Public Health Research

Public Health Research


The study will be making its focus on the identification of the liver diseases take place due to high consumption of alcohol by the people in Luton. The changes in preferences of the people and status symbol that makes them consume alcohol at a high level will be depicted in the further literature part. The research aims at the prevalence of alcohol by the Adults in Luton. High consumption of alcohol may lead to the adults to face chronic diseases that are hard to cure and may make the adults prone to death. The secondary research method will be used in the research that will help in collecting the data directly from the people and help in screening at a good level. Moreover, the data will be collected from manual research that could help in identifying the prevalence rate of alcohol consumption in Luton.

The quantitative method helps in deriving the data in numerical form that is presented in the form of a graph which is easy to be evaluated. This makes the extraction of the information regarding the prevalence of alcohol among the adults in Luton. The method is in structured form and makes the collection of data from the people which are authenticated as the responses are taken with their consent. This makes the clarification of numerous factors that makes it clear due to which the consumption is increasing in adults in Luton. Consumption affects the health of people and directly impacts the policies of the government that are made to safeguard public health. This required number of health programs and policies that would help in meeting with the needs of the public by generating awareness among them and provide the proper medication and care facilities.


The consumption of alcohol is increasing day by day with the changing taste and preferences of the people and that is spreading the number of diseases globally. The increasing rate of consumption of alcohol among the older people makes them have changes in their sensitivity which reduced the tolerance power of alcohol consumption in them. Various reasons that are undertaken for high consumption of alcohol are elder abuse and isolation which are due to increasing age (Ford, et. al., 2016). The consumption of alcohol can make the person suffer from more than 60 diseases which make them lead to death.

In England, around 589,101 people rely on their drinking habits. Around 81.7% of the people e not availing the treatment in Luton to which they are prone due to alcohol. Alcohol consumption is increasing in Luton due to long-lasting problems that young adults are prone to.  The overconsumption of alcohol directly affects the liver of people which is a major part of the body. Liver diseases specifically the liver cancer has become the serious health issues for the people as this is growing at a high rate at the global level (Bellis, et. al., 2018). The main cause that has been carried out with the increasing rate of health problem is the overconsumption of alcohol.

The health status of the people in Luton is poor due to poor socioeconomic deprivation and segment. In England, on an average basis, people in Luton suffer from more diseases due to poor medical facilities and lack of education that is provided to the people. This makes them prone to diseases like liver cancer that is made due to the high consumption of alcohol among young adults. The recession in the economy affects the most to the poor people and makes them go below the poverty line (Bellis, et. al., 2017). The factors that affect the economy make the people face the situation of depression and stress that makes them consume alcohol. The factors for the consumption are poor structure of the place and high level of depression they face. This reduces the health status of the people and poor financial condition makes them face with serious disease. This also makes them be deprived of medical treatment of proper medication they require to overcome from the disease such as liver cancer (Galvani, et. al., 2016). The lack of education perceived by the young adults in the Luton makes them avail the alcohol and face the ill threat of health and social wellbeing.

Young adults who face with the issues like depression and stress makes them physical and mental unstable. These led them to get into the habits to drinking and smoking that affects their internal organs. The consumption of alcohol in Luton among the young adults is due to high stress they face due to education, homelessness and poverty. This exerts pressure on them and makes them to face with the diseases like liver cancer. Liver cancer is a chronic disease that affects the digestive system of the people which harms the people. The lack of awareness of public policies does not make the young adults to take the medication and healthcare facilities on time (Garcia, et. al., 2018).  This increases the death rate in Luton and objections for the public policy and practise take place. Each and every individual in Luton needs to be provided with educational programs so that they would get to know about the ill effects of alcohol consumption. The facilities of medication and health care needs to be given to them so the control over liver cancer could take place (Moxon and Waters, 2016). This will reduce the number of death that happens with the liver cancer and diminishes the prevalence rate in the Luton.

The study is important to be undertaken so that evaluation of the liver disease could be made that is increasing at a vast rate. This will also make the depiction of the factors due to which the liver cancer is taking place in Luton. The impact of alcohol and its consumption on young adults will be focused on the research. This will help in identifying the major causes due to which the death rate is taking place in Luton and the lack of survival that is made due to the high consumption of alcohol (Adams-Guppy and Guppy, 2016). Various policies are undertaken by the government of the UK for making the people aware of the facts so that consumption of alcohol will be diminished. This will make the improvement in well-being of the people in Luton and make them know the significance of social and physical well-being. This will help in knowing the methods that are useful for the research and help in generating the response from the people. Lack of education and awareness affected the public policies and practise that are made for the welfare of public will also be studied in the research.

