. Thus, the above mention recommendation could incorporate an effective solution for student/ professionals to carry out the study/work effectively in the UK.

Research Methodology

Research Design

The researcher has used the quantitative method with the aim to achieve the relevant data. However, the Reason behind to adopt this design is to conduct the survey for receiving the views of international students. Moreover, this method is also helpful to collect the measurable data within which authentic research result gain. The quantitative design also assists to identify cause and effect relationship about the variables. Likewise, this design support to identify the impact of motivation factor over the international student/professionals in regards to work/study in the UK. Basically, the quantitative research design helped the researcher to quantify the problem by use of numeric data that is transformed into the usable statistics. In a similar manner, the researcher quantifies the factors that motivate the student/ professional to pursue their career in the UK and it is presented into the usable statistical form. The method also contributes benefit in form of achieving the right result as an outcome largely based on large population that is representatives of the population. So this method is suitable for the given research topic. Therefore, it is stated that for the international student survey, the quantitative proved to be effective for performing the research work with more efficiency.

Data collection

The research study involved the primary method to collect the relevant sources of data. In context of this research, the international student is surveyed by the researcher. The closed-ended questionnaire used for receiving information about the motivational factors that influence them to study the UK.

The question majorly focused on the motivational factors and challenges which student/professional face in the UK when it comes to study/work. Moreover, questionnaires are distributed through the use of social-site and e-mails to the international student who studying in UK universities. The reason behind to select the survey is that it allows capturing viewpoint of different international students which assist to determine what areas influence more.

However, 50 international students are targeted to collect the data and perform the research work. At the same time, this method is effective because it provides first time and origin data which is not gathered before. So this offers authentic information to the researcher for conducting the research study in a more appropriate manner. Moreover, the primary method helps the researcher to achieve the information with bias-free as with interview, there are large chances of biases which affect the study adversely. So, the incorporation of survey method proved to be useful for targeting a large number of international student.

Sampling method

The researcher used the probability method to select the target group. As per the survey, there is various student are selected to collect the relevant data. So that’s why the researcher selects the student on a random basis. The researcher followed this method because this gives chances to every individual to become a part of the research study. Similarly, the random method provides an equal chance to each student for responding to the questions and contributes to making the research work authentic.

However, the researcher selected the 50 students out of 100 for filling the questionnaire over the social-site. This sampling method is suitable for this study as compare to non-random one due to large time consumption. Similarly, the random method is also proved to be beneficial as its easy to use and accurate representation of the larger population. In relation to the selection of international student from the UK, it is identified that this method presented the views of entire international student regards to what factor motivate them to move into the UK for pursuing their career. That’s why it can be stated that the random sampling method is effective for accomplishing the research positive outcome.

Data Analysis

The researcher has analysed the collected data through the use of a graphical method. This one best suited to present the findings to the reader. This method involved the graphical presentation of recorded facts which is gathered from the students. For example, the student believed that quality of education is the major motivation that encourages them to study in the UK so the researcher presents the figure based on table and graph to highlight what factor influences the international student more to move into the universities. This graphical method provides the frequency and percentage which are obtained from the response during the survey that can be helpful to determine the pattern in data responses and present the finding effectively.

Moreover, the graphical method also helped the researcher to develop the right conclusion as if an individual isn’t able to interpret then they failed to address the conclusion in the best manner. Thus, it can be stated that a researcher with the use of the graphical method, able to explain or discuss the conclusion in the best possible manner. So, the graphical method proved to be effective for analyzing the factors that influence international student to study in the UK.

Finding /Analysis/Discussion

Demographic analysis

Interpretation:  On the basis of the above graph, it can be stated that major respondents belonged to the age of 20-25. This age group largely focused on finding the organization which provides quality education and job opportunities to them. So this age group of international student plays an important role in performing this research work.

Interpretation: On the basis of the above graph, it can be stated that there was equal participation of female and male respondents in this survey. The researcher has selected a similar number of male and female international students in order to know the opinion regarding the motivational factors attracting to work or study in the UK.  But at the same time, it can also be stated that most of the respondents were male that gave the response.

Interpretation:

On the basis of the above graph, it can be interpreted that the majority of the respondents were agreed with the fact that quality educational institution influences the international student to study in the UK. On the contrary, there were some respondents who disagreed with this fact. Thus, it can be stated that quality education considered as the foremost reason behind perusing the study or doing the work in the UK as they found it as a great opportunity for developing high-level skills.

