1. Introduction

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The moral norms and values that govern the decisions, behaviour, policy and practices of those who are responsible for maintaining public health, are the pillars that hold the standard of public health on their shoulders. In an era defined by our choices and action toward public health and global health challenges, understanding moral mandates of public health and social justice towards ethical leadership and professional conduct is essential. To support the public health workforce, and promote greater public understanding of ethics, values, and social justice in public health law, policy and practice, is the sole function of ‘The faculty of public health’. The essay mainly reflects the application of ethical approach for assessing the current public health policy.

2. Public health practice

Public health practices are referred to as the government or authority based activities to protect the health and wellness of certain communities. In the UK, governmental figures are conducting surveys for knowing the exact problems of public health. As per the view of Galea et al. (2018), political advocacy recognizes certain policies that will be worked best in protecting public health. Public health practice is considered as the strategic application of public health skill and attributes in delivering the services associated with delivering ultimate care for the benefit of society. The Government of the countries has established the policies for adding value to the citizens.  Based on those practices under public health policy, health-related issues are somewhat reduced (Leeder et al. 2016).

3. Current pandemic situation

Current pandemic situation has occurred due to the outbreak of the Novel Coronavirus known as Covid-19 pandemic. After originating in China, the virus spread all over the globe and the UK is affected badly due to this pandemic. Approximately 137,000 people are affected in the UK and the government is trying their best to provide exact care to patients (Public health England, 2020). However, the vaccine still has not been invented and therefore the public health issues have increased day by day in the UK. As per Van Goethem et al. (2020), the government has taken strict initiatives to stop close contact and started a lockdown period for the public to stop spreading this pandemic. However, every step fails to stop the virus from the spread. Based on policies, health issues regarding this problem are under control by the political figures of the UK. The below figure represents the case of Covid virus in different region of UK which indicate the requirement of providing care to the patients and the policies are also required to be designed in such a manner that the spread of the virus would be controlled.

Figure 1: Coronavirus in the UK

(Source: Public health England, 2020)

4. Ethical guidance and regulation

Based on ethical guidance and regulation of the UK current pandemic situation is handled by the government strictly according to EID guidelines. As per the view of Sultanoglu et al. (2020), Setting up a public healthcare department that is free of cost and conducting blood sample tests every day is one  of the ethics taken by the government of the country under CoG ID policies. Control on prevention factors is being more focused by the government nowadays and people are encouraged to wear a mask and follow up every pandemic preventing rules thoroughly. The ethical role of Government include providing all the relevant measures to the citizens for adding value to the health concern. As stated by Thakkar et al. (2020), a Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) kit is provided to medical practitioners while checking the patients as a consequence that they will not be affected by the virus and can check up the patient every day.

The ethical guidelines are required to be incorporated based on the guideline proposed by central authority. The blood sample test is conducted every day under World Health Organizations (WHO) guidelines to look into the matter that numbers many people are affected by the disease. As per the view of Mccormick (2020), doctors are requested by the government to serve at least 15 hours a day to check up the Covid cases’ patience. The government further took steps to meet ethical value by encouraging stakeholders and shareholders involvement within the healthcare sector and governmental sectors.

It further helps the government to achieve financial stability and therefore they can proceed with any further policy. As per the opinion of Salmi et al. (2020), implementing those policies such as EID, NHS, PHE, JCVI and others are helping the government to achieve sustainable flexibility to control Covid-19 diseases from spreading. Infection Prevention and Control is considered as the policy that has been integrated for protecting against the Covid virus. The governmental policies are works for preventing as well as interesting new vaccination to clear out the disease from every dilemma.  Prioritizing possible ethics that will be necessary for preventing the healthcare problems of the public is justified with the policy (Xie et al. 2020). After that, beliefs and values are measured and the policies are specifically taken place on the particular areas or zones that are needed the most.  The ethical value has been added by the Government for ensuring the arrangement of all the necessary item for leading the life carefully.

