NX0474 Strategic Management for Competitive

NX0474 Strategic Management for Competitive Advantage Assignment Sample


Researchers define Strategic Management for Competitive Advantage as subject data to analyze both theoretical and practical ideas for the decorating, implementing, and sustaining of a company.  It is similar to management control for the macro aspect used to manage competitive advantage. Strategic management for competitive advantage is a subject matter to develop competitive aspects in the small and big terms. To optimize the performance of organizations direct and indirect approaches can be used ( Barney, J.B. and Hesterly, W.S., 2020).http://NX0474 Strategic Management for Competitive Advantage Assignment Sample

Strategic maintenance for challenging advantages is the subject of research shortly. Before that, the literature had focused on competitive advantage for advanced years. At the beginning of the 1980s and before, to develop a competitive advantage more or less research has be conducted. Cost leadership is the main character of the operations strategy of a business ( Prahalad and Hamel (1990)).http://NX0474 Strategic Management for Competitive Advantage Assignment Sample


This means that the advantage can be maintained over time against the difficulties of competitors. In addition, it must not be at the expense of increased risk in the organizations. The research implies that competitive benefits may be achieved by using various deliberate management equipment for competitive advantage, including difference, charged leadership, ideal position or focus, and idea( Kevinsky ( 2013)).http://NX0474 Strategic Management for Competitive Advantage Assignment Sample

The different concept is based on an approach that is very important for business establisher. They coherent with creating importance for the customer; To enhance these ideals three steps are involved .. these are :

To construct a strong company: The different strategy is concerned with the importance of a strong and indelible brand. Therefore, a strong brand is very important for small and medium businesses. This strategy is built to make and construct a strong company.
The strategy focuses on quality services and brand specifics. One of the main reasons for brand wear is the high price of the brand, which is based on higher prices and quality. The main thing is to turn the brand into a strong brand for the consumer. It must have elements of sustainability. The main idea of the company is to have a quality market share, increase profit and provide growth opportunities. To organize a strong Company a higher quality brand is needed.

Round wise Performance

Round 1

Distinguish: The distinguish strategy is different from the other company’s strategy. This is due to the focus on the premium and uniqueness of the product or service. It is usually used to distinguish a firm and product from competitors. The distinguished strategy has components of the market, consumer, and product or service uniqueness.
The uniqueness of the market captures by the differentiation between the customers who would like to purchase goods or services. Contains customer feedback. In addition, it includes elements of the viewpoint of the product and the strong concepts of the items ( Frederick w. gluck, Stephen p. Kaufman, and a. steven Walleck( 1980)).http://NX0474 Strategic Management for Competitive Advantage Assignment Sample

Product Distinguish The differentiation strategy focus on the good, its features, and the quality of the products. The main goal is to forecast the needs of the consumer and meet the requirements of the consumer. Attention to the consumer is mainly based on the customer’s perception.
The process of designing a product to satisfy only the consumer. It is used to send a signal to customers about the product’s features such as brand, price, and need weight. The prior idea of the product is to distinguish the product from competitors in the market. The consequences of this are competitive advantages and create valuable businesses( Roley, P., 2006).http://NX0474 Strategic Management for Competitive Advantage Assignment Sample


The main reason for the creation of a national automaker was the rise of Malaysia in the value of economic income at the beginning of the 1980s. As a result, the Perusahaan Automobile National Berthed (Proton) was released in the year 1983, and the former vehicle was produced in 1985. Called the Proton History. it became the company’s valuable model and was periodically updated to meet market needs. Initially, items of the Proton are produced by Mitsubishi, and then the items were referred and the innovation is mastered.