Research Question

  1. What is the prevalence rate of alcohol consumption in Luton??

Research aim

The aim of the research is to identify the prevalence rate of alcohol consumption and its impact that has on the health of the people in Luton. This also identifies the factors due to which diseases like liver cancer take place and reason that makes people have alcohol. The measures for the prevention for the diagnosis of the disease so that it would not impact the health or well being of the people will also be reviewed.

Research objectives

The following objectives that are taken into contemplation are as follows-

  • To identify the impact of alcohol consumption of public health.
  • To measure the prevalence rate of alcohol consumption in Luton.
  • To grab the information for the factors or reasons due to which the people in Luton are prone to liver cancer.
  • To analyze the role of policies and roles of government authorities that are made for the prevention of diseases and generating awareness among people in Luton.

The above objective helps in completing the research in a deliberate manner that makes it know the difference that took place in the death rate of Luton. This also makes the validation of the facts due to which the youngsters are prone to liver cancer and the increasing rate.


Research design and approach

A number of methods are used in the research to gather information and collect data for the accomplishment of research. Qualitative and quantitative methods are widely used in the research. In a qualitative method, the data is collected from people with methods such as interviews, group discussion and participation. This makes to obtain the understanding of opinions, motivation and observation that lie with the people. Under this method, the data is less structured than the quantitative method (Bernard, 2017). The quantitative method helps in quantifying the problem of extracting the solution. This includes methods such as paper surveys, mobile surveys, telephonic interview etc. The quantitative method is used in the research for collected data as this is more in structured more and the data is in numerical form which is easy to be calculated and interpreted. This can make the derivation of data from large number of people or population in the Lucton. Under the quantitative method, the data will be collected from the people to identify the reason for which the people are prone to liver cancer (Brannen, 2017). In the quantitative research method, questionnaire is prepared and circulated among the people in hospital so that they can give their response to the questions.

Inclusion and exclusion criteria

The criterion that is inclusive in the research is the usage of the primary research method so that data would not be bias in nature. The information that is collected from the articles and publishers who carry accurate and desired facts will be analyzed and included. The children suffering from liver cancer will not be included in the research. The qualitative research methods will also be not taken into consideration as the data is bias in nature and not structured (Lampard and Pole, 2015). The consumption level of young adults and the disease they face will be included in the research.

Searching strategy

The strategy used in the research for the collection of data and information is manual search and direct approach. The direct approach will make the data collected from the respondents who make their opinion on the number of people who are prone to liver cancer. This also identifies the reason due to which the rate of patients is increasing at a colossal level. This strategy is used in the research so that biased data would not be used and more accurate and desired information would be made. The sale of alcohol in the Luton will also be identified and the young people who face the threat of death will be made with a direct approach. On the other hand, a manual search will help in collecting from the internet. The data is collected from the published articles and report that provided the desired and latest information of the facts. This makes the screening of information and data that is collected for the achievement of the objectives of the research (Brannen, 2017). This identifies the role of the people and their responses that can be obtained with the use questionnaire method. The questionnaire carries a set of questions that are required for the respondents to be answered for having data and information. This help in gathering and deriving the required information and data.

Data extraction

The data is collected from the people in hospitals as they would give more accurate information about the people who are prone to liver cancer. The questionnaire is prepared and sent to people for the derivation and collection of data in a respective manner. 50 respondents are made to give their responses through questionnaire so that it could analyse their response. Random sampling method is used for the analysis of data (Berger, 2018). Under the sampling method, small variable is taken into consideration from large population. 10 people are taken into contemplation from the total population. This will depict the characteristics of the entire population. The SPSS software will be used for the interpretation and depiction of data.


    Sh_issue increse_c poverty_R main_R Gp_IH AL_R_I_DR GV_P_H GT_AYCM High_CNM AL_BND
N Valid 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50
Missing 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Mean 2.1600 2.1600 2.1000 1.8000 2.1600 2.3800 2.1600 1.8600 2.9800 2.3200
Median 2.0000 2.0000 2.0000 1.0000 2.0000 2.0000 2.0000 2.0000 4.0000 2.0000
Mode 2.00 2.00 2.00 1.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 1.00 4.00 1.00
Std. Deviation .99714 1.05676 .93131 1.04978 1.05676 1.12286 .99714 1.03036 1.16916 1.33156
Sum 108.00 108.00 105.00 90.00 108.00 119.00 108.00 93.00 149.00 116.00


Question 1

Do you think alcohol has brought serious health issues in the Lucton?