5. Theoretical framework

5.1 Social Cognitive Theory

The influence of social elements and past experience in the context of one’s health concerned behavioural expectations, expectancies and reinforcement is the basis of Social Cognitive theory. As per Coggon et al. (2016), gaining some other features and characteristics afterwards on public health, the theory was renamed to Social Cognitive Theory (SCT). SCT states that, rather than focusing on initiative behaviour of a person in case of health promotion, the maintenance of behaviour should be taken into accord. The basic goal of SCT is to depict how people can benefit in terms of health from regulating their behaviour through control and reinforcement, to achieve goal-directed behaviour that can be maintained over time. As mentioned by Gostin et al. (2016), in total there are six basic pointers in the Social Cognitive Theory-

Figure 2: Social Cognitive Theory

(Source: Coggon et al.2016)

1.Reciprocal determination: The dynamic and reciprocal interaction of a person, his environment, his behaviour and his health

2.Behavioural Capability: A person’s ability to maintain behaviour through essential knowledge and skill

  1. Observational Learning: The act of observing and witnessing behaviour conducted by others and reproducing the same behaviour in terms of health
  2. Reinforcements: The internal and external responses that depict the following or discontinuation of certain behaviour regarding health
  3. Expectations: The anticipation of consequences of health related outcomes.
  4. Self-efficacy: The level of confidence to follow certain behaviourthat benefits health conditions

5.2 The Danaher framework

Many factors influence our health such as the work we do, the place we live, our childhood experience and the physical environment surrounding us. Known as the social determinants of health, these factors govern the livelihood and level of health of a person. As stated by Callahan et al.(2002), although these social determinants have been brought into focus many times, the general population remains ignorant to them. The ‘Canadian council of social determinants of health’ (CCSDH)undertook a review on framework on determinants of health, to support policymaking, research and advancement in working on determinants of health. The CCSDH gave out ‘The Compendium’ to advance innovative and intersectional actions on determinants of health. The basic components of this are-

  • Detailed explanation of determinants of health to the mass population
  • Bridging different, diverse sectors to improve the impact on these determinants
  • Undertaking interpectoral action
  • Judging and marking priority areas.
  • Building pre destined scenarios for better intervention in case of widespread diseases.
  • Identifying intervention points that pose maximum level of impact
  • Identifying new opportunities that allow collaboration and partnership

Figure 3: Danaher Framework

(Source: Callahan et al.2002)

The Danaher Framework fundamentally deals with identifying large-scale problems of public health based on the internal and external factors circling the population. As mentioned by Lee et al. (2012), this makes it easier to separate behavioural based and physical environment based health issues and deal with them separately and easily.

6. Reflection on personal and professional values

Professional values regarding public healthcare should be maintained with dignity and equality as evenness in public healthcare plays a key role in binding everyone with unity. Government of the UK started professionalism within their healthcare policy to maintain patience-centred treatment values. As cited by Wiffen (2020), under Emotional Intelligence Development (EID) policy, the UK’s government developed a valued-added phase to estimate the professional value within personal values. Demonstrating the fact healthcare policies figure out that new adjustment regarding this pandemic situation is necessary for public health and therefore the government started rules to use masks and sanitizers for every person to prevent coronavirus from spreading…Therefore, many rules and regulations are created to match every thought of EID.

Government of the UK followed an overview of the Schwartz Theory of Basic Values framework to rectify professional as well as the personal value of the public healthcare department (Mackay and Quigley, 2018). Values regarding professionals refer to the goals that have to be achieved for public wellness. Stakeholder’s engagement for investing funds in public healthcare welfare to achieve desired value and goals. As mentioned by Gille et al. (2017), political advocacy of the UK provided some beneficial rules to follow up to prevent a pandemic that is banning public gathering sectors for some while, banning close contact, rules regarding wearing a mask and carrying sanitizers and others.

