Global Environment

Management and Organizations in a Global Environment

Executive Summary

The key objective of this study is to critically discuss the deal setting and the planning general framework under the organization in order to get its objectives and the growth.

In addition to this, under this study, the importance of the goals set in planning and the characteristics of the well-defined goals are defined. In this manner, it is found that goal setting is important while planning for the specific organizational objective. Similarly, under the characteristics, SMART goals are needed to be reviewed.

At the same time, these goals have been critically linked with the individual components in which Miles & Vergen’s landmark study into goal setting and the three conditions, Management by Objectives, contingency factors which influence a manager’s approach to planning and the different types of plans, etc are considered.

At this time, it can also be reflected that by these individual components its describes how much the goal setting is important under the organization and what the role of the goal setting have in the organizational planning.

Goal Setting and Planning General Framework

The importance of goal setting in planning

The planning and setting of goals are essential before implementing. It is quite essential for the success of the organization. In order to set the goals, the individual should spend the time to encourage personal goal-setting.

In the organization, the goals should be set in an appropriate manner to attain the success of the organization. The employer should also ask for the input of employees in the organization.

The meeting should be frequently conducted in the company to attain the desired goals (Bryson, 2018). Moreover, by setting goals the future of the company is secured.

At the same time, it is also determined that planning is one of the important parts of the organizational management process and that is why it is mentioned that if the planning is effective then the results will be more efficient within the organization.

Moreover, under planning, goal setting is also important that helps the managers to decide what they need to achieve by conducting management process or any other process under the organization.

In this manner, planning and the goal setting both are considered as the key factors in achieving success. Similarly, under the organization, there is need to make several important decisions in concern of the marketing, budget, customers, product, services and anything else which have to face by the business owner or manager on a daily basis.

Organizations also concentrate on goal setting at the workplace because it provides focus to the organization because when a company sets its goals, it indirectly sets its priorities clearly in concern of every person who is being involved in the project or planning (Daft, 2015).

In this way, it can be mentioned that the key purpose of goal setting is to represent employees that what they have to need to focus more during upcoming quarter, then it will be beneficial for the employees to be capable for prioritizing their practices.

In addition to above, goal setting is also essential because it keeps the employees who are involved under the planning motivated as they have a target to be achieved with more effectiveness (Flin et al., 2017).

However, there is no one who feels like they need to give their 100% but they will because due to goal setting, they know that there will be some sort of award after accomplishing the tasks. In the same way, goal setting also promotes the teamwork as in order to achieve the goals, it is essential that employees should be motivated and it can be done by encouraging them for working together within a team.

At the same time, this goal setting also important for the organization as with the help of goal setting, employee’s morale can be increased towards their work so that they can work harder and achieve pre-determined goals under the planning process (Zander, 2018).

Characteristics of well-defined goals

The characteristics of well-defined goals are as follows:

Specific and well-defined

It is to be specific and well-defined as it is important for setting up any goal. If the organization does not know its aim and objective then it cannot reach to success.

Measurable in nature

Measurable goals can be defined as the goals that can be measured by the organization. This would be helpful in knowing the progress of the company as how much company has made improvements in terms of gaining success in the market. The goals should be measured by the company to attain the success and reach the specific goals set for the business (Kerzner and Kerzner, 2017).

Achievable

In this characteristic of well-defined goals, it has been determined that the company should see whether the goals set are achievable or not. It is not essential to set the high goals thus it should set the goals that can be easily attained by the business. On the other hand, if the goals are set too high then there may be a failure.

Due to this failure staff can be demoralized. For example, if the company is selling 10 products every month then it is best and the goal is attained. Thus, if it sets the goal of 20 then it is too high. Therefore, it should set the goals on the basis of the way of working so it may deal with success and build.

Relevant to job

While setting the goals in the organization or the personal goals or employees goals the individual should ensure that whether the goals are relevant according to the description of the job as well as mission and vision of the company (Arthur, 2018). For instance, the individual at the post of sales manager would have higher goal sales as compared to the customer service representative who may get sale occasionally.

