Project Management Essentials

Assignment Sample Project Management Essentials

Introduction

A project refers to the tasks that are framed that are needed to be completed fulfilling the aims and goals. It essentially requires expert guidance that is provided by appointed project managers. The project, in other terms, reflects the completion of several tasks considering a group of people with 100% accuracy meeting project objectives. This present report focuses on the essential concepts and techniques that are required to complete the Hull City project. It particularly highlights the role of the project manager and the tasks that are needed to be performed to successfully finish the assigned project. Moreover, it also includes a self-evaluation section considering every task of this project.

Task 1: The Project Manager

Project managers are the leaders who are responsible to deliver a project with accuracy thereby achieving the project goals. A good project manager has to be efficient in executing a project thereby possessing the required skills and abilities. As stated by  Girish et al. (2019),http://Project Management Essentials skills and abilities are the key elements that a project manager possesses enabling the manager in running the project successfully and efficiently. The view sheds light on an understanding that managers need to possess or develop skills especially when they are connected with “Information and communication technology projects (ICT projects)”.

People management

Managing people to run a project smoothly is a key success factor for a project manager. As opined by Hoffman et al. (2021), leadership skills increase the potentiality of managers in managing people efficiently thereby forming a positive environment for working. In addition to this, with effective leadership, a manager can also ensure that productivity level is increased thereby motivating members of the project to work more. In this context, as the project involves a large number of people for the completion of setting up broadband in the whole city, it requires the manager to implement good leadership. With a transformational leadership style, the manager needs to explain the vision and admission of the project thereby guiding them with resources (Negash and Hassan, 2020). http://Project Management EssentialsMoreover, this style ensures that changes are being implemented for the betterment of the project addressing the market patterns. Therefore, the present project manager essentially needs to develop or improve leadership skills to finish the project within a specified time.

 

IT and Decision-Making skills

On the other hand, as it is an ICT project, decision-making skills and IT skills are more important compared to people management. As stated by Meng and Boyd (2017),http://Project Management Essentials project managers significantly need to develop their decision-making skills to understand the important tasks that are needed to be completed within the given time. Based on this opinion, it can be stated that with decision-making skills, a project manager can be able to take appropriate strategies that are necessary to run the project. Moreover, it can also be helpful in conducting planning for the overall project. Furthermore, justified decision-making is of utmost importance to stabilize the working procedure thereby maintaining decorum within the project activities. As emerged from studies, decision-making falls important for the current project manager as establishing healthcare and transport facilities are sensitive issues. Therefore, a constructive decision is likely to be made that enables the project in covering the welfare of the overall city.

IT skills are also much important as technology has advanced with the incorporation of new applications. In this context, it has been found that artificial technology has emerged in recent times reflecting blockchain, robotics, machine learning, big data storage systems, and many more (Schmelzer, 2019). The use of these Ai-based technologies has also increased showcasing the involvement of project managers. This denotes that project managers in modern times have the need to develop their IT skills and gain knowledge as to how to operate these technologies. This, in turn, can assure the managers about the validity of the project tasks assigned thereby evaluating if the objectives are met or not. Moreover, for big data storage, machine learning technology has been observed to be essential as it helps to store data and analyse those later when required. It also shapes the decision-making process thereby forming a sustainable environment for the workers. Thus, it can be stated that developing these three discussed skills is of utmost importance to finish the assigned task of Hull city with full accuracy and efficiency.

Task 2: Problem Solving & Decision-making

Stakeholders are the part of the project who has an interest in the project and in a certain way influence the project activities. As stated by Aragonés-Beltrán et al. (2017), http://Project Management Essentialsin project management, stakeholders play a significant role in the management of a project and also influence the project for reaching absolute accuracy. This reflects the analysis and identification of key stakeholders necessary by the project managers to have a knowledge of the influence they have on the project. In this project, the key stakeholders are identified as project sponsors, project managers, customers, and project members, especially including engineers. It has been furthermore analysed that these stakeholders have interest and influence over the smart city OS project which has been analysed following a stakeholder influencer map.