Figure 4: Schwartz Theory of Basic Values

(Source: Gille et al. 2017)

Accepting EID guidelines, communities of the UK are following openness to change ideas to accept all rules that will help to prevent the pandemic (Shah et al. 2017). People influenced by the professional and personal value aspect under EID have started following self-enhancement valuing to conduct betterment of the healthcare guidelines to prevent the pandemic. As per the view of Public Health England (2020), professionalism within personal addressing the governmental reliability, that consistency that is proving by the political bodies to betterment the provided services regarding public healthcare. Outcome of this are agreed to equality and maintained a standard as well as period for getting better benefits from the process. This is suggesting that government figures are looking for long-term value mapping professionalism and personal care perspective to meet higher outcomes that are to prevent Covid-19 from spreading in abroad range (Public Health England, 2020).

7. Underpinning ethics of public health

Public health professionals in UK generalized ethics and guidelines to prevent any risky health cases. They are conducting paternalism and responsibilities to take control of health-related issues. As per the view of Chen-Edinboro et al. (2019), “Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunization (JCVI)” approach helps “National Health Systems” (NHS) to develop planning that calms health issues. Advice is approaching invented new vaccination systems regarding Covid-19 vaccination and UK’s guidelines are strictly towards this situation. Pandemic controlling authorities are taking suggestive thoughts from the rulers and guide mentors regarding controlling the epidemic condition and saving public health (Public Health England, 2020). The IPC measures recommended are underpinned by the National Infection Prevention and Control Manual (NIPCM) practice guide and associated literature reviews. The theoretical aspects are addressed for providing effective care to the patients that would add value in it. Making a decision on the needful area as well as approaching new guidelines and policies are making public health sectors complementary for taking care of public health.

Public health England (PHE) is approaching guidance known as Green Book related to preventing any further cases of Covid-19 pandemic. UK’s governmental actors were conducting a lockdown phase from March to July due to high fear of spreading of this virus. During the lockdown phase, the pandemic situation was under control, however, the government failed to control properly (Public Health England, 2020). Due to this pandemic situation, many people under 15-35 years old are highly affected as well as 60-80 years old are badly affected (Ferrer, 2019). Therefore, many people with less immunity power are dead due to being infected by the coronavirus.

Figure 5: Ethics of public health

(Source: Shrimali, 2016)

Public health-related guidelines are sickly followed by the public, however, the government cannot control the pandemic forms spreading. As stated by Iron and Shrimali (2016), the government has to start their regular life and public duties as per the betterment of the nation; they have to stop the lockdown phase after 3 months from the March. Therefore, many people are further affected due to close contact with each other during travelling on public transportation systems. The UK’s governmental bodies are taking sustainable strategies to control overspreading the pandemic. As cited by Leeder et al. (2018), regulators of health-based authorities in the UK announced significant new steps to respond to the Covid-19 pandemic survivors. They took initiatives to stabilize people’s financial conditions.  Therefore, people can treat themselves in cases affected by Covid-19.

Under EID and Cog ID, ethics involved in public health are mainly focused on the systematic process to emphasize and justify the feasible rituals for dominating health issues. As cited by Summers and Ferraro (2017), principles, values and advantages are mainly staying in the focus of the government of the UK as the principal makes ethics guidelines approach to analyse the ongoing problem regarding health-related issues. Values are identified as outcomes of the approaches that the government publishes to take care of public health. As per the opinion of Wolfenden et al. (2020), advantages will come according to the ethical values of governmental guidelines and policy approaches.

Government is usually looking for stakeholders and shareholders involvement as they can help the political aspect to run any approaches correctly without compromising in financial matters. Therefore, many companies and public figures are approached to take participation as stakeholders or shareholders to take care of guideline financial perspectives. As per the view of Gunn (2016), encouraging scientists of the nations to invent vaccines under EID and Cog ID is one of the powerful guidance by the UK’s parliament. Many hospitals, private clinics, medical service providing sectors and others are servicing free of cost to Covid-19 infected patients as per the governmental rules.

The public of the UK maintained all guidelines and followed those to protect themselves from being affected. As mentioned by Sultanoglu et al. (2020), Covid Corporate Financing Facility (CCFF) is one of better policies that work to stabilize the financial conditions of the nations as well as provide loan facilities to health sectors to implement advanced technologies related to the public health within their organizations.