  1. Agree
  2. Strongly agree
  3. Disagree
  4. Strongly disagree

Question 2

Has alcohol consumption is increasing day by day in the Lucton as compared to other places in the UK?

  1. Agree
  2. Strongly agree
  3. Disagree
  4. Strongly disagree

Question 3

Do you think poverty is the main reason for youngsters for their ill effect of alcohol consumption?

  1. Agree
  2. Strongly agree
  3. Disagree
  4. Strongly disagree

Question 4

Why people are more indulged in alcohol consumption in Lucton??

  1. Poverty
  2. Homelessness
  3. Economic
  4. Any other

Question 5

Has government policies impacted the health of the public?

  1. Agree
  2. Strongly agree
  3. Disagree
  4. Strongly disagree

Question 6

Do you think alcohol is the reason for the increasing death rate in Lucton?

  1. Agree
  2. Strongly agree
  3. Disagree
  4. Strongly disagree

Question 7

Are the government health programs will affect the health status of people?

  1. Agree
  2. Strongly agree
  3. Disagree
  4. Strongly disagree

Question 8

Has the government taken any control method for the prevention of diseases?

  1. Yes
  2. No
  3. Maybe
  4. My not be

Question 9

What are the reasons for the high consumption of alcohol by young adults?

  1. Stress
  2. Depression
  3. Lack of education
  4. Economic instability

Question 10

In your opinion, does alcohol consumption needs to be banned?

  1. Agree
  2. Strongly agree
  3. Disagree
  4. Strongly disagree

Ethical consideration

The ethics need to be adopted in the research so that no unethical information of data would be used for the extraction of data. The major ethical issue that can lead to the research is taking the responses from the people without their consent. This requires the research to sign the consent form the people and take permission from the hospital for conducting the survey. This makes the accomplishment of research to be done in an ethical and legal manner. The personal information provided by the respondent needs to be kept in secrecy and confidentiality so that it responded would not face any personal issues in future (Kosinski, et. al., 2015). Moreover, the respondents are not forced to give their information or make their response towards the survey. Their honesty and integrity are vital part for the research and information that is availed from them. These issues need to be analysed in the research so that it would make the respondents to give their response for the completion of the research. The data extracted from them should not be bias and misused by the researcher. All the information and data needs to be accurate and genuine in nature. These issues can be addressed by having required communication with the respondents so that their trust can be earned (Lacey, et. al., 2015). This will make them give the information or data that is relevant for the research.


The analysis is made with the SPSS software as the data is presented in a statistical manner which is easy to evaluate and analyse. The SPSS software is used for the analysis as it helps in determining the situation in an easy manner as the entire data will be made numerical form. No assumptions would take place for the collection and derivation of information. This makes the evaluation of the data and information that is collected from the people regarding the prevalence rate of alcohol consumption Luton by young adults. This also identifies the number of deaths that take place due to liver cancer to the people because of the high consumption of alcohol.


From the data collected and evaluated in the above analyses makes clear that high consumption of alcohol is impacting the health of the public or people all over the world. The intake of alcohol is higher in Luton as compared to other places in England in an average. This is mainly due to lack of education and stability among the young adults which make them indulge in the activities like drinking. The instability in the economy of the Luton makes the people not to educate their children and make them have habits of drinking. This majorly affects the liver of the people and makes them face a chronic disease like liver cancer. This also affects the government regulations that are made for the control of diseases that are spreading at a high rate (Hammarberg, et. al., 2016). The lack of awareness among the people regarding the policies and programs of government makes them face serious threats. This affects the policies of the government that are made for the prevention of diseases for the public.

The major role of public policy and practice is to reduce the death rate and make the people not to face any issues regarding their health. Proper mediation and healthcare facilities are required to be made for the public so that they can have required health status. The economic instability, poverty and homelessness in Luton have diluted the policies and practices of the government and increase the death rate and suffering of people (Litosseliti, 2018). The above analyses make the depiction of the facts that need to be controlled by the government by making those policies and practices that could generate awareness among the people. This will reduce the frequency of people who are facing liver cancer. The control over the intake of alcohol is also required to be made by the government of the UK in Luton so that public policies and practices could work in the Luton (Guetterman, et. al., 2015). This will make the young adults no to indulge in the activities of alcohol consumption and cases of liver cancer will be automatically reduced.