Time-oriented

It is also important to set the time of implementing the goals if there is not time set for the implementation of goals then the deadline will never be attained as there is a continuation of work. for example, if the company’s goal is to attain $2 million revenue then it has to decide a particular time include month or year to attain that goal (Patel and Patel, 2016).

Therefore, it is essential to set the time for attaining the goals as it helps the company in reaching the goal before the set of time. At last, it can be depicted that setting goals are essential to reach success.

Application of theory on individual components

1. Discuss Miles & Vergen’s landmark study into goal setting and the three conditions they identified to be satisfied to ensure best practice in goal setting

In concern of the goal setting, Miles & Vergen developed a landmark study into goal setting and this was the more important for the organizational managers at that time. But nowadays, there are several more theories have been developed by different authors in concern of the goal setting within the organizational planning so that planning can be implemented in an effective manner along with the efficient and achievable goals. In this manner, Miles & Vergen’s study is defined below:

Miles & Vergen’s landmark study into goal setting

Under the organization, a goal reflects what a person needs to want to achieve. In this concern, setting goals refers to some guidelines on the person’s performance in order to meet his/her objectives.

Miles and Vergen landmark study defines that how an individual or employee would improve their performance on their objectives through formulating different goals which would motivate them for improving they’re affords as well as change their techniques for yielding the much-expected results (Zdrazil et al., 2016).

Thus, on the basis of Miles & Vergen’s landmark study, the goals should be specific, realistic, accepted by the persons, used to evaluate the performance, linked to feedback and rewards, set by individuals/ groups and learning oriented so that organizational objectives can be linked with them and the performance can also be set as per these goals.

At the same time, it is also defined under Miles and Vergen’s landmark study that there are three conditions which are met by the goals in order to best practice. These three conditions are following discussed.

The three conditions they identified to be satisfied

In respect to the above, three conditions of Miles & Vergen’s landmark study are goals achievable, believable and conceivable. These three conditions, Miles & Vergen identified to be satisfied for ensuring best practices within the goal setting.

In this concern, the first condition reflects that the goal in planning has to be acknowledged for them to be achievable. In this manner, for agreeing to a goal is defined as the primary step while formulating the goals. Moreover, an individual needs to identify the importance of the goal as well as their self-efficiency that helps to determine if the individual is capable to reach the goals.

In this way, the second condition is that the set goal by an individual has to be more specific and measurable with respect to them to be believable (Zdrazil et al., 2016). The Specificity and measurability are defined as the external factors like time and space that are adapted to indicate the goal’s progress.

At the same time, the third condition is that goals should be always set along with the high objective to reach new as well as better levels in order to achievements for them to be conceivable. However, goals are set at a small degree to be achieved for them. Setting high goals typically act as motivation for an individual.

2. Describe Management by Objectives

Management by objective is identified as the personal management technique at which managers and employees perform their tasks together in order to set, record and monitor the goals in context to a specific period of time.

On the other hand, it is also considered as the model of strategic management which has the aim to improve and enhance the organizational performance through clearly describing the objectives which are agreed to through both management and the employees (Mahoney et al., 2018).

As per this theory, having a mention within the goal setting and action plans motivates the participation as well as commitment among the employees and lining up objectives whole the organization.

In addition, the Management by Objectives is the development of a management information system for comparing the actual performance as well as the achievements in order to defined organizational objectives.

Similarly, some practitioners disclose that the larger benefits of MBO are that it helps to enhance the employee’s motivation and the commitment skills and it also provides the capability to them to develop effective communication between the management and the employees.

Although, the mentioned weakness of MBO is its unduly priorities to the setting of goals in respect to achieving the organizational objectives instead of working on the systematic plan to do so.

In this manner, the key concept of Management by Objective is defined as planning that means an organization, as well as its members, is not simply reacting for the particular event and the problem or issues but instead of this, they are being proactive.