Project Management Essentials Assignment Sample

Figure 1: Stakeholder Map

(Source: Self-developed)

The stakeholder map has been represented above, stating the key stakeholders and their influence on the project of Hull city. As depicted above, the stakeholder analysis chart reflects different colors thereby representing what influence and interest each stakeholder can have over this project. Project members essentially include engineers who are needed to be kept satisfied with their salary and work procedure as they have the most interest in showcasing their efficient working capacity. On the other hand, Project sponsors are interested and influence the project running by managing closely reflecting supervision for the project. Furthermore, project managers are responsible for monitoring each task assigned to the members about their efficient progress. Moreover, the manager is also required to monitor the risks associated with the overall project and find solutions to mitigate them. Concerning the other stakeholder, which is the customer; they have a special interest reflecting the interest in enjoying the benefits generated from the project completion. Therefore, they are to be kept informed about the project and the objective that the sponsors have by implementing this project into action.

In relation to this project, the mentioned stakeholders have been the most essential as they have the power to change the direction of work and also add value to the project procedure. As explained by Khatieb (2018), IT projects exceptionally include a service that needs to be delivered creating a positive change within the external and internal environment. The role of stakeholders in such a project is thus necessary as stakeholders have the power of adding information to the existing project with diverse cultures inflicting an overall development of the project. Additionally, they affect the decision-making process by modifying them into sustainable and stable decisions. In this IT project, it has set an aim of establishing a wider network across Hull city thereby developing transport and healthcare facilities to help the ordinary people with added benefits. Furthermore, it also aims at competing with other cuties in the UK thereby establishing the city as the smartest one amongst all. This puts forward the idea that to develop these facilities, technology-based applications are of utmost significance which essentially requires skilled engineers.

Engineers, with their wide knowledge of programming languages, have the capability of operating AI-aided technology. Furthermore, project managers are important as they schedule tasks and assign jobs to respective members of the project. On the other hand, project sponsors are the superior stakeholder who contributes to the project completion both financially and technically. As per the words of Einhorn et al. (2019), project sponsors are effectively required to be engaged and stay active during the project progression and help the project members and manager in understanding the desired outcomes. Upon closer look, it also reflected that project sponsors also help managers in mitigating issues that occurred during the project. However, customers are other vital stakeholders for whom the project is being conducted. Their demands and preference essentially can guide the project manager in understanding the importance of the project. This, in turn, can make the overall project run in a more efficient way.

Task 3: The Project Triangle

Project Triangle refers to the identification of three effective constraints that hampers the workflow of a project. In the words of Al-Qahtani and Baymout (2021), project management essentially comprises three variables such as time, scope, and cost thereby reflecting the model of constraints. This reflects that when a project is being conducted it is liable to face constraints that hinder the project flow and disrupts project activities reflecting constraints such as cost, time, and scope of the project. In this current project, Connexin and Cisco have been observed to be helping the Hull city council with the project. The project has aimed to set up a smart city that benefits the decision-making power of people concerning parking, traffic, and transport. As a result, this project includes a four-stage procedure to fully establish the acuity into a smart one. Thus, this involves a long process reflecting, infrastructure, installation, implementation, and gathering insights.

Project Management Essentials Assignment Sample
Figure 2: Project triple constraints

(Source: Self-developed)

The above figure showcases the triple constraints that projects possibly face referring to a triangle. As discussed above, the project consists of four stages amongst which the third stage requires a whole year. On the other hand, concerning the setting up of infrastructure, the project intends to set up the wide-area connectivity with the combination of LoRaWAN networks and high-speed fiber networks. This essentially requires time as the project is for the whole city. Moreover, installing sensors around the city by using Connexin Smart bin to collect real-time data also requires time.  Therefore, the overall time required for this project is more than a 6year of work which essentially needs to be completed within 5 years. Furthermore, stage three which reflects implementing platforms for traffic management, waste, street lighting, and others, also requires 1 year for completion. Hence, time has been playing as a big constraint for the Hull city project.

