Project Management Essentials Assignment Sample

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The modern corporations demand strong and influencing management or leadership in order to ensure their survival, growth, development, and success within the concerned industry (Zhang et. al. 2020).http://Project Management Essentials Assignment Sample

Management is the core of an organisation as it plays a significant role in assessing, arranging, acquiring, allocating, and utilising the resources required to run an organisation and perform business operations or activities. It also responsible for leading an enterprise towards maximum levels of productivity, effectiveness, efficiencies, and performance.

Furthermore, it has been observed that superior and excellent managers develop and provide clearly defined objectives, mission, vision, and targets of the organisation. In addition to this, the important components within a corporate structure include risk recognition and management, problem-solving and decision-making, teamwork and collaboration, and proper financial management (Albert et. al. 2017).http://Project Management Essentials Assignment Sample Therefore, excellent, superior, and effective managers within a corporation immensely support, encourage, guide, direct, and drive successful communication among the organisation’s departments and different employee levels.

The present report aims at shedding light on the case study analysis of the Hull Smart City OS project. It highlights the capabilities, competencies, and key skills which should be acquired and reflected by the project manager. In addition to this, the report also observes different aspects related to leadership and management, by undertaking several tasks throughout the study.

Furthermore, the report also includes an evaluation of the capabilities and key skills required by a project manager for risk identification and management, engaging the project stakeholders, and enhancing collaboration and teamwork at the workplace. Hence, the report is vital in enlightening the role and responsibilities of the project manager, thereby, ensuring proper project execution and accomplishment.

Task 1: The Project Manager

The concerned case study of the Hull Smart City OS project highlights large-scale operations as well as involves a set of complexities. The project has been developed and runs on a huge scale, involves different stakeholder groups, and also its highlights certain difficulties and complexities (Wu and Chen, 2021).http://Project Management Essentials Assignment Sample Such projects demand an excellent, strong, and a highly skilled project manager in order to ensure proper project execution, mitigation of complexities, as well as maximum stakeholder engagement.

The project manager holds the authority, responsibility, and accountability to ensure that each task or operation within the project pertains to the set budget, is completed within the set time frame, and ensures cost-effectiveness. In addition to this, the project manager must also possess capabilities and key skills required for introducing and implementing required changes within the overall project (Al-Hajj and Zraunig, 2018).http://Project Management Essentials Assignment Sample

It may also demand the application or use of the latest technologies and digital advancements in order to ensure that the entire project is executed and accomplished in the desired manner, thereby, ensuring maximum benefits and cost-effectiveness. The key capabilities and skills which must be acquired and highlighted by the project manager for executing and completing the Hull Smart City OS project are described below:

Cost management: Financial management and ensuring cost-effectiveness are the vital aspects and responsibilities of a project manager. A project plan and execution demand proper management, adequate funding, as well as acquisition and allocation of resources within each project task or operation.

It is utmost significant to ensure that each project task is adequately funded, properly resourced, and cost-effective. It is the responsibility and duty of the project manager to ensure that the entire project as well as its each operation is undertaken within the set budget and the defined time frame (Castro et. al. 2019).http://Project Management Essentials Assignment Sample The project manager must also save or sustain a certain amount of funds for any future uncertainty, risks, or any emergency case. Hence, cost management skills are important for the project manager and the project.

Decision-making and problem-solving: After studying and examining the case study of Hull Smart City OS project includes a huge number of operations and tasks. Each task or operation demands appropriate skills and abilities from the project manager.

The project manager holds the responsibility for eliminating any obstacles, challenges, or problems in the overall procedure of executing and accomplishing the project. This further demands effective, strong, excellent, and promising skills associated with problem-solving and decision-making (Allam and Newman, 2018) .http://Project Management Essentials Assignment Sample

These skills and capabilities will immensely support the project manager in guaranteeing the application of better, enhanced, and growth-oriented project solutions and strategic tools, thereby, contributing in overall project effectiveness and accomplishment.

For an instance, the Manchester Triangulum Project highlighted time and cost-effectiveness as well as its proper accomplishment. The key rationale behind it was the project manager enlightened his skills of properly solving the problems and issues faced during the project execution and made mindful or informative decisions.