Moreover, Management by Objective needs that the employees position the measurable personal goals that are based upon the organizational goals (Hayes, 2019). For instance, the key goal for the civil engineer can be to complete the housing division infrastructure in next 12 months and in this situation, the personal goals line up with the organizational goal in order to complete the subdivision.

In this manner, Management by Objective is supervised and the management activities so that all the goals of the individuals can be organized for working in concern of the organizations overall goals.

In this manner, individual personal goals can be thought like a piece of a puzzle which should fit together with all the other pieces in order to form the accomplish puzzle such as an organizational goal.

Usually, organizational goals are the set down in the written form annually and these are continually evaluated by the managers under the organization for checking the progress (Kshetri, 2018).

Thus, it can be mentioned that the team of Management by Objective plays an important role as goal setting is one of the essential parts of planning under the organization because without having specified goals, it is not possible to accomplish the planning work under the organization in respect to achieve its goals.

3. Demonstrate contingency factors which influence a manager’s approach to planning

While analyzing the goal setting in planning, it is identified that there are few contingency factors that influence the approach of the managers in respect of the planning under the organization.

In this manner, an organization can be negatively affected by all the sorts of the various changes as well as events that take place due to the natural disaster or other factors for entering of new competitors into the target market (Mole et al., 2017).

In addition, the contingency factors which affect the organizational planning would mean that while conducting any planning, organizations need to concentrate on those occurrences by which there will need to consult the contingency plans. In this manner, some things require to take into account at the time of planning in respect of the changes within a business. In this way, the above defined some things are as:

  • Which portion of the business should be kept running like a priority while having the disaster
  • The degree of the environmental certainty that can be given a risk percentage
  • The age of future commitments

In this manner, the contingency factors which affect the organizational planning involve a level of a manager within the organization. These two factors are the degree of environmental uncertainty and the length of future commitments. Moreover, the explanation of these factors is as defined below:

Degree of environmental uncertainty

The environmental uncertainty is identified as the degree for which an organization is short of factual as well as competent information in concern of the internal and the external operating environment in order to an organization (Koren, 2018).

Generally, the environmental uncertainty is unknown within the organization and it is relevant to the company’s operations. With the help of this contingency factor, it is easy to determine the associated risk and accordingly the goals set under the organization.

The age of future commitments

At the same time, the length and age of the future commitment is also important for the organization as within the organization, organizational current plans have a deeper impact on the future commitments that means these should be sufficiently long term in respect to meet those pre-commitments made by the organizational manager to its followers and clients, etc (Khan et al., 2016).

In this manner, there are some approaches related to the length of future commitment to planning and these approaches are as follows:

  • Developing a formal planning development,
  • Including the organizational members within the process

Thus, the above-mentioned contingency factors are closely associated with the goal setting in the planning because for the degree of environmental uncertainty and the length of future commitments, it works very collaboratively (Arend et al., 2017).

In this manner, goals setting are done in the planning so that these contingency factors can be managed as these factors influence the approaches of manager in concern of the planning

4. Explain different types of plans

In addition to above, for the goal setting, it is analyzed that there is a different type of plans which are identified under the organization so that the implementation of planning and the achievement of goals can be accomplished efficiently by adopting the appropriate plan as per the organizational requirements.

In this manner, planning is determined as one of the important and the first function of the management.  Moreover, planning is an activity that needs to perform by the managers at all levels in order to accomplish a few important tasks under the organization (Ruiz-Martin et al., 2016).

In this manner, as per the management level, the type of plan under the organization will be different so that tasks can effectively compete. Furthermore, Planning is required under the organization in order to manage the various resources and the organizational priorities with an organized way. As per the Berry, “Management is related to the leadership and it leads the organizational productivity”.

On the basis of this, if an organization improves its planning process, then it would be effective to improve its management and the leadership too. In this manner, there is four types of plans are identified under the organization which is as follows:

Operational Plan: It discusesabout how things require to happen. Under the operational planning, organizations typically plan about their day to day operation for running the company. At the same time, operational plans are generally explained as the single-use plans as well as ongoing plans. These planning are done for the events and the activities along with the single occurrence (Alvernia University, 2017).