Relating to the cost, KCOM, the local telecom company, has invested £85m to establish a full-fiber network across the city. However, for the other three stages, the council has been providing funds on its own thereby reflecting a budget constraint. In this context, it can be stated that both time and cost are interrelated to each other as if the money supply is limited, then it can take more time to complete the project work. As stated by Demirkesen and Ozorhon (2017), time relates to cost as without financing a project can’t be even progressed properly. Based on this view, it has arisen that the smart city project for Hull city has to face difficulty. However, there can be some possible changes as the government of Hull city can contribute to the whole project. This can immensely increase the workflow and encourage the project members to work efficiently. Moreover, the stages of the project can be successfully met thereby installing the servers. Digital technologies can also be established for the betterment of society which can help people in decision-making. On the other hand, “The Vaisala IceCast program” can effectively assist the council of the city in predicting the weather and planning road maintenance. Furthermore, with the incorporation of “The Teletrac Navman” GPS technology can help people track places making it easier for them to travel. Additionally, the Citilogik system can enable the Hull council to monitor the people and their movements.

Thus, it can be stated that with the involvement of Hull city council and government the scope for the project can get wider and can essentially remove the other two barriers. It can effectively benefit people and turn the city into a Smart one incorporating a digital operating system.

Task 4: Managing Finance

Finance is a broad term that includes the overall funding for a project. It refers to the funding that is being done at the very first stage of project initiation thereby fixing an approximate budget. As referred to by Steffen (2018),http://Project Management Essentials  project finance is long-term planning for the concerning project based on the evaluation of cash flows. Additionally, it also refers to the setting up of a budget at the initial stage for each stage of the project including every financing element. The above opinion sheds light on an understanding that fixing the budget and the cost structure for a project enables the smooth running of the activities thereby increasing the productivity level. In this Hull city Smart project, it is essentially important to identify the resources that are needed for the whole project. Moreover, the cost of each resource also needs to be set that completes the framework of finances of this project work.

 

Resources Cost estimation (£)’000
Appointment of the project manager (Salary) 35000
Project members (salary) 22000
High-speed fiber network 85000
Installation charges 70000
Suppliers of Digital Technology 120000
Road engineers 15000
Total 347000

Table 2: Resources for project and cost estimation of each

(Source: Self-developed)

Resources refer to the elements of a project that are essentially needed for the completion process. As stated by  Prayogoet al. (2018), resources assist the project in having a successful completion thereupon bringing out the desired result involving people and things. In this case, six resources have been identified which are necessary for the Hull city project. As depicted above, the first and foremost element is the appointment of a project manager without whom the whole process cannot be regulated. In this case, the other resources are the project members including 10 core members. On the other hand, installing servers, establishing high-speed networks, connecting with suppliers of digital technology, and road engineers are also included. The remuneration for the project manager of this project has been set at £35000 for conducting the whole project. Upon closer analysis, it has been found that the amount set for the ten core project workers has been £22000 reflecting their overall salary for taking part in this project.

Concerning resources such as raw materials, and the suppliers who are supposed to deliver the essential goods needed for budding infrastructure reflecting digital technology are considered to be a vital part. This is because, without hardware and software facilities provided by concerned companies such as Connexin and Cisco, it is difficult to incorporate smart operating systems. Therefore, the cost for this has been the highest reflecting £120000. In this respect, the finances are the majority required for buying hardware and software devices to develop the city smartly. As opined by Tedeschi et al. (2017), hardware is of several types such referring to IoT devices, cables, and hardware control systems. This denotes that purchasing high-quality cables can effectively and efficiently establish a strong communication system within the city.  IoT devices such as lights, connected sensors are needed for creating a connection between systems and services. Moreover, it also helps in collecting information that helps in understanding the movement of people.