Limitations of the research

The limitation of a drawback of the research is that the entire focus is only made on one disease that is liver cancer. The overconsumption of alcohol can cause multiple diseases to the people by the entire analyses is made on liver cancer that takes place in young adults. All the age group people are not taken into consideration. Though the topic is very wide, the time for the research was not efficient which lead to having minimal information with the use of the quantitative method. The data is collected directly from the people, which is very time consuming and rigidity of the people made it more difficult to gather information. The rigidity of people does not make the completion of the survey in a proper manner as convincing them is not an easy task to do. The communication and interaction skills need to be improved to makes the people complete the survey and give their information (Patnaik, 2019). The trust needs to be built by making them sure that their information will not be used for any other purpose and it will be totally kept in a confidential manner.

Another limitation that occurs is resistance and permission of the hospital that was not possible to get as the survey will disturb their patients. This made it difficult to gather information from the required sources. The shortage of time made the data collected from the manual search in a limited manner as the concept is wide and information was not available. The data collected from the manual search is not proper as this has already been collected by another researcher. This takes huge time for gathering information or data this is accurate and reliable for the research. This makes the research to have adequate data for the interpretation of facts with authenticating resources (Greener, 2018). The use of quantitative method makes the data to be presented and extracted in a manner that is easy to be assessed with the opinion and observation made by the people. The method is used in processed form and if one step goes wrong the entire data will be manipulated and depicted in a wrongful manner. This makes the collection and analyses of data to be made in a sequential manner with proper focus so the data will be biased and interpreted in an advanced way.


The target for the collection of the data is a hospital and the people working in the hospitals as they would give more information about the young adults who are prone to liver cancer. Another target is the journals and articles that are searched for gathering information. These journals and articles need to be specific for the prevalence rate and factors that affect the young adults and make them have habits of overconsumption of alcohol. This also focuses on the reasons that affect the frequency of young adults in Luton and increases the rate of liver cancer. The direct approach is made to the people in the hospital as this will notify the number of people who are admitted due to overconsumption of alcohol (Neta, et. al., 2015). They are the right source for giving the authenticated information to the main approach is made towards them. On the other hand, journals that specify the reasons, factors, risks due to which public policies and practices are impacted are targeted (Green, et. al., 2015). The journals which specify the youngsters who suffer from liver cancer due to overconsumption of alcohol will be taken into valuation so that research could be made with proper information and data.


From the above research, it is demonstrated that overconsumption of alcohol can make the consumers prone to serious and chronic diseases which are not easy to cure. Chronic diseases are a long term disease that harms the physical and mental health of the people. This also identifies that high intake of alcohol directly affects the liver of a human being which is an important organ of the body. The damage of the liver can make the person prone to death or may make the person to suffer from serious ill threats. The research will identify the spread of liver cancer in Luton that is due to the intake of alcohol in higher frequency. The focus is on the prevalence rate of young adults who are in the habits of consumption of alcohol due to one or the other factor. The reasons that are identified with the use of the quantitative method and collecting data from the people are lack of education, stress and depression that exist among the young adults. The pressure that is exerted on them makes them indulge in the wrongful activities. The quantitative method is useful in the research as this makes the data to be presented and collected in a statistical manner. The lack of time and rigidity of people create hurdles for the completion of the survey which is essential in the research for the information and data. The data and information collected from the sources need to be ethical so that it would not be bound for any legal obligation.

The research in future can be made by assessing the entire country so that the number of people who are suffering from such diseases can be assessed. This will also focus on findings on various aspects from a large number of people so that it would be easy to calculate. Another research can also be made on a number of diseases that take place due to overconsumption of the alcohol, smoking or ill habits of people. The focus can also be made on the effect that public policies and practices has due to a number of factors in the places. The research can be made by taking a wide topic into consideration so that data could be made and accessed in an accurate manner.

The research needs to be made with an accurate and desired manner with the collection of data that is suitable for the research. The above research has been made with the information and data that was required in the research with the use of SPSS software. This makes the clarity in the facts and figures which are easy to understand.


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