By the year 1996, Proton gained ACBN Holdings, Lotus technology that is mended by the Bugatti master. Consequently, Proton acquired a resource of additional engineers and auto car experts. It leads to the production of the Proton Gen-2, which was designated to exchange the Wire. Proton disclose a new production plant in Tanjung Malim in 2004 as a member of a huge development project called Proton City.
This is where the new Generation-2 was produced. Tanjung Malim is a production plant for Proton response to Perodua, Proton Savvy. The item seems confident that MG Rover was considering updating them as the British company started to negotiations with Proton. Subsequently, these involved venture attempts were unable to succeed and MG Rover crashed. The organization deals in car making and auto car service, which further gives better quality vehicles at a low rate ( Jayasankaran, S., 2013). http://NX0474 Strategic Management for Competitive Advantage Assignment Sample. As the mentioned strategic view of that organization, it is displayed that it gives better quality automobile activities to its buyers at a reasonable price. The earlier balance available of the organization represents that the overall bank revenue of the organization is approximately over $500 million. In addition to this figure, the company’s sales amounted to about $ 223 million in a given annual year.
On a different note in spite of having a large profit, the company’s labor costs are high, especially in the last few years. Over the past year, wages and production costs were $ 60,000 and $ 1.2 million, according to the cash flow statement. After careful assessment, it was determined that the company’s automation costs were about $ 6.7 million a year. Gross profit margins fell by $ 97 million from these large expenditures, up from $ 113 million the other year. This is the present situation of this organization and it has started to expand its business concepts in different foreign countries to increase customer coverage and year careful.


Round 2

To represent the company’s marketing strategies and business objectives, the organization’s core business objectives will be described in this segment. Increase yearly sales by 20% at the most annual by expanding the sales. Increase profit margins by at least 15% s year by making drastic changes to the company’s merchandise management. Reduce annual costs by automating the company’s production process and applying for technological advances. In order to produce the best products for future buyers at a reasonable price by placing innovations in strategic planning( Noor, I.B.M. and Lingam, D.V., 2014).http://NX0474 Strategic Management for Competitive Advantage Assignment Sample

It sold 14,147 units (including exports) in December 2021, slowly less than the 14,187 units supplied in November 2021. The consequences meant that the country’s carmaker will end 2021 with a total of 114,708 units sold (domestic + 310 exports). ), The highest figure since 2014. Proton’s total sales in 2021 show a 4.5% increase from 109,716 units delivered in 2020, and for the third year in a row, it has crossed the 100,000 mark. By 2020, the company supplied 100,821 units in 2019 and 64,744 units in 2018 – lastly, it is held by the Malaysian Automobile Association (MAA)
. As per  Proton’s idea market share is expected to be 20.6% in December 2021, but for 2021 the expectations will be 22.7%. Citing data from the IAEA, this is an increase of about 2% from 2020, and the organization said it “continues to strengthen its position in second place, closing the gap at the top of sales ratings.”2021 was a  year of hardship for the car manufacturing industry in general, which is shown in the decline in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs compared to as compared to last year. From the global chip shortage to the increase in the number of Covid-19 to increased transportation costs, there have been many challenges to eliminate industrial players, “said Roslan Abdullah, CEO of Proton Edar. According to the model, the Saga sold 42,267 units (including CKD packages) and became Proto’s best-selling car, followed by the X50 (28,774 units), the X70 (16,375 units), and the Persona. (16,153 units), Iriz (6,708 units) and, finally, Exora (4,035 units). Sales of other models not mentioned in the release of the Proton were mixed with the overall sales of 114,708 units( Gerard Lye (2022)).http://NX0474 Strategic Management for Competitive Advantage Assignment Sample

Round 3

Proton takes the market into four model segments and export sales. With the installation of the foremost SUV in December 2018, and especially after the installation of the Proton X50 in October 2020, the car type is becoming increasingly important for PROTON’s sales numbers. Acquired (Abdullah, S.N., 2020. ). http://NX0474 Strategic Management for Competitive Advantage Assignment SampleBy selling in  2021, Proton became the best-sell SUV company. In Malaysia, it accounts for about 40% of total sales. Personally, the Proton X50 finished the year with 28,774 units, making it the best-selling SUV overall, and in December it published its best month with 4,310 units. The next month in a row that the model has received more than 4,000 units, indicates the volume to produce and deliver the units to purchasers. The Proton X70 collected 16,375 units in 2021, up from 1,616 in the last month. This allowed it to lead the C-segment SUV class and rank final in total sales.