Project Management Essentials

Figure 1 Effective skills and abilities of a Project Manager

(Source: Self-made, 2021)

Negotiation skills: Negotiation skills and abilities also play a vital role in ensuring that the overall procedure of executing, operating, and accomplishing the project goes smooth, and eliminates any serious issues or challenges (Chan and Oppong, 2017).http://Project Management Essentials Assignment Sample

The project manager of the Hull Smart City project must possess negotiation skills as they help in guaranteeing healthy and positive workplace environment as well as strong relationships between the project manager and the stakeholder groups. Furthermore, negotiation skills will also eliminate workplace disputes and conflicts between employees working at the same or different levels within the project.


For this task, I assess myself to be distinctive. This is because I have clearly explained and described the role and responsibilities of an excellent project manager. Furthermore, I have also enlightened the key skills as well as the capabilities required by the project manager for executing, developing, running, and accomplishing the overall Hull Smart City OS Project in the best possible and appropriate manner.

Task 2: Problem Solving and Decision Making

Problem-solving is an analytical process that is used for identification of the all the possible solutions for a situation and decision making is also a part of the process. Problem-solving and decision making is important as it helps in navigating various situation that will help in coming up with the solution (Kundu, 2019). http://Project Management Essentials Assignment Sample

Moreover, in a smart city project, many internal and external stakeholders influence the decision-making. This internal and external stakeholder includes residents, customers, government, shareholders, project managers, investors, and more. These stakeholders can be influenced with the help of a stakeholder influence map.

A stakeholder influence map is an element that helps in the identification of the potential stakeholder and also helps in interacting with them at another level.

Moreover, the purpose of stakeholder engagement in a project is that it is a key group that plays a vital role which helps in ensuring that all the business needs are met properly. the main aspects of the stakeholder influence map are to keep informed, monitor, keep satisfied, and actively collaborate.

Project Management Essentials
Figure 2
Stakeholder Influence Map

(Source: Robbin, 2019)

Keep Informed: These are people who do not have a high interest in the project but have a huge influence in the working and development. These people include the media, director of the project, board of directors, and more (Angelidou, 2017).http://Project Management Essentials Assignment Sample

As their influence is high, they have to be kept informed about the changes that may happen in the project.

Monitor: This aspect includes the people who are working on the project as they have a high number of interests and also high influence at the same time. The people who are included in this aspect are the workers, the environment, and the project manager.

With the effort of these people, only the project is being worked towards success. On the other hand, environmental changes also affect the working of the project (Wamsler, 2017).http://Project Management Essentials Assignment Sample If in the case, there are any sudden changes in the environment the raw material may get damaged so this is important to monitor them properly.

Actively collaborate (manage closely): This aspect includes the government of the country in with the project is being worked on and also the residents. As the interest level of this group is low but their influence is very high so they are important for the project.

The government can change the rules and regulations that may affect the working of the project and also at the same time with the positive influence the project may get some benefits. The effect of residents is also high as they are the one group that is affected the most as they have to adjust with the changes that are being happened which the project processes.

Inform: This group includes the media. Keeping this group informed is very important as they help in providing the knowledge of the project to the people but the changes happening due to the project or the changes that happened in the aims and more (Vishnivetskaya and Alexandrova, 2019). http://Project Management Essentials Assignment SampleThey do not have high influence but have a high degree of interest in the projects.

The key stakeholders of a project are the residents, government, workers, and the environment. This group influences the project the most in their different manner. Their positive influence on the project will only help in the growth of the project.

On the other hand, for engagement of stakeholders following are the techniques that project managers can adopt:

  • Identify their stakeholder at an early stage.
  • Listening to the problems and demands of the stakeholders.
  • Obtaining proper management experience.
  • Seek to understand below being understood.

Comparison of skills in both the projects

Smart City Project OS: All the skills mentioned above are available in the project manager as can be seen by the development in the project.

Hull has been one of the underdog smart city projects and has a huge number of positive residents in the city (Anthopoulos, 2017).http://Project Management Essentials Assignment Sample The management of the project has also been one of the best as the result was seen in just a time of 12 months.

The Triangulum project: The development of the project has been very promising as the result were positive but the duration was not as good as the Smart City project OS.

The residents were also acting positively towards the growth. the demonstrating in the implementation of the project as connected across the theme of energy, mobility, and ICT (Crystal, 2017). http://Project Management Essentials Assignment SampleThis helped the three main cities as their growth rate increased at a greater pace.

Task 3: The Project Triangle

A project management triangle is also known as the iron triangle helps in the construction of the cost (budget), time (deadline), and the scope of a project.