Road engineers are exceptionally important as the project involves building up roads in a smarter way that supports the digital technologies that are to be incorporated. This involves the appointment of road engineers who can ensure a stable construction thereby helping in easier road maintenance by the government. Concerning this, the mount for the road engineers across the city has been set with a value of £15000. Therefore, the total estimation for this Hull city project has been £347000. Hence, it can be said that following this given chart, the project council of hull city can effectively establish better services for the citizens thereby developing a smart city.

Task 5: Risk Management within the project

Risk management refers to the identification of risks that are associated with a project and also involves a detailed analysis of the identified risks. Risk assessment is essential as it also involves evaluation of risk thereby identifying potential solutions for project betterment. It is of utmost importance for the project managers to determine the risk level. As stated by Kloppenburg et al. (2018), the motive behind risk management is to reduce the risk level associated with the project which is approved by the stakeholders and project sponsor. In this respect, a risk management chart or a risk register has been prepared for the discussed project. The formation of risk registers essentially assists the stakeholders involved in the project to have an idea about the types of risks and their likelihood of occurring during the project.

 

Risk Description Impact Category Problem Impact Score Mitigation Strategy- Resolution
Hierarchical differences considering stakeholder risk can affect decision-making. Reviews done by other stakeholders and potential council can highly affect the decisions taken up by the project manager thereby delaying the completion of the project concerning the project schedule.

 

 

Communications 4 3 12 Elimination of bottleneck situation by organising monthly meetings

 

Delays in the procurement process can impact project

schedule negatively

 

Difficulty in gathering required resources Procurement 2 6 12 Extending the leading time for gathering resources
Climatic changes can eventually affect the establishment of board brands across the city Delay in establishing transport facility Environmental 4 8 12 Taking precautions and safety measures to work even in adverse conditions
Failure of the system due to internal fraud Negatively impacting the project smooth running Operational 2 5 7 Strengthening team with efficient and reliable recruitment of workers
Budget constraint reflecting the cost of raw materials required Hampers the work procedure of the project Financial 4 8 12 Fixing the budget at the initial stage of the project by interacting with associated suppliers
Conflict and issues relating to work structure Affecting mental health of workers thereby decreasing efficiency level Strategic 2 5 7 Incorporation of diversified culture with the recruitment of people from different countries
Dropping the quality of raw materials used and efficient management Affecting the goodwill of the company thereby increasing the chances of blacklisting Reputational 1 10 11 Planning strategically and implementing proper leadership style for suitable decision-making
Illegal practices or insider trading Fall of the overall project thereby reducing competitive strength Compliance 1 10 11 Involving reliable employees for working and completing the project

Table 1: Risk register for Hull city project

(Source: Self-developed)

The above table has essentially highlighted the types of risks that are associated with this present project. It has potentially identified probable risks along with their impact. As showcased, the score of each risk has also been incorporated highlighting the level of impact each of the risks can have over the current project. Moreover, the category of each risk has also been classified reflecting, strategic, financial, procurement, operational, compliance, reputational, environmental, and communications. On the other hand, the risk register has also reflected the potential solution for the identified risks representing the measures that project managers can take and prevent the risks from happening.

Risks related to “hierarchical reporting” and postponement in the “procurement process” has been identified as communication risks for the concerned project. However, in recent times, Covid-19 has been the most influential environmental change that has the possibility of delaying the work procedure of the project. In this regard, the project manager along with the members needs to take care of themselves by carrying the PPE kit. This, in turn, can effectively help them in performing their assigned task even amidst the pandemic situation over the UK. However, the highest scores that risks have gained are communication, financial, environmental, and procurement risks. Thus, it can be stated that the project manager essentially needs to focus on these risks exceptionally and take measures to remove the constraints for the smooth running of the project. However, other risks are also needed to be checked so that the project does not get delayed and members can work in a flow without facing any difficulty.