Strategic Planning: The key objective of strategic planning is to discuss why things need to happen.  Strategic planning is considered as the planning that stares at the highest level along with with with the description of the mission and the casting a vision under the organization.

Under this kind of planning, the high-level overview is included that is from the entire business side. Strategic planning is considered as the fundamental basis of the organization and it will help to create long-term decisions related to different areas of organizational growth.

Tactic Planning: In concern of tactic plans, it is mentioned that this plan is about what is going to happen. In this manner, tactic planning works as a supporter of strategic planning. Under this, various tactics are included which are planned by the organization to use for achieving that what is outlined under the strategic plan. Its scope is less for only one year (Shao et al., 2016).

Contingency Planning: In this manner, this kind of planning is done at the time of having an emergency that is considered as an unexpected situation that takes place under the organization rarely. This is also done while having something that needs to be changed. Due to its nature, management experts refer the contingency planning as the special type of planning.

Thus, after discussinga different type of plans, it is determined that all the plans have one common thing that is goals setting as without the goal setting under the organization, planning is not considered completed and then it is not possible to implement any strategy and plans in the organization.

References

Alvernia University, 2017. Business Management: 4 Types of Planning. [Online] Available at: https://online.alvernia.edu/articles/types-of-planning/. (Accessed: 30th May, 2019)

Arend, R.J., Zhao, Y.L., Song, M. and Im, S., 2017. Strategic planning as a complex and enabling managerial tool. Strategic Management Journal38(8), pp.1741-1752.

Arthur, W.B., 2018. Asset pricing under endogenous expectations in an artificial stock market. The economy as an evolving complex system II (pp. 31-60). US: CRC Press.

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Daft, R.L., 2015. Organization theory and design. US: Cengage learning.

Flin, R., Salas, E., Straub, M. and Martin, L., 2017. Decision-making under stress: Emerging themes and applications. UK: Routledge.

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Kerzner, H. and Kerzner, H.R., 2017. Project management: a systems approach to planning, scheduling, and controlling. US: John Wiley & Sons.

Khan, Z.A., Khan, S.H. and Mahmud, U., 2016. International Marketing Strategies; Standardization, Adaptation, and Contingency Approach. Marketing1009, p.4Ps.

Koren, M., 2018. What is the definition of environment uncertainty, with examples? [Online] Available at: https://www.enotes.com/homework-help/what-environment-uncertainty-define-give-some-574610. (Accessed: 30th May, 2019)

Kshetri, N., 2018. 1 Blockchain’s roles in meeting key supply chain management objectives. International Journal of Information Management39, pp.80-89.

Mahoney, P.J., Young, J.K., Hersey, K.R., Larsen, R.T., McMillan, B.R. and Stoner, D.C., 2018. Spatial processes decouple management from objectives in a heterogeneous landscape: predator control as a case study. Ecological applications28(3), pp.786-797.

Mole, K., North, D. and Baldock, R., 2017. Which SMEs seek external support? Business characteristics, management behaviour and external influences in a contingency approach. Environment and Planning C: Politics and Space35(3), pp.476-499.

Patel, K.K. and Patel, S.M., 2016. Internet of things-IOT: definition, characteristics, architecture, enabling technologies, application & future challenges. International journal of engineering science and computing6(5).

Ruiz-Martin, C., Wainer, G., Bouanan, Y., Zacharewicz, G. and Paredes, A.L., 2016, December. A hybrid approach to study communication in emergency plans. In 2016 Winter Simulation Conference (WSC) (pp. 1376-1387). IEEE.

Shao, H., Derber, J., Huang, X.Y., Hu, M., Newman, K., Stark, D., Lueken, M., Zhou, C., Nance, L., Kuo, Y.H. and Brown, B., 2016. Bridging research to operations transitions: Status and plans of community GSI. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society97(8), pp.1427-1440.

Zander, A., 2018. Motives and goals in groups. UK: Routledge.

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