However, a project needs to have a properly balanced iron triangle as it helps in determining the quality of the overall project. The result of all these elements creates the quality of the project.

Project Management Essentials

Figure 3 project management triangle

[Source: Peeyush, 2020]

Time (deadline): This element refers to the pressure that is on the project to meet up the results on time. This can be done through preparing a proper schedule for the completion which will helps in providing knowledge of working pace to the employees (Thakurta, 2017). http://Project Management Essentials Assignment SampleThis aspect mainly includes major milestones, the deadlines for every phase of the project, and the date and time of delivering the final product.

Cost (budget): This aspect consists of the limit of the money that can be spent on every stage of the project like the raw material, salary of the workers, and more. This is often called the budget of the project. The comparison of all the financial resources that are available with the company is looked over at this stage. This mainly consists of the cost of labor, vendors, quality control, and more.

Scope: This aspect of the project creates abound between the company and the project which is meant to be delivered on time (Derakhshan et. al. 2019).http://Project Management Essentials Assignment Sample

This helps in determining and defining the goals, deliverables, functions, and features, and as well as the tasks that are needed to be completed by the project. This aspect ties both time and cost together for providing the best result for the project.

Quality: This is the result of the project triangle which defines the quality of the products that are produced from the project.

This helps the company in identification of the mistakes that were made and the problems that were faced.

Interrelation between the three elements

The elements of the project triangle are interrelated to each other which means if one element is affected the other one will also go through the changes. For example, if the time of the project decreases the project manager has to put in rawer material to meet up the deadline (Qi and Shen, 2019).http://Project Management Essentials Assignment Sample And as the same, if the price of raw material increases the quality of the project decreases as the project manager will use cheaper quality of goods.

Comparison in both the smart city projects

The similarity between both the project is that the quality of both the projects are very good as all the elements are equally balanced. The time of both project was balanced but the Smart City Project OS of Hull was very less and the result was also good (Tanwar et. al. 2018). http://Project Management Essentials Assignment Sample

The difference in the budget was also balanced as the Smart City OS project took 55,000 euros for development in just 12 months and the cost that was incurred in the Triangulum project was 29,460 euros and also the development duration was longer. Hence it can be seen that the Smart City OS project has a better working of project triangle them the Triangulum project.

Task 4: Managing Finances

The case study analysis highlights the different aspects and elements associated with the Hull Smart City OS. The project is planned and developed on a large-scale and involves various resources for undertaking or performing each operation or task within the project (Siriram, 2019).http://Project Management Essentials Assignment Sample

The project manager holds the responsibilities for ensuring appropriate development, implementation, application, as well as the project deliverables. Furthermore, the Hull Smart City project also requires a superior, excellent, and an influencing project manager to guarantee proper execution and accomplishment of the overall project, as per the set plan and budgetary constraints.

Hence, it highlights the duties and responsibility of the project manager to recognise, arrange, develop, allocate, and appropriately utilise the set of required resources within the overall project and its individual tasks.

Proper practices and fulfilment of responsibilities by the project manager will significantly contribute in assessing the overall cost or funds requirement of the project. Moreover, resources are very important to execute and complete the process, however, inadequacy of required resources may result in project failure.

The key resources needed in a project comprise of funds, manpower, equipment and technologies, facilities, and other such resources (Farashah et. al. 2019).http://Project Management Essentials Assignment Sample In addition to this, availability, optimisation, as well as scheduling of the project resources have been observed to be the most crucial aspects in ensuring project accomplishment and overall success. Therefore, the key resources needed in the Hull Smart City OS project comprise of:

Manpower or Human Resource: The allocation and utilisation of the resources like machinery, technology, finance, insights and information, and facilities largely depends upon the effectiveness and superiority of the project workforce or the personnel.

The key employees or personnel required in the Hull Smart City project include site engineers, architects, workers, labour, software experts, technical staff, professionals, engineers, infrastructure developers, managers and executives, and researchers (Frefer et. al. 2018). http://Project Management Essentials Assignment SampleHence, they make the most integral part of the overall project, thereby, ensuring a set of excellent benefits and overall project success.

