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Impact of reducing productive land on future food security

1.  Introduction

In food security, the overall planet is facing several natural resource challengesthat need to be addressed for future food security as well as improving the production of food products. In addition to this, it is identified that the food systems are basically deepenedon natural resources like water, biodiversity, land, soil, minerals, fossil fuels, and biomass. In concern of this, many cases show in the crucial statistics that entire resources are not presently managed efficiently. In this, approx. 33% of soils are degraded from moderately to highdue to erosion and approx. 20% aquifers of the world are overexploited (Altieri et al., 2012). At the same time, due to erosion, more than80% input of minerals like phosphate is not reaching plates of the consumers. Another impact of the lack of effective natural research also influenced the fish market where 29% of commercial fishpopulation has been overfished.

Moreover, it is seen that meat, dairy and fish consumption has been growing or changing in dietary patterns driven due to growth in population and changes in climate. However, it is expected that the pressures on natural resources will increase in the next decades and the future food production will be in the risk situation. In concern to this, an essential transformation of the food system is mandatory for meeting the future demand forfuture generation’s food (Gliessman, 2014). This reviewstudyincludes severalfuture impacts on food security of lack of natural resources. After this, it is also providingpotentialsolutions tothis problem on foodsecurity. Consequently, it can be said that this review study examines the contribution ofnatural resources for food security and nutrition and climate change to meet issues and challenges in the coming years.

2. Impacts of reducing natural resources or productive land

2.1. Impact on production and availability of food

According to the research of Herrero et al. (2013), it can be said that the lack of productive land in the food industrydirectly or indirectlyimpactson the production or availability of the food products. It is the abilityof the systemto meet the requirementof food in the overall world. The lack of natural resources or productive land directly impactson the availabilityand production of the food products becauseit impacts on the ecological condition of the field. Several natural resources are requiredto reduce the future risk of food production. In concern ofthis, sustainablefood producing land isdecreasingin the environment due to the instabilityof climate and global warmingthat is impacting on the food production capacity of the land (West et al., 2014).It will increase the potentialissue regarding food security in the overall globe.

The population size is increasing continuallywhich is reducing the productive land and the demand of the food products are increasing will growing population that will also impact on the production capacityand availability of food in the environment. In this, several agriculturefarms and forest are converted into the coloniesand cities that are also impacting directlyon the food production capacity. From the research finding of Khoury et al., (2014),it is identified that a lackof naturalresources will be impacted due to the change in climatedisasters, scarcity of water, and scarcity of land. All these challenges will impact on the potentialproductivity of the land and agriculture field. Moreover, it is seen that globalwarmingis reducing the quality of water under the soil and over the soil. In addition, it is also impacting negatively to the natural gases that are required for food production plants. Similarly, it is seen that the natural resources in agricultureare affected due to acid rain and no rain at the requiredtime.

2.2. Impact on food supply stability

Another dimension is the stability of food supplies that need to be exploredbecause it will also be impacted due to a reductionin natural resources or productive land. In concern of this, it can be said that the population size of a humanbeing is continually increasing who are vegetableand non-vegetable. These people are demanding for herbal and organicfood products from the manufacturersand it will be increased in the future. It is because the number of food producerand land are reducingdue to increasing population size. It will directlyimpacton the stability of the food supply because the food supply will be stableif the natural resources will be diminished (Bohn and Viljoen, 2011). In concern ofthis, it is identified that the animals are reducingin the environment because the human is covering geographical area by making colonies and cities.

The animals arevery necessary to manufactureorganic food and agricultureproducts. However, it can be referred to as risk where populations are susceptible to the climate variability that enablesus to consume adequate food. Due to insufficient natural resources, the risk related to the food supply will be increased in future because several resources have been used to get food from farm to table. The embed resourcesare mainly used that can be utilized in the agricultural stage that is the mostintensive stage of resources of food production (Gabriel et al., 2013). In agriculture, average 16% of the land and 67% of the freshwater in the world is consumed for agriculture (NRDC, 2013). However, it can be said that if the naturalresources are used by increasing population than it will impacton the supply.

