Operations and Project Management In 2020

Operations and Project Management


The knowledge of the operational management is essential to improve the efficiency of the organization.  Operation needs business process management and project requires project management.

This report is based on the operational and project management in the context of St Rhidians Surgical Hospital (SRSH). This report is developed on the basis of different operational problem of SRSH.

Data analysis by specialty

SRSH: Data Analysis by Speciality
Con_ID Total Speciality Sub-Total Per month Per Qtr Sub-tot Support/PCM Support qtr Per Qtr Contribution per cost
C106 349925 56000 168000 48%
C107 517075 48000 144000 28%
C108 427650 38000 114000 27%
C109 555850 28000 84000 15%
C110 343200 CAR 2193700 20000 60000 570000 209000 627000 996700 17%
C201 631580 44000 132000 21%
C202 600340 42000 126000 21%
C203 593010 32000 96000 16%
C211 647995 GAS 2472925 18000 54000 408000 109000 327000 1737925 8%
C320 206235 102000 306000 148%
C321 257385 92000 276000 107%
C333 341710 NEU 805330 65000 195000 777000 180000 540000 -511670 57%
C451 292025 75000 225000 77%
C452 404275 64000 192000 47%
C453 369025 ONC 1065325 98000 294000 711000 172000 516000 -161675 80%
C507 516880 56000 168000 33%
C512 454640 54000 162000 36%
C513 546575 OPT 1518095 32000 96000 426000 98000 294000 798095 18%
C514 520020 42000 126000 24%
C515 387625 28000 84000 22%
C516 384190 18000 54000 14%
C517 658525 ORT 1950360 18000 54000 318000 143000 429000 1203360 8%
C612 238060 44000 132000 55%
C619 199140 32000 96000 48%
C621 202210 20000 60000 30%
C622 274920 17000 51000 19%
C624 229540 URO 1143870 17000 51000 390000 72000 216000 537870 22%
C702 491675 95000 285000 58%
C704 344415 64000 192000 56%
C709 392655 VAS 1228745 64000 192000 669000 186000 558000 1745 49%
C801 533550 54000 162000 30%
C802 486010 32000 96000 20%
C805 623400 17000 51000 8%
C806 527120 REU 2170080 17000 51000 360000 105000 315000 1495080 10%

On the basis of above table, it is analyzed that the specialist with name NEU is most cost effective in SRSH. It is because its cost is found less than other specialist in the hospital.  At the same time, it is also analysed that specialist NEU and ONC are unprofitable.

Inventory Management – Needles

First option:

To calculate the EOQ, the below formula can be used:

EOQ = SQRT(2 × Quantity × Cost Per Order / Carrying Cost Per Order)

EOQ = SQRT (2 × 43200 × 112/0.125)

EOQ = SQRT (2 × 43200 ×896)

EOQ = SQRT (77414400)

EOQ = 8798.55 UNITS 0r 8799 Units

Placing Orders = annual demand of 43200 divided by order size of 8798.55 needles

= 4.9 or 5 orders

Total ordering cost is hence $560 ($112 multiplied by 5).

Average inventory held = (0+8799)/2= 4400

So, total holding costs = ($125*4400) /1,000

= $550

Purchasing costs of needles = 20 cents * 8799

= $1759.8

Total costs = $560+$550 + $1759.8

= $2869.8

Re-order stock = (Average daily units * Delivery lead time) + Safety stock

= (120 * 7) + 90 * 120 (in last year, 4 times stock outs means 360/4 =90 days)

= 840+10800

= 11640 units

Second option:

18 cents per needle, if the hospital was prepared to order 50,000

Total ordering cost per annum= 900,000 cents


After evaluating both options, it can be recommended that first option will be the most suitable for the company due to cost saving. From first option, it is determined that total cost of purchasing needles will be $2869.8, if the hospital adopts the EOQ approach in measuring the inventory level.

On the other hand, if the firm purchases the needles from the competitor of the existing suppliers, it will have to pay $9000 for the required demand of needles. It means the EOQ approach will be more cost effective for the hospital as compared to another option of purchasing from the competitor (Dufosse, et al. 2017).

The hospital may proceed to minimise the long term cost of needles by developing a strong relationship with the suppliers. A Strong relationship with the supplier can be helpful for the hospital management to reduce the purchasing costs.