The best-selling car was the Proton history last year, which covered the lacuna with its original competitor to co-partner in the A-segment sedan market. 42,627 units were sold, some shipped in CKD packages to be collected in other nations. The continued activities of history display that car buyers are convinced by the performance, safety, and need to be offered by the Malaysian-made model, which has found new fans in export markets. In December, 554 Proton Exora units were sold, bringing the sum for the class leader C-segment MPV to 4,035 units. Proton performs well in December with 2,187 and 884 units, Thus far, the chip supplied to improve somewhat. It brought the sum total sales during the year to 16,153 and 6,708, making them the third largest in their respective segments.2021 was a difficult year for the automotive industry as a whole, which shadows the decline in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs compared to the previous year ( Veza, I. and Said, M.F.M., 2021).http://NX0474 Strategic Management for Competitive Advantage Assignment Sample As per the global chip management to the jump in Covid-19 to rising transportation expenses, there have been many challenges to eliminating industrial players. Therefore, in a year when the market is shrinking, PROTON’s sales growth is important because it is the result of careful preparation and collection of available resources. “As for export sales,  the company had to experience the largest export volume in 2021, undoubtedly proving the attractiveness abroad through the joint efforts of our International Sales Department and the foreign partners. When the increase in shipping expenses is a growing concern, the activities plan to do in 2022 mean that they expect an increase in export sales to accelerate in the years to come, ”said Roslan Abdullah, CEO of Proton Edar ( Subang Jaya, 4 January 2022).http://NX0474 Strategic Management for Competitive Advantage Assignment Sample

Round 4

Proton Commerce is gaining a record year by adding more 3S / 4S outlets. In addition to sales, other areas growing within proton include finances and the number of expenses. The year of Proton Commerce for 2021 ended with 14,550 payments, the latest record for 2,132 payments in December, the highest ever. Along with that, proton’s internal financing arm has become the most popular choice for both leading OEM finance companies and Proton Saga customers. As for the sum of 3S / 4S outlets, the company began with 140 expenses in 2021 and, in spite of all difficulties in finances and building, added this figure and by the end of the year built 147 such outlets. Roslan Abdulla in his statement added  “The growth of PROTON’s subsidiaries, such as Proton Commerce, and the increase in the number of outlets is directly related to the number of vehicles we sell. As sales increased, so did our facilities to serve more customers. I would also like to point out that we extend the warranty for the six-speed automatic transmission used by the CBU Proton X70 to 5 years with unlimited mileage. This is to give more benefits to our customers and give them extra comfort,

– Individual Model Performance of Proton company 2021

Version        No of units sold       Total Sales 2021              Salles Achieved for 2021
Saga                 4,656                         42,627                         Largest volume A-segment sedan
Persona            2,187                        16,153.                        3 rd largest volume B-segment sedan
Exora               554                            4,035                             Larger volume C-segment MPV
Iriz                    824.                          6,708.                            3rd top volume B-segment hatchback
X70.                 1,616.                       16,375 High-volume C-segment SUV
X50                   4,310.                       28,774                         High volume B-segment and overall SUV Set



SWOT analysis of Proton Company


  • The company has more than 20 years of experience in the automotive industry.
  • Quality distribution network to the international market through exports.
  • Due to the interest in the company, the company benefits from state support. The company’s cars are widely accepted in some markets.


  • Failed to penetrate some markets, such as the United States, because the company’s cars have a negative public image in this market.
  • The cost of research and development is very high.
  • About 60% of the organization’s work labor is not utilized.


  • The office is more likely to increase its business size by investing in export investment and improve its people’s image by increasing customer needs.
  • A company may increase the quality of its goods and services by investing in studies and development, thus increasing the satisfaction of its customer’s target ( KUALA LUMPUR, 2019).http://NX0474 Strategic Management for Competitive Advantage Assignment Sample
  • The firm can expand its range of automotive products to include multi-purpose automotive products. The company’s cars are widely accepted in some markets. The company may begin production of electric cars to cope with growing competition.


  • An increase in competition from other firm’s in the domestic and foreign market such as Perodua, Daimler, and Fiat consequences in an upgrade in the number of automobile products. These companies are corporating vast technology in their auto cars productions (Eileen, (2009)).http://NX0474 Strategic Management for Competitive Advantage Assignment Sample
  • Declining purchasing power of consumers in regard to the present economic downturn. The rush impacted the loss of jobs and forced consumers to turn their needs for availability into general needs.



