OSI model

TCP/IP, DoD and OSI model

 

Introduction

It is important for the firms to develop better strategies to design and install the networking system. This report provides in-detailed understanding on the designing and installation of a computer network for the AI Company.

1.1 Network standards ensure interoperability between products made by different manufacturers

Network standards are the documents agreements that have precise criteria to provide guidance to ensure the suitability of the materials, products, services, and processes with their purpose. These standards are helpful to ensure interoperability between products including software and hardware made by different manufacturers. Network standards such as the OSI are useful to ensure communication between two computers on a network[1]. For example, the OSI model divides networking architecture into 7 layers named as physical, data, link, network, transport, session, presentation, and application. All these layers have their own set of activities and functions and interact with each other. The application layer enables software programs to negotiate their synchronization with aother networks. At the same time, the presentation layer is used to provide a common language from different hosts and applications to exchange data. Apart from this, the fifth layer namely session layer is used to coordinate and maintain links between two devices and synchronize dialogue and determine to restart transmission. At the same time, the transport layer of the OSI model enables to oversee end-to-end data delivery and deliver the data reliably. The network layer is effective to manage the logical addressing to logically direct the data from sender to receiver. The network layer is helpful in assigning logical addresses to devices that facilitate the interoperability between products made by different manufacturers[2]. The link layer is used to organize data though error-checking routines to transmit to the physical layer. The physical layer generates and detects signals to transmit and obtain data. So the use of all these layers enables to develop a better network without interfering with the components of different manufacturers. It is because all these components of different manufacturers are interrelated to each other. The use of these networking standards is effective to develop the understanding of these interrelations between these components. It ensures that devices and applications of different vendors could work together[3]. These standards provide accepted terms to describe network functions and network activities. It allows for using standard language for the discussion of the networking. It also defines the rules of communication among networked devices that ensure compatibility of the products of different vendors in a network.

1.2 Compare the three common network model standards (OSI, the DoD, and the TCP/IP)

The OSI model has 7 layers and the TCP/IP has 4 layers. The transport layer of TCP/IP model is not effective to assure the delivery of the packets, but transport layer of OSI model delivers the packets. At the same time, the DoD model is a condensed version of the OSI model that composed of 4 layers rather than 7 layers.  Apart from this, the TCP/IP model is a shorter version of the OSI model[4].  The TCP/IP and the OSI model are based on the packet and switched technology and facilitate the interchangeable transport. The OSI model does not depend on protocols while TCP/IP is based on standard protocols. The OSI model follows vertical approach while TCP/IP emphasizes horizontal approach. OSI model can be used both connections oriented and connectionless service while TCP/IP model only provides connectionless service.

The OSI model can fit the protocols into the model but creates the problem whereas the TCP/IP model cannot fix the protocol into the model[5]. The replacement of the protocol is not simple in the TCP/IP while in the OSI model, the protocols can easily replace and change by the use of technology. In concern to the DoD network model, each layer of the model has own functions to operate. In the TCP/IP model, the model is developed after the development of the protocols but the OSI model is just reverse of TCP/IP model where the model is developed before the development of the protocols. Additionally, the DoD model also works like TCP/IP model and first protocols are developed to develop the model. The DoD and TCP/IP follow the horizontal approach whereas the OSI model follows the vertical approach[6]. The services, interfaces, and protocols are clearly defined in the OSI model but these things are not clearly separated in the TCP/IP and DoD model.

1.3 Compare three network models in diagram

OSI model (Layers) DoD model (Layers) TCP/IP model (Layers)
It has 7 Layers It has 4 Layers It has 4 layers
It has generic and independent protocols This model is like TCP/IP model This model is a shorter version of the OSI model
It follows vertical approach It follows horizontal approach It also follows horizontal approach
There is a problem with the OSI model to fit the protocols in the model. The protocols can fit in the model There is no option to fit any protocol
The transport layer of OSI model guarantees the delivery of packets There is no transport layer The transport layer of TCP/IP model does not have guarantees of delivery of packets

Different layers in network models (OSI, DoD, and TCP/IP)
OSI model (Layers) DoD model (Layers) TCP/IP model (Layers)
Application Layer  

Process Application Layer

 

Application Layer (HTTP, DNS, SMTP)

Presentation Layer
Session Layer
Transport Layer Host-to-Host Layer Transport Layer
Network Layer Internet Layer Internet Layer
Data link Layer  

Network Access Layer

 

Link Layer (Ethernet)

Physical Layer

2.0   Comparison of twisted pair cable, Coaxial, fiber optic, and wireless

The twisted pair cable has a pair of cables twisted together that is shown as name and used in the telecommunication for a long time. On the other hand, the coaxial cable is utilized in the high-frequency transmission of the data because it contains the solid-copper core. But the fiber optic cable is new generation technology for transmission media that contains optical fiber[7]. Twisted pair cable performs well during transferring the signals in balance with the high fidelity system. Coaxial cable has a very high transmission capacity than twisted pair cable that is 80 times more. At the same time, fiber optic cable has 26000 times more capacity than twisted pair cable in the transmission of the data. In order to deliver good television signal, coaxial cables are highly used by the users but sometimes for connecting the computer to the network is also utilized. The fiber optic cable has very high quality but it is costly for the users but in the current scenario most of the organization prefers it. On the other side, the wireless is also used in the transmission and there is no need for any cable to communicate and data transmission[8]. This technology also uses internet in the long distance to provide a network. This technology is only highly used in concern to the short distance such as 100 meters. So, it can be said that the organization can use wireless or twisted pair cable for the speedy transmission of the data because these technologies are less costly and easily installable.