Interpretation

The above graph indicated that there were some respondents out of 50 participants those agree on that higher job availability plays an important role to attract the professional in UK region. However, there were also some other respondents who did not agree with this fact. Moreover, the availability of big organizations and bright career opportunities in UK market attract international students.

Interpretation

The above graph shows that majority number of respondents was agreed on that favorable work condition contribute towards achieving higher attention of international student and professionals in order to work and study in the UK region. But at the same time, some of the respondents were not agreed with this fact because they think that there is also some other region to come to the UK for the study and the work. However, it is a fact that professionals found UK region as an appropriate place for showcasing their talent and to be recognized and smooth working environment to work.

Interpretation

On the basis of the above graph, it is determined that the majority of the respondents were strongly agreed that UK government policy would be useful for international student and professionals in regards to performing respective work/ study. On the hand, there were only some respondents who disagreed with this fact. As the UK government secure a certain number of seat in universities for other residents that opens the door for international students for availing the quality education.

Interpretation

The above graph indicates that majority of the respondents were agreed that higher expenses are the major issue for international students and professionals who work and study in the UK. At the same time, some respondents responded as cultural differences and lack of support of people were the major concern for international students, However, some respondents considered that health issue is one of the major threat they face while resides in the UK. Thus, it can be stated that bearing the huge expense in order to survive in the UK region is the biggest issue of International students.

Interpretation

The above graph shows that major respondents were in favor of developing a policy that supports Non-resident student growth. It is because it helps to overcome the risk and to get a better study and job. On the other hand, another group of respondents thinks that providing scholarship opportunities to Non-resident student can be an option. At the same time, few respondents consider that organizations should focus on proper induction process. Also, few were in favor to conduct the cultural diversity awareness in education institution that will be helpful to overcome the respective challenges.

Recommendation

From the above research study, it can be stated that there are various constraints in order to reside in the UK region while study or seeking career opportunities. At the same time, it is very important to research well in advance before moving there so they have enough knowledge about the UK policies and procedures for taking admission in academic universities to higher studies. In similar ways, students and professionals must gain information about the educational system and cultural environment (Sá &Sabzalieva, 2018). It will be helpful for them in mixing up with local people and building a good relationship with them. As to why it is very important for every individual to have a friendly environment around to adjust in new surroundings.

Apart from that, it is identified that most of the students and professionals face financial problems in order to avail the quality education in the UK. Therefore, the UK government is expected to provide some monetary liberty to non-residential students in terms of academic fees and other related expenses (Coryell et al., 2012). At the same time, another option is to provide free accommodation to international students and professional so that their financial pressure can be eliminated to some extent. Furthermore, UK universities can also conduct scholarship programmes for outsider students for accessing quality education with some ease.

In concern to this, UK academic institutions must more focus on induction process providing additional attention for non-residential students so that they can reality connect with the new and diverse environment. In respect of international professionals, they need to actively participate in organizational events so that they can be recognized at the workplace and able to build a good relationship with co-workers of different values and beliefs (Tannock, 2013).  On the other hand, UK firms must organize the cultural activities and intercultural training for all staff as it will be helpful in maintaining a diverse and balanced workforce at the organization. By implementing such practices non-residential employees get motivated and contribute the maximum to achieve the organizational and performance.

Most importantly, the government needs to formulate the strong policies and legislation for providing easy access to quality education and better job opportunities. In relation to this, the U.K. government could reserve a certain number of seats for other students and also can bite liberal visa process (Calder et al., 2016). Also, the University administration must mentor the students for their further studies and career opportunities. Thus, these practices will be effective in order to easily work and study for international students and professionals in U.K.

Conclusion

On the basis of the above study, it can be concluded that U.K. is considered as a best country for study and to work there. As to why it is worldwide renounced place for perusing quality education and finding brilliant career opportunities. There are various factors that attract the international students and professionals to go there seeking great learning opportunities like, quality educations, better job availability, diverse cultural environment, government policies etc. However, there are some challenges as well in this area, like, visa process, cultural differences, health issues, higher expenses. Hence, the UK government must formulate liberal policies and rules so that they can easily peruse the quality education while living in a secure social environment.