Task 6: Conflicts and negotiation

Conflicts are the situation that arises during a project reflecting contradiction amongst workers relating to specific interest or topic. As explained by Lu and Wang (2017), conflict affects the relationship quality that is prevailing between workers and essentially hampers the work procedure. It makes it difficult for the project manager and the members in achieving the goals of the project thereby lowering the efficiency level. Moreover, it also affects the decision-making process depicting difference of opinion that increases the risk possibility. On the other hand, negotiation helps to reduce the risk and ensures to bring harmony between the workers thereby creating a peaceful environment for working. As per the opinion of Sollitto and Mehrubeoglu (2020), negotiation helps to create a mutual understanding thereby reaching a situation where the conflict is successfully controlled thereby restoring peace and positive culture. The opinion reflects that negotiation impacts the project work positively and effectively reduces conflicts between workers for the betterment of the project. In this respect, the Smart city OS project can face many conflicts that need to be managed by the project manager by taking appropriate actions and implementing negotiation strategies.

Communication gap

Communication is one of the key factors for project succession. The gap in communication can immensely affect the work procedure that negatively impacts the goals of the project (Hojati, 2018). http://Project Management EssentialsRunning the current project involves too many members as the project is being conducted across the city. In this case, the project manager has to communicate with each of the members regularly and discuss the processes of the project. It is the responsibility of the project manager to clear out how each task is to be conducted. Organizing meetings weekly and maintaining telephonic communication can essentially remove the communication conflict. However, on the other hand, if any conflict arises, the manager should organise a negotiation meeting and call the parties involved and talk about the issue. With problem-solving skills, the project manager should reach a situation that both parties agree on.

Poor leadership

Leadership style selection is of utmost importance as it assists the project manager to deliver a suitable working style and create a positive culture. As stated by  Fardet al. (2020), poor leadership creates a conflict situation where workers create chaos and affect the project progression. As a result, confusion, unclear instructions, and several constraints can emerge disrupting the working system. Thus, project managers of Hull city need to have an idea about the leadership styles of management and appropriately choose one for the assigned project.

Group differences

Group differences refer to a situation where the difference of opinion between two workers creates a situation of conflict (Hajoti, 2018). http://Project Management EssentialsThe project manager of the present project essentially needs to call upon a meeting and clarify the difference. However, the manager has to resolve the issue, be it concerning communication problems or personality differences, by reflecting the diverse cultural vision.

Lack of vision

Lacking vision can create a conflict within the project, as members are not clear about the ultimate objective or goal of the project. As the Hull city project consists of a huge area, hence this conflict can arise. In this respect, the project manager can lay down the vision of the project in PowerPoint structure and present it before the workers to clear out the issues.

Scarcity of resources

As the Hull city project concerns the supply of different technological devices, therefore sometimes there can be issues relating to the availability of resources. The project manager in this regard needs to talk to the suppliers and establish a contract to avoid conflict.

Scheduling conflict

Conflict relating to the scheduling of tasks can occur for the Smart city project as members will be spread across the city. However, in this regard, the manager can schedule tasks for each region and make a group for each region. This can effectively mitigate the issue and help in a smooth workflow.

Task 7: Teamwork

A project incorporates few members who help the manager in completing a project within a stipulated time. The involvement of members reflects the possibility of teamwork that enhances the work process of a project. As per the opinion of  Yap et al. (2020), teamwork within project management refers to the work done with the collaboration of members to achieve the desired goal. This means that teamwork represents a group of individuals working together sharing ideas amongst themselves and implementing those for developing the project in a better way. Moreover, working in a team positively affects the project activity as members form clear communication.