At the same time, the hospital needs to evaluate the performance of the existing and possible suppliers to determine their effectiveness in providing the orders in terms of costs and quality. It can be helpful for the hospital to choose the best suppliers who could make the supply of the needles with consideration of cost and quality in long term (Pinson, 2013).

In addition, the use of software and techniques like SCM software, RFID, etc. can be effective to track the number of available needles in the stock to manage the supply in long term effectively.

Queue Management in the pharmacy

Total number of patients in a week = (75*5) + 32+27

= 375+32+27

= 434

Proportion Time was taken:

42% -3 minutes or less

29%- 3–5 minutes

16%- 5-7 minutes

8%- 7-9 minutes

3% -9-11 minutes

2% -More than 11 minutes

The proposal is to offer a free prescription to any patient that has to wait for more than five minutes.

So, the proportion of total patients, which will get a free prescription, would be:


= 29%

Therefore, the number of patients, who will get a free prescription on adopting the proposal of the chief pharmacist, will be:


= 126 patients will get free prescription in a week if the proposal is accepted.

The cost of a prescription charged to each patient varies but the average has been calculated as $93.50. So, the total costs that will be occurred for the hospital on adopting the proposal:

=126* $93.50

= $11781 per week

On the basis of the above calculation, it can be stated that the there will be a decline in SRSH profits by $11781per week. It is because this will reduce the revenues by this calculated amount per week that will also reduce the profitability of the SRSH if the proposal from the Chief Pharmacist was introduced. There may also be practical problems when implementing this proposal.

It is because any patient may delay the awaiting number to get the opportunity of free prescription (Gaichas, et al., 2017). Apart from this, there may be possibility that it may be difficult to determine the awaiting time for each individual that may cause complexity in applying this proposal.

One of the ways to reduce the pharmacy queuing times, especially at peak times is to recruit the additional staff or pharmacist with additional counter to distribute the medicines to the patients.

It can be useful for the SRSH to reduce the waiting time because the appointment of additional staff will increase the speed of distributing the drugs to the patients and reduce their waiting time. Another way is to segment the patients based on their priority (Williams, et al. 2013).

If a group of patients needs medicine, that can be done very quickly or has short prescription, give them special line so they do not have to wait for the slower patients or patients having a long prescription.

It can also be effective for SRSH to reduce the waiting time by separating payment and identity check from the preparing the correct drugs. Separation of these duties will be effective to make the distribution process faster and reduce the waiting time for the patients especially at peak periods (Osei-Kyei, et al., 2017)

Capacity Planning in Dentistry

Calculation of cost and profit with Joseph Painless and Charles Chuck

Joseph and Chuck charge $360 from one patient for 15 minutes treatment.

SRSH has an estimate that each dentist will work 8 hours in a day, five days in a week and 44 weeks in a year. A dentist takes 15 minutes to for Preliminary consultations/check-ups. The graph also shows that 400 patients come for a check up.

The number of patient in year = 44 * 400

= 17600

In which, 40% pays for doable if the check up and treatment takes more than 15 minutes

= 17600 * 40%

= 7040

Income by the Joseph Painless and Charles Chuck

= (10560 * 360) + (7040 * 720)

= $8870400

Salary of dentist = 450000 * 2

= 900000

Net profit = $8870400 – 900000

= $7970400

Calculation of cost and profit with John P. Ford and Mari Olsen

John P. Ford and Mari Olsen charge 240 from one patient for 15 minutes treatment.

SRSH has the same estimation of the patient with hiring of John P. Ford and Mari Olsen. But, the fee is charge buy them is some low form Joseph Painless and Charles Chuck. Ford and Mari will charge 240 from each patient (Caminero, et al., 2013). The calculation of number of participant is same 17600. In this, 10560 will pay 240 and 7040 will pay 480. Hence, income from John P. Ford and Mari Olsen is calculated below:

= (10560 * 240) + (7040 * 480)

= 5913600

Salary of both dentist = 210000 * 2

= 420000

Net profit by hiring John P. Ford and Mari Olsen

= 5913600 – 420000

= $5493600

On the basis of above calculation of profit and cost, it can be recommended to SRSH that it should hire experienced dentist. It is because the profit is high by hiring Joseph Painless and Charles Chuck.

The new SRSH café /Restaurant

SRSH will open a restaurant for their patients and family member of patients. In the restaurant, Ordering, delivery and payment processes will be according to the management plan. In this, it is decided that for making the customer order, there will be an order reception in the corner of restaurant.