References

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Bisin, A., Lizzeri, A., & Yariv, L. (2015). Government policy with time inconsistent voters. American Economic Review105(6), 1711-37.

Bright, D. S., & Miller, M. T. (2012). Appreciative inquiry and positive organizational scholarship. Handbook for Strategic HR: Best Practices in Organization Development from the OD Network, Berrett-Koehler, San Francisco, CA, 320-329.

Brown, L., & Jones, I. (2013). Encounters with racism and the international student experience. Studies in Higher Education38(7), 1004-1019.

Calder, M. J., Richter, S., Mao, Y., Kovacs Burns, K., Mogale, R. S., &Danko, M. (2016). International Students Attending Canadian Universities: Their Experiences with Housing, Finances, and Other Issues. Canadian Journal of higher education46(2), 92-110.

Coryell, J. E., Durodoye, B. A., Wright, R. R., Pate, P. E., & Nguyen, S. (2012). Case studies of internationalization in adult and higher education: Inside the processes of four universities in the United States and the United Kingdom. Journal of Studies in International Education16(1), 75-98.

Douglas, J. A., Douglas, A., McClelland, R. J., & Davies, J. (2015). Understanding student satisfaction and dissatisfaction: an interpretive study in the UK higher education context. Studies in Higher Education40(2), 329-349.

Durkin, M., McKenna, S., & Cummins, D. (2012). Emotional connections in higher education marketing. International Journal of Educational Management26(2), 153-161.

Faletar, J., Jelačić, D., Sedliačiková, M., Jazbec, A., &Hajdúchová, I. (2016). Motivating employees in a wood processing company before and after restructuring. BioResources11(1), 2504-2515.

Freeman, J., Hellgardt, K., &Markides, C. N. (2017). Working fluid selection and electrical performance optimisation of a domestic solar-ORC combined heat and power system for year-round operation in the UK. Applied energy186, 291-303.

Hooker, J. (2012). 19 Cultural Differences in Business Communication. The handbook of intercultural discourse and communication29, 389.

Ingersoll, R. M. (2012). Beginning teacher induction what the data tell us. Phi Delta Kappan93(8), 47-51.

Jiang, N., & Carpenter, V. (2013). A case study of issues of strategy implementation in internationalization of higher education. International Journal of Educational Management27(1), 4-18.

Osabiya, B. J. (2015). The effect of employees motivation on organizational performance. Journal of Public Administration and Policy Research7(4), 62-75.

Ozturk, M. B., & Rumens, N. (2014). Gay male academics in UK business and management schools: Negotiating heteronormativities in everyday work life. British Journal of Management25(3), 503-517.

Sá, C. M., &Sabzalieva, E. (2018). The politics of the great brain race: public policy and international student recruitment in Australia, Canada, England and the USA. Higher Education75(2), 231-253

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Appendix # 1 Research Questionnaire

The researcher is conducting the survey in between the international student in order to collect detail information about the research topic.

Survey Questionnaire Form

Demographic Questions

  1. Age
  • Below 20
  • 20-25
  • 25-50
  • Above 50
  1. Gender
  • Male
  • Female
  1. Do you think that quality educational institution influences the international student to study in UK?
  • Strongly Agree
  • Agree
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly Disagree
  1. Do you agree that job availability is the major aspect due to which professional people move towards UK?
  • Strongly Agree
  • Agree
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly Disagree
  1. Do you believe on statement “higher job availability plays an important role to attract the professional in UK region”?
  • Strongly Agree
  • Agree
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly Disagree
  1. Do you think that the favourable work condition contribute towards achieving higher attention of international student and professionals?
  • Strongly Agree
  • Agree
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly Disagree
  1. Do you think UK government policy would be useful for international student and professionals in regards to perform respective work/ study?
  • Strongly Agree
  • Agree
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly Disagree
  1. As per your point of view, what are the issues that majorly affect the student & professionals work/study in UK?
  • Higher expenses
  • Cultural differences
  • Lack of local people support
  • Health issues
  1. Provide your concern about the ways that can be help the student/professionals to overcome the challenges?
  • Conduct the cultural diversity awareness in education institution
  • Organisation should focus on proper induction process
  • Provide the scholarship opportunities to Non-resident student
  • Develop policy that support Non-resident student growth

 

 

 

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