The model that was constructed by Volpato in 2016, together with the explanation that was provided by Linton the same year, suggests that the supply chain may be split down into three primary layers. When there is a window of opportunity, the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) acquires fully built components from tier-1 vendors. The original equipment manufacturer (OEM) establishes a partnership with a B2B partner and assembles the many specialized components in order to develop an ICE in the appropriate way. Tier-2 suppliers, who sell components to tier-1 suppliers, are less reliant on tier-1 suppliers as a result of the broader range of things that they give in their product catalog. This is due to the fact that tier-2 suppliers sell components to tier-1 suppliers. Tier-1 suppliers are able to receive components such as tools, adapters, and other minute parts that have the potential to be employed in a variety of different sectors. When it comes to purchasing bigger components, Tier-1 providers might also be considered. Customers may get raw materials, screws, and a wide variety of other tiny components from the third tier level, which follows the same line of reasoning as the second tier in relation to the flow of goods farther downstream. It is expected that the components will be employed in a wide variety of settings due to the fact that they are so easy to understand and use.

As a direct result of this, a supplier will have a higher probability of being able to maintain its independence the greater the number of items it offers that are appropriate for utilization by a wide group of clients and the more straightforward the products it sells are.

Original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) are aiming to develop some form of connection with their primary source of supply in order for the latter to be able to manufacture critical components with as much precision as is practical and within the prescribed time frame. This is so that the OEMs can continue to fulfill their contractual obligations (Linton, 2016).http://NX0474 Strategic Management for Competitive Advantage Assignment Sample

Suppliers are able to operate in an environment that is not only predictable but also safe for business because the ties between OEM and tier-1 suppliers have expanded and continue to be based on price and volume agreements. OEM and tier-1 suppliers are also known as “original equipment manufacturers.” When a firm is so dependent on original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), it puts other resources in the background, such as the company’s limited entrepreneurial ability and strategic direction. OEMs are the abbreviation for an original equipment manufacturer. These resources could be used in some of the company’s other operations instead.

The opening chapter will include some discussion on the larger context in which the thesis is being presented. With the use of this framework, which will be used to develop research goals, targets, and questions, the business models of Tier-1 suppliers will be evaluated to see whether or not they have the capability to compete in this new environment with low emissions. This assessment will be carried out with reference to the framework provided. Following that is a presentation of the theoretical and empirical gaps that are currently present in the research that has been done up to this point, which emphasizes the importance of this study.

The current status of the macroeconomic environment is reflected in the first portion of the research, which focuses mostly on recent changes in the automobile sector in Germany. The business models that are used by automobile manufacturers are subject to disruption from a variety of external factors that operate in this sector.

According to Breitinger and Schwarzer (2015), http://NX0474 Strategic Management for Competitive Advantage Assignment Samplewell-established German firms like Volkswagen, Daimler, and BMW have used a range of tactics in order to maintain their status as market leaders and stay at the top of their respective industries. Because the well-known and very popular Volkswagen Golf model has an internal combustion battery installed in place of the internal combustion engine (ICE), Volkswagen has given this vehicle the name “e-Golf” to reflect its alternative powertrain. The hydrogen fuel cell electric cars produced by Daimler are the company’s principal mode of propulsion. However, over the course of the last several years, the firm has made a concerted effort to shift its focus from the development of fuel cell cars to plug-in hybrids and hybrids that are predominantly driven by electric batteries rather than traditional internal combustion engines.
This change in focus is owing to the fact that these technologies are less expensive to implement. When it comes to electrifying its vehicles, BMW has made the decision to take a different route than its competitors. The public was recently exposed to the BMW i3, an electric car that is both trendy and healthy for the environment. This introduction was made by the German manufacturer BMW. One of the things that have been worked on for the other versions is the incorporation of plug-in hybrids.

The amazing gains that Germany has achieved in its propulsion systems are more intriguing when one considers that these developments have not been focused on a particular technology or approach. These facts rather suggest that significant efforts are being made in the direction of environmentally friendly technology, as well as a variety of techniques that are being taken to solve the problem. This is something that is being done in an attempt to address the issue.


Some people believe that the majority of changes in the automotive industry can be attributed to an increased awareness of the global environment, stricter regulation requirements, or changing lifestyles, in addition to technological innovation in an emerging market.
Others are of the opinion that technological innovation in an emerging market is the primary driver of these changes. Recent conversations, on the other hand, have shown that the beginning of a change in the automotive sector is driven either directly or indirectly by a number of major factors, which include the following: Figure 1.3 provides a detailed explanation of the many aspects of the environment that might have an impact on the transformation process.