Data and Information: Key insights, data, as well as important information associated with the smart city project and other crucial aspects concerning the Hull city significantly contribute in the execution and completion of the project. Furthermore, viable, accurate, and robust data/information provide an excellent foundation or base to the project executives or manager, in making favourable, informative, and mindful decisions and formulating strategies during the project execution (Gruden and Stare, 2018).http://Project Management Essentials Assignment Sample

Additionally, the gathered insights, information, and data must highlight an association with the city’s characteristics, residents, past, population insights, and other crucial aspects.

Therefore, it is important that the project manager pays attention and consideration towards the necessary information and key insights concerning Hull city’s adaptability levels, inhabitants, life style of its residents, and lastly, advanced systems integrated by other smart or developed cities.

Financial resources: Any project or operation is initiated or executed by allocating and utilising the financial resources. It is an important aspect which ensures proper project execution and accomplishment as per the developed plans and desired procedure (Schaltegger et. al. 2019).http://Project Management Essentials Assignment Sample On analysing and studying the case study, it has been observed that the Hull Smart City project procured an amount of $55,000 for implementing the smart and the latest solutions related to reduction of traffic congestion.

Additionally, KCOM, a telecom operating firm, also provided an amount of £85 million as an investment in the Hull Smart City OS project, for implementing a fully-fibre network range within the entire city. Additionally, the project manager aims at installing and integrating 12 systems for gathering actual and real-time information or insights concerned with the Hull city and its different aspects.

Hence, financial resources make the important element of the overall project. Therefore, the executives and manager of the project must evaluate the expenses and costs required to be incurred for undertaking each project task or operation before executing the smart city project.

The strategic technique which must be implemented for conducting a cost-benefit analysis has been described below:

The technique or tool for assessing and studying the level of development as well as the rate of growth concerning public infrastructural projects, is known as Cost-Benefit Analysis or CBA technique (Iqbal et. al. 2019). http://Project Management Essentials Assignment Sample

The implementation of this technique facilitates or immensely supports the overall procedure of comparing the profits earned by the project investors with that of the public. In addition to the profit comparison, the CBA technique also evaluates and compares the costs involved, which may be of two types: Implicit and Explicit.

Hence, the technique or strategic tool assesses different expenses and project costs like opportunity costs, direct and indirect costs, intangible costs, and other related expenses.

Furthermore, CBA Analysis also analysing the potential set of benefits from the project success, like competitive edges, increased market share, customer loyalty, employee encouragement, revenue or income generation, and profits (Pollack et. al. 2018). http://Project Management Essentials Assignment SampleTherefore, the CBA tool is vital in project planning, developing, making informative decisions, as well as to facilitate the execution and completion of public projects.


For this task, I evaluate myself to be a pass with good scores. This is because I appropriately described the importance as well as the use of project resources. Additionally, I also reflected the main resources needed in properly executing and accomplishing the project, thereby, ensuring its overall success.

Lastly, I also described the important concepts and techniques of CBA or Cost-Benefit Analysis in order to support the project managers and executives for evaluating the estimated expenditure and budgetary constraints.