Communication in teamwork is immensely important that drives the efficiency of each individual involved in the project. It has been found that with clear and transparent communication, managers of projects have been able to clear out the confusion of members thereupon helping them in working appropriately (Osu.Edu, 2021).http://Project Management Essentials Moreover, communication within the group essentially enables each member to gather an idea about the specific topic that is being covered. Furthermore, communication enables members to have an idea about each other’s perception and mentality that affects the working environment. In this respect, it can be said that a diversified team essentially increases the quality of a project thereby providing an opportunity for the members to gain knowledge about different cultures. Diversification in project teams is important as it incorporates innovation to increase the creativity level of workers (Managers.org, 2019).http://Project Management Essentials In addition to this, it has been found that collaborating with different people and having a discussion about the same topic can enable the members in getting fresh ideas that can boost innovation. It has arisen from studies that a diverse team exceptionally increases the efficiency level of members and thus positively impacts the productivity level. In the opinion of  Page et al. (2021), supporting diverse teams is important for project managers as it enhances the strength of the team by solving critical problems and making better decisions. The opinion reflects an understanding that with the incorporation of diverse teams, a manager can improve the level of decision-making with the help of ideas gained from each member. Moreover, with diverse people involved in a team, a project manager can get diverse solutions to the emerging issues.

Project performance improves with the incorporation of diverse teams. This is because people with different cultures essentially put on different concepts and thereby helps in decreasing the chances of conflicts. As per the reports gained from the Project management institute, it has been found that 88% of project managers have quoted that they have been able to increase their project value with a diverse team (Alexander, 2021). http://Project Management EssentialsThus, it is essential for the current project manager to recruit people from diverse cultures and involve them in working towards the completion of the Smart city OS project.

The project manager can advertise the project with the help of social media platforms, televisions, or hoardings across the country and even overseas. Furthermore, the manager needs to highlight the criteria that the project requires and the eligibility that a member must have to enroll their name. On the other hand, the manager can also reveal the salary that members are liable to get during the project and after its completion. This can essentially help the manager in attracting people from different countries. Moreover, it can also assist the manager in recruiting eligible candidates who can help the manager in meeting the project goal. However, the project manager has to keep in mind that the members recruited are skilled enough and is capable of performing different tasks as the current project essentially requires the same. Moreover, with the diversified culture formation, it is also required for the manager to look after the expertise level of each member and their experience of working to help enhance the performance of the project.

Assessment self-evaluation

The conduction of the Hull city project has enabled me to develop leadership skills thereby making me choose a transformational leadership style. With the project planning, I came to understand that concerning task 1, I gathered knowledge about the essential skills that a project manager needs to develop. In this respect, I have essentially developed my communication skill and leadership skill as they can enable me to form a sustainable project team. Moreover, it came to my understanding that stakeholders are influencing a category that has the power of changing the direction of a project anytime. Thus, identifying them has been a crucial task which I efficiently completed by identifying key stakeholders of this project. I understood that every project consists of three essential barriers, however, concerning the third task I realized that time and budget are the most effective ones. Thus, it is essential to manage the finance for which I made a chart reflecting the type of resource required and the cost for each of them. This enabled me to learn that fixing the finance is important that guides the other decisions. However, I realized that conflict and risks are inevitable parts of a project, which can be removed with effective planning and negotiation strategies. I improved my problem-solving skills and enhanced my ability to identify risks and categorize them. However, a diversified team is necessary to inflict innovation and growth on a project. Thus, concerning all the tasks, I can grade myself 4 out of 5. I still need to gain knowledge about the new developing technologies that can be used for a smart city.

Conclusion

The study of the Hull City project has brought to a conclusion that project management and project planning are of utmost importance for successful business project success. It is a smart city OS project that involves many stakeholders. The technical support, however,  is provided by Cisco and Connexin thereby reflecting the establishment of servers across the city. It can be concluded that there are time and cost constraints for this project which are needed to be mitigated following the financing chart. Moreover, the risks identified are also needed to be prevented by taking mentioned measures. All over, the project needs to incorporate diverse cultures to increase the quality of the project.

 

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