In the context of delivery, it is decided that it will be self-service. Customers have to take their order its self. In the regard of payment, it will be paid at the time of making an order on the reception (Tsakiris, et al. 2013).

In the context of furniture, it is decided that restaurant will contain the furniture for setting 80 customers at a single period. It is because between 6.00 Am to 6.00PM average customers per hour is maximum.

In this, in the period 11.00AM to 14.00PM, 190 customers come that is why there is need to the arrangement of 80 persons together. Al the same time, there also requires some other equipment in the restaurant such as Freezers & Refrigerators, Food Preparation Counters, Slicers, Mixers, AC and fans (Langabeer and Helton, 2015).

The restaurant will run in two shifts where one is morning shift, and another is evening shift. In each shift, there will require ten chefs and one manager. Along with this, 2 – 3 cleaners will also be hired by the restaurant. The responsibility of each person will be mentioned at the joining.

Capacity Planning for Security Personnel

On the basis of given information, it is identified that in St Rhidians Surgical Hospital (SRSH), per year per year 190000 patients visit. But, at the same time, it is also found that the flow of the patients remains different during the each set of 50 days.

Period Days Total patients/ visitors in a period
1 Day 1 – 50 23000
2 Day 51 – 100 43000
3 Day 101 – 150 62000
4 Day 151 – 200 51000
5 Day 201 – 250 11000
Total 250 days 191000

 In the current year, SRSH has an expectation to come 191000 patients. The HR manager of SRSH has an estimate that in the running year same patients will come.

At the same time, it is also identified that California security regulation determined some specific regulation in the context of the security staff at the workplace and hospital.

In this, it was found that there is a regulation that there should be one permanent security guard in the hospital upon the every 120 visitors. At the same time, regulation also determines that in the organization, there should one temporary security guard for every 80 visitors.

Cost of the permanent and temporary security

Capability of managing visitor by permanent security guard in a year = 250 * 12

= 30000

Form the above calculation; it is found that a permanent security guard can manage 30000 visitors. SRSH has two permanent security guards and they both can manage 60000 (30000 * 2) visitors per annual. Hence, SRSH will require to the temporary security guard for remain visitors. In the context of the cost of permanent security guard, it is found that Permanent staff cost is $32,000 per annual. In this way, the cost of the two permanent security guards will be:

= 32000 * 2

= $64000 

Remaining visitor = 191000 – 60000 = 131000

Security guard require for 131000 visitors = 131000 / 80

= 1637. 5            (Kerzner, 2013)

Therefore, it is identified that SRSH will require 1637.5 temporary security guards for 131000 visitors. According to California security regulations, the SRSH will pay $140 per day compensation to the temporary security guard. The overall cost of temporary security guard will be

= 1637.5 * 140

= $229250

Total cost of SRSH for security

= cost of permanent security guard + cost of temporary security guard

= $64000 + $2299250

= $293250

Period Days Total patients/ visitors in a period Capacity of permanent security guard Remaining visitors Required temporary  visitors Cost of temporary guard
1 Day 1 – 50 23000 12000 11000 137.5 19250
2 Day 51 – 100 43000 12000 31000 387.5 54250
3 Day 101 – 150 62000 12000 50000 625 87500
4 Day 151 – 200 51000 12000 39000 487.5 68250
5 Day 201 – 250 11000 12000 0 0
Total 250 days 191000 60000 131000 1637.5 229250

 At the same time, SRSH has also plan to install the CCTV. If the hospital installs the CCTV system, then the supervising performance of security guard will increase. According to California security regulations, with the CCTV system, a permanent security guard can supervise 180 visitors per day and a temporary visitor can supervise 140 visitors per day.

Now a permanent security guard will supervise = 180 * 250 (Burke, 2013)

= 45000 visitors

2 permanent security guard will supervise 90000 (45000 * 2) visitors

Period Days Total patients/ visitors in a period Capacity of permanent security guard Remaining visitors Required temporary visitors Cost of temporary guard
1 Day 1 – 50 23000 18000 5000 35.71428571 5000
2 Day 51 – 100 43000 18000 25000 178.5714286 25000
3 Day 101 – 150 62000 18000 44000 314.2857143 44000
4 Day 151 – 200 51000 18000 33000 235.7142857 33000
5 Day 201 – 250 11000 18000 0 0
Total 250 days 191000 90000 107000 764.2857143 107000

 Total cost of installation of CCTV system = Installation cost + maintenance cost

= $140000 + $12000

= $152000

Total cost of security of SRSH with CCTV system

= cost of permanent security guard + cost of temporary security guard + cost of CCTV (Larson and Gray, 2013)

= 64000 + 107000 + 152000

= $323000  

Therefore, it can be recommended to the SRSH, it should avoid the CCTV system as the benefit of first year. It is because the annual security guards cost with CCTV system is more than annual security guard cost without CCTV system. But, it is only first year because installation cost is $140000 that will not happen next years. Hence, SRSH can decide on the installation of CCTV system (Schwalbe, 2015).