All facilities were offerings well-being for the current pandemic situations and many people are getting opportunities in taking those facilities. As stated by Thakkar et al.(2020), apart from this, children and old aged people have some extra facilities in health care sectors such as they will treat personally, medicines and others prioritize treatment portions will be maintained by the health sectors authorities at the minimum low-cost value and others. According to Mccormick (2020), young teenagers and adults are further treated as the same however; the guidelines provide that during their treatments, their office will provide about 80% salary without deducting much. Therefore, the health and finance department related to public health in the UK is maintained in an appropriate way (Public Health England, 2020).

8. Evidence-based approach

PHE and the organizations for National Statistics and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM) confirmed positive cases of about 10,000 students and people around the UK (Sultanoglu et al. 2020). The surveys found that approximately 1.24% of students, as well as 1.29% official’s staff, are affected by the Covid-19 (Public Health England, 2020). Under NHS, governmental policy people are getting help based on infections and health-related issues. In case some people are affected however, infection is not showing any symptoms in their case therefore they will be isolated in their own house. Therefore, the chance of spreading the virus from them will be less. However, those techniques are not working properly as some patients without any symptoms have travelled here and there and spread the virus. As per the view of Thakkar et al. (2020), on the other hand, people with mild symptoms are further isolated in their house and a medical practitioner is visited on an alternative day to observe the health conditions of them.

The government is observing that up to 65% of people can be isolated in their house however; they prefer to get services from the hospitals (Mccormick, 2020). Therefore, the government has to increase the number of hospitals and reduce the rate of treatment under CCFF policy. Based on NHS policy, governments are conducting free blood sample collecting systems to observe the number of people affected. As mentioned by Salmi et al. (2020), the government of the UK observed that 0.89% of primary school children fitted and they further affect their classmates affected as well as teachers. Therefore the government initiates virtual classes for children to study and apart from that, the government further conducted virtual and online streaming systems for contemplating officials’ works. As per the view of Xieet al. (2020), according to LSHTM, nowadays community spreading is started, therefore people should follow the guidelines of the government to stop overspreading. Daily up to 33,364 active cases are surveyed and last few days cases are about 203,845 people (Wiffen, 2020).

Figure 6: People with Vivid-19 Positive in the UK in the last few days

(Source: Public Health England, 2020)

Regularly about 215 people are dead due to this pandemic and in the last few days, about 3,215 people are losing their lives due to Covid positive. Every day up to 2,034, patients are admitted to hospitals with active cove positive cases and in the last few days, the number of patients admitted is up to 12,745 people (Public Health England, 2020). Regularly, up to 433,470 people are testing their blood to test they are infected or not and in the last few days, 2,583,889 are active cases regarding Covid-19 (Xie et al. 2020).

Figure 7: Death rate in the UK due to Covid-19

(Source: Public Health England, 2020)

Based on the present pandemic situation, health advisors of the UK and the government started conducting vaccinations regarding the flu vaccine and wanted to observe in case the vaccine worked well or not to prevent the Covid-19 issues. According to PHE, vaccination will be developed regarding the flu vaccine due to the virus showing a tendency of flu (Salmiet al. 2020). However, at present, any flu vaccine is not working properly to prevent and the scientists are working to invent a vaccine. As cited by Xie et al. (2020), demos and trials regarding vaccinations are going on to view the success rate of those vaccines to prevent coronavirus. It is surveyed that patients who already have any of these problems related to kidney, heart, diabetes and other suffering the most and their death rate is higher than others. Approximately 46.8% of people with those issues are facing critical conditions after being affected by the Covid-19 (Public Health England, 2020).

Figure 8: Number of active cases

(Source: Public Health England, 2020)

9. Conclusion

Based on the above discussion it can be concluded that the UK’s government is taking initiatives to prevent the pandemic situation. Governmental activities are conducted for tak8ng care of public health and wellness. The outbreak of Covid-19 pandemic situation is taking many people’s lives and many people at present suffering from it. Government of the UK provided some policies that are working on behalf of taking care of public health and wellness.  According to the NHS and EID, people should wear a mask and keep sanitizer with them always to prevent the virus from infecting their bodies. Cultural value, professional and personal value should be maintained by the government to take care of public health.


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