Task 5: Risk Management

Risk factor Description of risk factor Level of risk Impact or effects Action
High Moderate Low
Strategic risk Ineffective planning and partial formulation of strategies may negatively impact project execution (Israilidis et. al. 2021).http://Project Management Essentials Assignment Sample It may also result in project failure.   Improper planning and strategies formulation negatively affects the project and its results. The project tasks are interrelated, hence, inappropriate strategic formulation in a task may impact others. Project executives and managers should guarantee effective and proper implementation of strategies and techniques (Jefferson et. al. 2018). They should also possess problem-solving and decision-making skills so that required changes could be implemented as per the project dynamics and uncertainties.
Environmental risk Risk related to incompliance with environmental regulations and sustainability aspects may hinder the overall project execution and accomplishment.   Lack of green initiatives and sustainable practices may result in government intervention and questioning the project success. The project manager must ensure proper fulfilment and compliance with environmental regulations and policies related to sustainable practices (Kazmi et. al. 2018).http://Project Management Essentials Assignment Sample
Financial risk Management of funds is important aspect in projects. It ensures cost-effectiveness and proper allocation of acquired funds.   Poor financial management may negatively impact the overall project. It may hinder the fulfilment of future project requirements. The project manager should hold the responsibility of assessing the financial needs and ensure that each project task complies with the set budgetary constraints.
Technological risk Application and proper use of technologies is a complex process concerning security and privacy issues, hence, may result in hacking or data theft.   It highlights the risk of data piracy, hacking, and theft due to ineffective security measures (Khesal et. al. 2019).http://Project Management Essentials Assignment Sample The hackers may misuse the data or key information. The project manager should examine the associated security risks and challenges related to each digital technology. The manager must ensure proper protection and security measures related to insights and project information.
Employee’s risk Lack of employee satisfaction and motivation may result in hindering the overall process of executing and accomplishing the project.   It may question project execution and success due to lack of employee motivation, participation, and satisfaction. Frequent employee assessment, successful communication, and proper reward system may ensure proper employee management and motivate them (Perrier et. al. 2018).http://Project Management Essentials Assignment Sample
Negotiation risk Lack of negotiation skills and abilities by the project manager may result in increasing future risks, and may also deteriorate contract agreements with the supplier organisations (Nilsson et. al. 2018).http://Project Management Essentials Assignment Sample   It affects the overall outcomes and results of the project. For an instance, if the supplying party disagrees with the agreement in the end stage for providing materials, it can offer serious challenges and may also question the project execution. The project manager must highlight effective negotiation skills and should negotiate with the stakeholder groups concerning the needs of the project and potential risk factors.
Management of conflicts Ineffective conflict management may hinder overall management and effectiveness of the firm, and lead to employee demotivation and turnover.   It highlights the possibilities of more conflicts when the project integrates diverse employees. It may affect in deteriorating overall project effectiveness and efficiencies. The project manager should regularly assess and supervises the employees and teams, thereby, ensuring healthy relationships and collaboration.
Operational risk The project involves various tasks and operations, which demands effective operational management to ensure desired outcomes and results.   Operational risk impacts the overall costs and budget planning (Martínez et. al. 2018).http://Project Management Essentials Assignment Sample This is because operational or project irregularities may demand more resources and funds. It can be mitigated by ensuring proper assignment of responsibilities, jobs, and operations to each employee. The project manager must ensure proper operational performance and productivity.
Compliance risk This factor is concerned with rules, policies, regulations, and laws formed by the public institutions or the government bodies (Miles, 2017).http://Project Management Essentials Assignment Sample   It imposes low levels of risks upon the project and its outcomes. It also holds the potential to question the entire project execution and result in failure. The project manager should evaluate and examine all laws, regulations, and policies related to the project and its operations.
Security and privacy issues The project aims at integrating technologies and digital advancements across the entire city. It may restrict the freedom or anti-social life aspects of people, which may result in resistance from the public.   It highlights high levels of risk as the general public may resist the changes within the city. The implications of the risk factor may be mitigated by the project manager by properly communicating the benefits of the project with the general public as well as different stakeholder groups (Mosco, 2019).http://Project Management Essentials Assignment Sample



For this task, I evaluate myself to be a distinctive as I appropriately fulfilled the learning outcomes associated with this task.

In addition to this, I presented ten risk factors which may affect the overall procedure of executing as well as accomplishing the smart city project.

Task 6: Conflicts and Negotiation

Diverse as well as huge workforce highlights the probabilities of more workplace conflicts and disputes within firm (Modi, 2017).http://Project Management Essentials Assignment Sample

Ineffective or poor communication and interaction among employees, lack of coordination, and harmony within teams may be a key reason behind workplace conflicts and disputes.

Hence, the project manager must ensure the mitigation and elimination of issues arising due to diverse workforce, lack of coordination and teamwork, and workplace conflicts. Some of the disputes or conflicts which may emerge within the workplace are explained below:

Conflicts with suppliers: Ineffective negotiation skills and abilities of the project manager towards the supplier organisation may result in disputes and conflicts. Poor description and estimation of product demand may be the major reason behind rising conflicts between the firm and its supplier organisation.

Hence, the project manager must ensure that demand for each resource or raw material is estimated properly and must also ensure appropriate negotiation and agreement with the supplier party.

Conflicts within team members: The Hull Smart City OS project integrates different teams which further includes diverse employees, staff members, and labourers. Discussing different project aspects among teams may result in emergence of several viewpoints, ideas, opinions, and recommendations (Momeni et. al. 2019).http://Project Management Essentials Assignment Sample Employees may enter into a conflict in a trial to prove their points and opinions.

Hence, it is the responsibility of the project manager to ensure that each employee is paid utmost attention and his opinions and ideas are given due importance. The project manager must ensure that the decision being made is accurate, informative, and favours the betterment of the employees as well as the project stakeholders.