Supply chain performance

Internal combustion engines (ICEs) must consume no more than 4.1 l/100 km of gasoline and no more than 3.6 l/100 km of diesel by the year 2021 in order to reach the mutually agreed-upon goal of 95 g CO2/km, as stated by the European Commission (2016). http://NX0474 Strategic Management for Competitive Advantage Assignment SampleMore technical advances are necessary if these goals are to be achieved while simultaneously maintaining or enhancing the efficiency of the propulsion system. Even though it is possible to reduce gas consumption with technological advancements like switch point displays, aerodynamic design, and roll resistance, doing so requires a significant investment of financial resources. This is because it is feasible to reduce gas consumption with these innovations (McKinsey and Company, 2009).http://NX0474 Strategic Management for Competitive Advantage Assignment Sample

It is possible that emission laws, which are anticipated to continue becoming stricter in the near future (such as those recommended by Velji et al. in 2010),http://NX0474 Strategic Management for Competitive Advantage Assignment Sample could cause a disproportionate increase in the cost of developing the ICE. This is because emission laws are expected to continue becoming stricter in the near future (Puls, 2013). Puls is of the opinion that even if significant strides are made in the field of science, there will inevitably come a time when the human body’s capabilities are exhausted.
This is a result of the fact that each explosion caused by an engine needs a certain minimum quantity of gasoline. In order to be regarded as effective, there must be both a reduction in expenses and a rise in prices that are acceptable to the target audience. Due to the fact that it is necessary to make an investment that may, in the not-too-distant future, turn out to be inadequate, the sort of uncertainty that we are talking about here generates a significant risk for automotive makers.

Eliminating waste is one method for achieving higher levels of productivity and efficiency (Issar and Navon, 2016). It highlights the limits of such business models in dynamic economic contexts owing to the fact that they were developed in a static way across a number of decades with no pauses in between. This was done without taking into account the fact that economic conditions change over time. Wirtz claims that since the year 2000, a number of publications have been published that seem to illustrate a stronger link between business models and strategy (2013). With the aid of the business model, it has been figured out which aspects of production are obligatory in order to make certain of the organization’s ability to maintain its level of achievement over the course of time.
The model of an integrated approach to a company that Hamel (2001)http://NX0474 Strategic Management for Competitive Advantage Assignment Sample presented has a number of different components, some of which include a core strategy, strategic resources, customer interfaces, and value-added networks. The strategy was expanded to include sub-components such as customer benefits, configuration, and organizational boundaries in order to strengthen the links between strategic considerations and the business model. This was done in order to further strengthen the connections between strategic considerations and the business model. In order to accomplish this goal, we broadened the scope of the plan.

The business model canvas developed by Osterwalder and Pigneur (2010), which consists of nine different canvas blocks, has proven to be helpful in gaining an understanding of how a unified business model may be constructed. This is because each of the nine canvas blocks focuses on a specific aspect of the business model. In addition, the BEP model has been put through its paces as a case study in order to demonstrate the distinctions that exist between the business model canvas and the best model. The business model canvas was used to accomplish this goal.

As a result of recent developments in propulsion technology, the constraints of the existing economic model have become more apparent.

According to Di Bitonto (2015),http://NX0474 Strategic Management for Competitive Advantage Assignment Sample the traditional business model for original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) is changing as a consequence of a decrease in the total quantity of value that is created.

According to the findings that Lerch and colleagues came, certain aspects of the traditional business model that are used for the International Convention Center (ICE) cannot be transferred to other systems because of the restrictions that are presented by the technological aspects. This is the conclusion that was reached as a result of the research that was carried out.

The only thing that is required for alternative propulsion systems is energy systems such as batteries with electric motors or fuel cells, both of which may be delivered in modules by established and leading players in the industry.
The only thing that is required for alternative propulsion systems is batteries with electric motors. In addition, it has been asserted that supply chains have been operating in accordance with a conventional business model for a considerable amount of time now and that they have been working toward attaining competitive advantage over their contemporaries in the industry.
This is because it has been said that supply chains have been working to get an advantage over their contemporaries in the industry. The project entitled “new business models for electric mobility” (Lerch et al., 2010, page 3) requires this information to be submitted as soon as possible. According to findings from a study that was carried out by McKinsey & Company (2009), the automobile sector has to take an active role in the investigation and development of emerging propulsion technologies.