3.1 Synchronous connection or an asynchronous connection

Certainly, the synchronous connection will be more beneficial for the organization as compare of asynchronous connection. The Synchronous system is highly used in the fast speed transmission. The synchronous system provides the accuracy because it is handled by the master clock and reduces the overheads of the bits[9]. At the same time, this system has two deficiencies like reduction in the detection the detection of the errors and inefficiency. The synchronization is necessary to transmit the data from one electronic device to another with the certain rhythm. The cost of the synchronous connection is more costly and complex then asynchronous system but in this case, the synchronous is highly advantageous for the organization. On the other hand, the asynchronous connection is another mode of start-stop due to transmission of the data in journal interval. In addition, the transmission line signals have long interval between the characters in order to re-synchronize.

3.2 Use of transmission line speed to support connection

In concern to the transmission line, the organization should focus on the speed transmission line at lower rates[10]. This lower rate of data transmission will highly support the synchronous connection. The organization will use the data transmission rate @1000 bytes per 0.25 seconds and this speed of transmission would be supported by the synchronous mode. In addition, the organization has several computers which have low rate of data transmission during sending the small data pack that is 2 megabyte. During the Synchronous, it is found that both the parties should be present (live) to communicate and transfer the data.

Conclusion

From the above discussion, it can be concluded that the Use of the TCP/IP protocol is essential for the organization. It is because this model is more useful than DoD model and OSI model. Both DoD model and OSI model have low transmission rate then TCP/IP. In addition to this, this study also concluded that the twisted pair cable and wireless networking can easily use by the small level organization to operate the business.

References

Benzi, F., Anglani, N., Bassi, E., & Frosini, L. (2011) Electricity smart meters interfacing the households. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, 58(10), pp. 4487-4494.

Binkert, N., Beckmann, B., Black, G., Reinhardt, S. K., Saidi, A., Basu, A., … & Sen, R. (2011). The gem5 simulator. ACM SIGARCH Computer Architecture News, 39(2), pp. 1-7.

Calvert, K. L., & Donahoo, M. J. (2011) TCP/IP sockets in Java: practical guide for programmers. Morgan Kaufmann.

Davidoff, S., & Ham, J. (2012) Network forensics: tracking hackers through cyberspace (Vol. 2014). USA: Upper Saddle River: Prentice hall.

Davidson, J. (2012) An introduction to TCP/IP. USA:  Springer Science & Business Media.

Fall, K. R., & Stevens, W. R. (2011) TCP/IP illustrated, volume 1: The protocols. USA: addison-Wesley.

Govorskii, A. E., & Kravets, O. Y. (2012) Mathematical modeling of inhomogeneous traffic in a heterogeneous integrated corporate data control system. Automation and Remote Control, 73(7), pp. 1269-1278.

Vasilakos, A. V., Zhang, Y., & Spyropoulos, T. (Eds.) (2016) Delay tolerant networks: Protocols and applications. UK: CRC press.

[1] Calvert, K. L., & Donahoo, M. J. (2011) TCP/IP sockets in Java: the practical guide for programmers. Morgan Kaufmann.

[2] Davidson, J. (2012) An introduction to TCP/IP. USA:  Springer Science & Business Media.

[3] Vasilakos, A. V., Zhang, Y., & Spyropoulos, T. (Eds.) (2016) Delay tolerant networks: Protocols and applications. UK: CRC Press.

[4] Benzi, F., Anglani, N., Bassi, E., & Frosini, L. (2011) Electricity smart meters interfacing the households. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, 58(10), pp. 4487-4494.

[5] Davidoff, S., & Ham, J. (2012) Network forensics: tracking hackers through cyberspace (Vol. 2014). USA: Upper Saddle River: Prentice hall.

[6] Binkert, N., Beckmann, B., Black, G., Reinhardt, S. K., Saidi, A., Basu, A., … & Sen, R. (2011). The gem5 simulator. ACM SIGARCH Computer Architecture News, 39(2), pp. 1-7.

[7] Fall, K. R., & Stevens, W. R. (2011) TCP/IP illustrated, volume 1: The Protocols. USA: addison-Wesley.

[8] Govorskii, A. E., & Kravets, O. Y. (2012) Mathematical modeling of inhomogeneous traffic in a heterogeneous integrated corporate data control system. Automation and Remote Control, 73(7), pp. 1269-1278.

[9] Calvert, K. L., & Donahoo, M. J. (2011) TCP/IP sockets in Java: practical guide for programmers. Morgan Kaufmann.

[10] Binkert, N., Beckmann, B., Black, G., Reinhardt, S. K., Saidi, A., Basu, A., … & Sen, R. (2011). The gem5 simulator. ACM SIGARCH Computer Architecture News, 39(2), pp. 1-7.

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