Accident and Emergency (A&E) Process Issues

In the A&E process can be seen below in the SRSH

The above table shows that doctor consult takes more time on a patient. It takes 250 minutes but there are 3 doctors so average time is 8.3 minutes. On the other hand, a patient gives 20 minutes in X-ray session. In SRSH, there are two X-ray teams so that maximum capacity of A&E is calculated on this basis.

Maximum capacity of A&E process each day

= (1440) / (20/2) = 144

Maximum capacity of A&E process one year

144 * 36 = 5184

Annual revenue being generated by the A&E department

= average generate by a patient * total capacity

= $4500 * 5184

= $23328000

Total revenue = 220000000 + 23328000

= $243328000

In this case, it is recommended to SRSH that it should hire more triage consult, doctor consults with increasing the X-ray team. It will help the hospital to increase its capacity in the context of A&E process. Now, demand is 16 patients per day but the hospital is handling only handling 144 patients. Therefore, it is recommended that hospital should concern on increasing A&E staff (Dafny, 2014).

Quality Issues in Fracture Management

In the context of the first proposal, it is found that SRSH will hire t a newly qualified doctor. It will check the treatment of the patient before discharging them. However, it will be able to check only 25% patient and its cost will be $410000 annual.

At the same time, there also has an option to arrange the training program for case technician which cost will be estimated $4500 per technician and total cost is $18000. This option is looking better compared to first option and it will also improve the business value of SRSH (Abdelhak, et al. 2014).

In the context of the current cost of business problem, it is found that six patients face the poor quality case and 2190 patients in years. Due to this, SRSH bears the extra cost of retreatment of the patient. If the retreatment happens before discharging then cost is $900 for one and $1971000 for 2190 patients. On the other hand, if the retreatment happens after discharging patients then cost is $2000 for one patient and $4380000 for 2190 patients.

As concerning of this, it is recommended that SRSH should concern on improving the quality operation or process (Burgess and Radnor, 2013). Due to this, hospital is bearing huge cost per annual. Furthermore, in the provided proposals, the company should concern on the second proposal because it is more beneficial and cost effective.

 The new Brain Scanning System 

Task Predecessor/s Duration(days)


A   5
B A 5
C A 6
D A 10
E B 6
F C 4
G D,E,F 3

 The below figure shows the network diagram of different tasks in the Tokyo project:

(Haux, et al. 2013)

The above network diagram reflects the critical path that is ABEG that may delay the project. It will take 19 days.

Task Human resources Duration(days)


1 Axel and Cindy 5
2 Axel 5
3 Bubba 6
4 Cindy 10
5 Cindy 6
6 Axel 4
7 Axe, Bubba, Cindy 3

The below table shows the calculation of the number of days work allocated to each person and equivalent daily rate for each person during this project:

Task Human resources Number of days work allocated Equivalent daily rate
1 Axel 17 32000/17= $1882
2 Cindy 18 32000/18 = $1778
3 Bubba 9 32000/9 = $3555

 Reasons why the project might take longer than 19 days

Typically, there are various reasons that can be caused in delay in the project. In this, poor project scheduling is one of the causes that can affect the time line of the project. In implementation of the project, it can be seen that project manager fail to effectively implement the project timeline.

In the same concern of this, lack of cooperation is also cause that can influence the completion of the project within a time period (Gopee and Galloway, 2017).

In this project, it is also possible that project team member will not cooperate with the project manager that is why the project may be longer from 19 days. At the same time, there is also the possibility that project can include changes in the cost structure, which can affect the completion of the project within time.

During a project, the project manger can get the requirement of more money for supplier and material (Walker, 2015). Hence, it can cause of delays. In additionally, in the delay of the project, outside influence a major aspect that is uncontrolled by the project manager and [project team. For example, rainy weather can be the cause in delay a construction project.


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