2.3. Impact on the utilization of food

Utilizationof food is the thirddimension that will impacton futurefood security due to reducingnatural resources. It will impacton the biological food utilization such as safety, quality and nutritionalbecause the natural resource providesgood quality of the food, with the safetyof humanhealth. In addition to this, it can be said that naturalresources providenutritionalin the food products that are manufactured through agriculture (Viljoen and Howe, 2012). In concern to this, it is identified that most manifestations of reducing natural resources have shown that it will impacton the severity as well as due to a reduction in natural resources will reduce the quality of food product and it will spread of diseases. In this, diarrheal diseases areincreased due to rising temperatures and water-borne diseases are also includes in healthor wellingrisks. The highly economic developedcountriesare using effective water management systems will reduce the good quality water in the nation (Morgan, 2015). The reduction in natural resources will also introduce new diseases for populationand susceptibility to further illnesses because it is reducing nutritionand good quality food products. However, it isalso said that the reduction in the naturalresource are impacting on the agriculture food quality and it will also affectthe labor productivity that is a kind of food insecurity.

On the other hand, it can be said that the future public will prefer non-veg food items intendof veg food products because the quality of natural resources will be decreaseddue to reduction useful natural resourcesof agriculture. The utilization of food products will be affected by the reductionin predictiveland because it will increase the price of the vegfood product. The price of fish and other non-veg will be less than veg food product that will attract the people (Specht et al., 2014). At the same time, peoplewho are vegetarian then have to consume non-veg food item due to not havingthe abilitytobuying. Subsequently, it can be said that the consumption of non-veg food items will increase the levelof food poisoning in a human being. However, it can be said that the utilizationof food consumptionwill be affected by a reductionin productive land.

2.4. Impact on food accessing by the general public

The fallingrate of productive land will also impacton assessingto food by the general public. In concernofthis, it can be said that the predictiveland of agriculture isreducingwith a veryhigher rate that will create an issuefor the generalpublic where they will not identifythe way of food availability. The cost of good quality food items will be very that will not be affordablefor the general public of the nation. This will impacton the physical assessmentof good qualityfood as well as it will also affectthe real income and trade,the ability of an individual to acquire satisfactory food supplies.

As per the research study of Koohafkan and Cruz (2011), it can be seen that the reductionin productive land will createa highissue regarding the availabilityof the food items. In this, most populationcountries will have more city areas and there will not be the availability of food items. In concernof this, they have to buy these food items from nearby countries at a higher rate that will impacton the price of food items. Consequently, it can be said that the pall in the production of food items will raise the price that will increase the complexity of the poorpopulation to assess the food item (Mbow et al., 2014).

3. Potential Solutions

On the basis ofthe aboveimpacts of reducingnatural resources or productive land, it can be said that the unavailabilityof food products will be a major issue for the next generation. In concern to solve these potentialissues, the human being should take an effective consideration about agricultureproductive land. It is important to discoverthe effect of reduction in productive land on the humanbeing and on the nextgeneration. In order to provide a potentialsolution, it requires a global multifaceted approachwhere the government will develop a policyfor agriculture land (Johns et al., 2013). In this, peopleshould not have permissionto make factories and colonies on agriculture land. In addition to this, a method of reducing this risk is the implementation of this policy with effective manner. At the same time, it is seen that the UN Framework has taken action to support this policy as the firststep.

On the other hand, riskmanagement techniques can also be implemented by the governmentof each nation. In this, the new technology and technical equipment’scan be used that will be helpful to improve the productivity of the agriculture land (Sonnino, 2016). The implementation of the technology in the agriculture fieldwill also reduce the labor cost and the price of vegetable and other food products will be available at a lowercost. In addition to this, agriculturescience is providingadvanced biotechnologythat can provide high-qualityfood items with enhancementin productivity. This fertilizer technology will be helpful for the next generation to assess the food items at a lower cost. The impact of reducing productive land and other natural resources will not affect to the public so water management system shouldalso be considered in technological improvement (NRDC, 2019). Therefore, it can be said that the use of technologyin agriculture and implementing policies for saving agriculture land are effective solutions that can be used to protect potentialgeneration.