A preliminary analysis of business models indicates that three pertinent topics have been organized to assist the researcher in better comprehending the existing body of information about the processes by which value is generated. This organization is intended to help the researcher better understand the business models. We will continue our discussion of this issue in the next part, which will focus on going into further depth.


Both the Osterwalder and Pigneur (2010) http://NX0474 Strategic Management for Competitive Advantage Assignment Samplebusiness model canvas and the Osterwalder et al. (2014) http://NX0474 Strategic Management for Competitive Advantage Assignment Samplevalue proposition design put a strong emphasis on determining the pertinent elements that are connected with the relevance level of each canvas block and element. The basic frameworks for business models that have been presented by a number of academics should not be confused with these specific frameworks.

We were able to discover an evaluation procedure as well as the rationale that lies underneath it by comparing a failed BEP model to each canvas block. This allowed us to find a solution to the problem.

On the other hand, the management of business models made use of methodologies that were mandated by important variables in the industry, such as strategy, change, and the invention of business models.

Investigating the impact they have on the canvas blocks from the perspective of the manager is a fresh technique that may be used. However, rather than doing a static analysis of each canvas block, the focus of this section is on determining how the commercial activities associated with each canvas block may have an effect on how it is assessed.


PROTON executives should be aware of the company’s position and the clarity of ongoing issues identified as a result of previous research. A thorough study of existing models can reveal their shortcomings, as well as give an idea of ​​the levels of a satisfied customer. Proton has the luxuries of several years of studies and development, that will allow it to understand the grade of premium products as expected of them by its customers.
This has to be noted that merchandise share will upgrade if Proton can improve its goods to some appreciative level. This is clear that in the annual year when Proton could produce vehicles of considerable product with additional value, the sell data of these items increased. Hence, in order to overcome its present achievements, Proton must analyze the constant problems it faces and act accordingly Ishaq Ibrahim ( 2016)).http://NX0474 Strategic Management for Competitive Advantage Assignment Sample It cannot be deniable that Proton has worked hard to improve the quality of its products, but still has difficulty achieving purposeful results.
Therein, the quality of the products is not the only affecting factor that needs the attention of Proton, but customer service, after-sales service, reparability, sustainability of spare parts, and so on. More effort is required in other sectors such as Improvements in these sectors will together reconstruct the Protons company’s name, keeping it on par with other foreign automaker in the nation( Zainal Abidin, I.S., 2017).http://NX0474 Strategic Management for Competitive Advantage Assignment Sample


Abdullah, S.N., 2020. The impact of brand image, customer satisfaction, and customer commitment on loyalty: an empirical study on Proton car owners.

Barney, J.B. and Hesterly, W.S., 2020. Strategic Management and Competitive Advantage: Concepts. Pearson.

Eileen, N.G. 2009. Malaysian car maker proton posts quarterly profits and shrug off threats from Perodua. Web.

Frederick w. gluck, Stephen p. Kaufman, and a. steven Walleck( 1980), Strategic Management for Competitive Advantage

Hamel, G. and Prahalad, C.K., 1990. Strategic intent. Mckinsey quarterly, (1), pp.36-61.

Proton sales in 2021 – 114,708 units sold, highest tally since 2014; 22.7% market share; Saga is best-seller



Ishaq Ibrahim ( 2016)), Product Quality and Customer Satisfaction (Case Study Proton Holdings Berhad)

Jayasankaran, S., 2013. Made-in-Malaysia: the proton project. In Industrialising Malaysia (pp. 272-285). Routledge.

Kevinsky ( 2013)The Competitive Strategy of Proton – Industry Analysis on Automobile Industry


Noor, I.B.M. and Lingam, D.V., 2014. Malaysians perceptions toward PROTON car. Advances in Environmental Biology, pp.513-523.

Proton sales in 2021 – 114,708 units sold, highest tally since 2014; 22.7% market share; Saga is best-seller

Roley, P., 2006. Strategic management for competitive advantage. Harvard Business Review, 108(9), pp.163-123.


Veza, I. and Said, M.F.M., 2021. EFFECT OF THE EMERGING CHINESE CAR ON THE INDONESIAN AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY. In The 2nd International Professional Doctorate and Postgraduate Symposium Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 25th September 2021 (p. 35).

Zainal Abidin, I.S., 2017. Proton can compete globally with foreign strategic partner.

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