Conflicts with project investors or shareholders: The Hull smart city project highlights the integration of various stakeholder groups and entities, including different investors and shareholders. The project has also been provided with a significant amount for reducing traffic congestion (Kundu, 2019). http://Project Management Essentials Assignment SampleHence, it is important that the project yields and offers acceptable returns to the shareholders and investors in order to mitigate the issues related with conflicts.

The manager should also adopt transparent policies and must effectively communicate the details and objectives of the project with the shareholders and investors.


For this task, I assess myself to be a pass as I described different workplace conflicts as well as the ways to mitigate such issues.

Moreover, I also highlighted the role of an excellent project manager in ensuring effective and appropriate problem-solving.

Task 7: Teamwork

Teamwork and collaboration are widely known and observed to be the most vital elements within a project as well as an organisation (Vishnivetskaya and Alexandrova, 2019). http://Project Management Essentials Assignment SampleThese aspects play the most significant role in ensuring maximum levels of operational performance and productivity, thereby, contributing in gaining desirable outcomes and results.

However, lack of teamwork and collaboration holds the potential of negatively affecting the overall project as well as it may be a reason behind its failure. Teamwork, primarily, is all about effective communication and interaction among teams in order to make informative and mindful decisions and gain excellent solutions to an issue (Zhang et. al. 2020).http://Project Management Essentials Assignment Sample

Therefore, the project manager should recognise and assess the skillset acquired by each team member. This will ensure proper assignment or allotment of jobs to each member based on their skillset and capabilities.

Project Management Essentials

Figure 4 Benefits of teamwork.

(Source: Benefits of Teamwork, 2017)

Advantages of teamwork

The Hull Smart City OS Project highlighted that effective and excellent teamwork at the workplace has been observed to offer great benefits and advantages. Teamwork significantly contributes in ensuring maximum levels of employee satisfaction, motivation, and hence, boosts their morale (Albert et. al. 2017).http://Project Management Essentials Assignment Sample

This in turn results in guaranteeing maximum levels of operational productivity and performance, thereby, enabling the firm or the project towards enhanced profitability and generation of revenue. In addition to this, teamwork also helps in highlighting the capabilities and skills possessed by each individual, thereby, facilitating in assigning and allocating them jobs and operations.

Furthermore, increased employee morale and motivation results in obtaining maximum quality standards and levels of the deliverables and products. Moreover, teamwork boosts employee confidence, thereby, ensuring more adaptability and enhanced risk management. Lastly, working in teams helps employees to maximise their professional development and growth, thereby, imposing positive effects and driving the project towards success.

Drawbacks of teamwork

By analysing the case study of Hull Smart City OS Project, it has been analysed that, with a set of advantages, teamwork also offers certain drawbacks, as well.

These include increased possibilities of workplace conflicts and disputes (Wu and Chen, 2021). http://Project Management Essentials Assignment SampleThis is because each employee possesses different mind-set, opinions, and viewpoints concerning a particular topic.

Hence, an employee may get offended when his opinions or views are not entertained or made as a part of the decisions or solutions.

Role of project manager for ensuring diverse team effectiveness

The project manager must ensure that each individual being hired and recruited possesses an effective, excellent, and strong skillset.

Furthermore, the employees must be offered proper training and developmental programs which highlight the benefits of workplace collaboration and teamwork (Al-Hajj and Zraunig, 2018).http://Project Management Essentials Assignment Sample Lastly, the project manager should ensure strong channels of communication which ensure proper interaction and engagement of each employee.


For this task, I assess myself to be a pass because I highlighted the significance of teamwork within a workplace.

In addition to this, I also shed light on the advantages as well as the disadvantages offered by teamwork within a corporate scenario.


Hence, this report how project management is essential and the skills that are required by the project manager and how those skills can be developed. The above report includes the case study of the Smart City project OS which is developed by the city council of Hull and also a case study of the Smart City project of Triangulum project for comparison.

The above report highlighted the stakeholder influence map and the most critical stakeholder emerging. Further, the report also examined the importance of the project management triangle and its parameters that are needed by the Smart City OS project throughout the project.

A project tringle is important for a project as it helps in properly balancing the deadline, scope, and budget. Furthermore, this report also included advice to the project manager on what resources are required for this project and what can be the effective technique for cost estimation.