4. Conclusion

From the above discussion, it is concluded that a reductionin a naturalresource like productive land will have an essentialimpact on the different dimensionsof food security. This is increasing the stress level of the people about the future risk of food insecurity. It will impact on supply stability, production and availability of food, utilization of food, and assessing food. This study has identified both pro-active and adaptive solutions to overcome the issues of reducing productive land in the world. By implementation of multi-faceted measures in the overall globe and control on the increasing population,the risk of food security can be mitigated.

5. References

Altieri, M.A., Funes-Monzote, F.R. and Petersen, P., 2012. Agroecologically efficient agricultural systems for smallholder farmers: contributions to food sovereignty. Agronomy for Sustainable Development32(1), pp.1-13.

Bohn, K. and Viljoen, A., 2011. The edible city: Envisioning the continuous productive urban landscape (CPUL). Field4(1), pp.149-161.

Gabriel, D., Sait, S.M., Kunin, W.E. and Benton, T.G., 2013. Food production vs. biodiversity: comparing organic and conventional agriculture. Journal of Applied Ecology50(2), pp.355-364.

Gliessman, S.R., 2014. Agroecology: the ecology of sustainable food systems. CRC press.

Herrero, M., Havlík, P., Valin, H., Notenbaert, A., Rufino, M.C., Thornton, P.K., Blümmel, M., Weiss, F., Grace, D. and Obersteiner, M., 2013. Biomass use, production, feed efficiencies, and greenhouse gas emissions from global livestock systems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences110(52), pp.20888-20893.

Johns, T., Powell, B., Maundu, P. and Eyzaguirre, P.B., 2013. Agricultural biodiversity as a link between traditional food systems and contemporary development, social integrity and ecological health. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture93(14), pp.3433-3442.

Khoury, C.K., Bjorkman, A.D., Dempewolf, H., Ramirez-Villegas, J., Guarino, L., Jarvis, A., Rieseberg, L.H. and Struik, P.C., 2014. Increasing homogeneity in global food supplies and the implications for food security. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences111(11), pp.4001-4006.

Koohafkan, P. and Cruz, M.J.D., 2011. Conservation and adaptive management of globally important agricultural heritage systems (GIAHS). Journal of Resources and Ecology2(1), pp.22-29.

Mbow, C., Van Noordwijk, M., Luedeling, E., Neufeldt, H., Minang, P.A. and Kowero, G., 2014. Agroforestry solutions to address food security and climate change challenges in Africa. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability6, pp.61-67.

Morgan, K., 2015. Nourishing the city: The rise of the urban food question in the Global North. Urban Studies52(8), pp.1379-1394.

NRDC, (2019). NRDC. [Online] Available at: https://www.nrdc.org/ (Assessed 23rd Feb 2019)

Sonnino, R., 2016. The new geography of food security: exploring the potential of urban food strategies. The Geographical Journal182(2), pp.190-200.

Specht, K., Siebert, R., Hartmann, I., Freisinger, U.B., Sawicka, M., Werner, A., Thomaier, S., Henckel, D., Walk, H. and Dierich, A., 2014. Urban agriculture of the future: an overview of sustainability aspects of food production in and on buildings. Agriculture and human values31(1), pp.33-51.

Viljoen, A. and Howe, J. eds., 2012. Continuous productive urban landscapes. Routledge.

West, P.C., Gerber, J.S., Engstrom, P.M., Mueller, N.D., Brauman, K.A., Carlson, K.M., Cassidy, E.S., Johnston, M., MacDonald, G.K., Ray, D.K. and Siebert, S., 2014. Leverage points for improving global food security and the environment. Science345(6194), pp.325-328.

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