Moreover, the report also consists of the risks that the project is aware of with the use of appropriate categories like environment, operational, strategic, reputational, and more. the report also highlighted the few main conflicts that are faced by the project and the action that are taken by the manager to resolve them.

Lastly, the report also discussed how a project manager can build up a successful team for the Smart City OS project. A self-evaluation has also been included in the report.


Books and Journals

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Al-Hajj, A. and Zraunig, M., (2018). The impact of project management implementation on the successful completion of projects in construction. International Journal of Innovation, Management and Technology9(1), pp.21-27.

Allam, Z. and Newman, P., (2018). Redefining the smart city: Culture, metabolism and governance. Smart Cities1(1), pp.4-25.

Angelidou, M., (2017). Smart city planning and development shortcomings. TeMA-Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment10(1), pp.77-94.

Anthopoulos, L.G., (2017). The rise of the smart city. In Understanding smart cities: A tool for smart government or an industrial trick? (pp. 5-45). Springer, Cham.

Castro, M.S., Bahli, B., Farias Filho, J.R. and Barcaui, A., (2019). A contemporary vision of project success criteria. Brazilian Journal of Operations & Production Management16(1), pp.66-77.

Chan, A.P. and Oppong, G.D., (2017). Managing the expectations of external stakeholders in construction projects. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management.

Crystal, C.O.L.E., (2017). Project management evolution to improve success in infrastructure projects. Management Dynamics in the Knowledge Economy5(4), pp.619-640.

Derakhshan, R., Turner, R. and Mancini, M., (2019). Project governance and stakeholders: a literature review. International Journal of Project Management37(1), pp.98-116.

Farashah, A.D., Thomas, J. and Blomquist, T., (2019). Exploring the value of project management certification in selection and recruiting. International Journal of Project Management37(1), pp.14-26.

Frefer, A.A., Mahmoud, M., Haleema, H. and Almamlook, R., (2018). Overview success criteria and critical success factors in project management. Industrial engineering & management7(1), pp.1-6.

Gruden, N. and Stare, A., (2018). The influence of behavioral competencies on project performance. Project Management Journal49(3), pp.98-109.

Iqbal, J., Omar, M. and Yasin, A., (2019). The impact of agile methodologies and cost management success factors: an empirical study. Baghdad Science Journal16(2), pp.496-504.

Israilidis, J., Odusanya, K. and Mazhar, M.U., (2021). Exploring knowledge management perspectives in smart city research: A review and future research agenda. International Journal of Information Management56, p.101989.

Jefferson, O.A., Jaffe, A., Ashton, D., Warren, B., Koellhofer, D., Dulleck, U., Ballagh, A., Moe, J., DiCuccio, M., Ward, K. and Bilder, G., (2018). Mapping the global influence of published research on industry and innovation. Nature biotechnology36(1), pp.31-39.

Kazmi, A., Serrano, M. and Lenis, A., (2018, December). Smart governance of heterogeneous internet of things for smart cities. In 2018 12th International Conference on Sensing Technology (ICST) (pp. 58-64). IEEE.

Khesal, T., Saghaei, A., Khalilzadeh, M., Galankashi, M.R. and Soltani, R., (2019). Integrated cost, quality, risk and schedule control through earned value management (EVM). Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology.

Kundu, D., (2019). Blockchain and trust in a smart city. Environment and Urbanization ASIA10(1), pp.31-43.

Martínez-Perales, S., Ortiz-Marcos, I., Juan Ruiz, J. and Lázaro, F.J., (2018). Using certification as a tool to develop sustainability in project management. Sustainability10(5), p.1408.

Miles, S., (2017). Stakeholder theory classification: A theoretical and empirical evaluation of definitions. Journal of Business Ethics142(3), pp.437-459.

MODI, A.A., (2017). Essentials of Operations Management. PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.

Momeni, M.A., Yaghoubi, S. and Aliha, M.R.M., (2019). An optimal control model for analyzing quality investment in the project management. Computers & Industrial Engineering129, pp.529-544.

Mosco, V., (2019). The smart city in a digital world. Emerald Group Publishing.

Nilsson, M., Chisholm, E., Griggs, D., Howden-Chapman, P., McCollum, D., Messerli, P., Neumann, B., Stevance, A.S., Visbeck, M. and Stafford-Smith, M., (2018). Mapping interactions between the sustainable development goals: lessons learned and ways forward. Sustainability science13(6), pp.1489-1503.

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