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Research Methodologies

2. Research Methodology

2.1 Introduction

This chapter plays a vital role in terms to outline the strategies and methods for the collection, analysis of data and helps to present such facts in order to gain right set of research outcome. However, this research methodology offers the valuable platform for achieving the research objective and aim which is to identify whether business international market expansion is worthy or not. This question will be addressed in this study and try to find out the relevant solution for it.

In respect to achieve the solution of this research problem, there are different methodologies are undertaken including research philosophies, approach, design, data collection and sampling method which helps the researcher to design, analyze and present the research properly to the reader (Basias and Pollalis, 2018). It helps them to understand it and develop a conclusion about the research study.

This research study major focus is to prove the null hypothesis i.e. there is the positive impact of business expansion over the business sales and revenue generation. For this, the researcher undertakes various strategies to prove it. Likewise, they majorly rely on the data collection and data analysis method for generating the right research result as without getting the relevant facts, a researcher won’t be able to develop the right set of research solutions (Elliott et al., 2012).

Thus, the gathering of data in the proper manner is an important aspect for researchers in order to prove that international expansion of business is worthy if it is implemented appropriately. Hence, this chapter is brief about the research strategies and design that researcher take to prove this study and achieve the right set of research results and outcomes.

2.2 Research Question

This study will address the research question in order to identify the solution of those questions and critically analyze the study. Here are the research questions for this study:-

  • How international expansion proves to be worthy for business?
  • What are the challenges that occur with the international business expansion?
  • What are the ways that help the business to successfully execute or manage its business on the international market?

On the basis of these questions, it will become easy to figure out all areas that benefit the business with the expansion and able to identify the challenges that occur. So, this study will outline the positive as well as the negative scenarios of international business expansion.

Other than that, these questions will also specify that what all benefits firms gain with the international market exposure. So, this question could help the researcher for proving the null hypothesis which stated that international expansion proves to be worthy for the business for a longer period of time.

2.3 Research Objectives

On the basis of research questions, here are the research objectives for the study. These objectives prove to be effective for accomplishing the positive research result.

  • To define the meaning of international expansion along with the types of business expansion
  • To identify the benefit of international expansion of business
  • To study the challenges that businesses faced while exploring new market
  • To suggest the ways for implementing the successful business expansion

The objective can help to critically analyze the international business expansion strategy and its impact on business. At the same time, the accomplishment of these objectives definitely assists to prove the null hypothesis for the research.

2.4 Research Philosophy

Research philosophy is considered as a belief about the way the data is gathered, analyzed and used. In context to this study, the ontological philosophy is being adopted as it reflects an interpretation of the facts. This means that this philosophy helps the researcher to gain an in-depth understanding of the research study and based on this allows them to analyze, interpret and summarise the data (Mohajan, 2018).

Thus, it can be stated that ontological research philosophy is well suited to the given study to accomplish the research results. Other than that, the evidence like journal articles and online papers could clearly reflect the significance or benefits of international expansion of business. This philosophy also assists to prove the null hypothesis in a suitable manner.

2.5 Research Design and Method

With respect to the research study objectives, the deductive approach will be used as the literature review or different journal articles suggest various papers or knowledge about the given research topic (Peers, 2018). This approach also helps to prove the hypothesis i.e. international expansion proves to be worthy for the business in term to gain benefit of sales and large customer interaction. The deductive approach helps the researcher to develop new findings which provide the relevant or right research result by covering the current scenario.

The adaptation of the right research design is another important area for the researcher in order to gain the right research study. In respect to this study, the quantitative research study is well appropriate as this design helps the researcher to gain the facts on the basis of actual observation and survey (Saunders and Bezzina, 2015). Thus, this research design is much worthy of the research study for accomplishing the goals.

The primary method will be used to collect the data as it assists the researcher to collect the bulk data within a short span of time. This methodology also presents the actual reaction of people towards the study. For this study, 100 employees of the UK retail sector are targeted to get the relevant responses over the topic of the expansion strategy.

This methodology is well suited to this study as the survey method helps the researcher to know that whether the expansion of the business into the foreign market is suitable and this knowledge is gained with the response of employees. The respondents are those people who are part of the expansion so they have the best facts about this question. This area provides a reliable research outcome so, it can be stated that respondents are selected for this study proves to be effective for achieving the right research outcome.

The research strategy helps to ensure that the given topic offer detailed information or not. The reason behind this is to undertake the strategy for guiding the researcher in the right direction. In context to this study, the researcher selected the survey method in order to achieve the research result. This method is quite relevant as the survey method allows to gaining bulk facts related to the topic (Padilla-Díaz, 2015).

It also gives chance to researchers to make interpretations on the basis of personal observation which they do at the time of the survey. Thus, the survey methodology is appropriate for this study. The questionnaires are developed in this method and it is sent through emails or some distribute personally. At the same time, close-ended questions are focused more on the preparation of questionnaires. Thus, these areas make the survey process more relevant.

This is another yet effective research method for selecting the right respondent to get a proper set of information. The selection of respondent is quite critical act as the entire study is largely depend upon the respondent and their responses as the study is processed through the given facts.

In relation to select the respondent, there are two types of method outline such as random and non-random methods. The random method is one in which people are selected randomly without including any pattern or strategy to select a particular individual (Jamshed, 2014). On the other hand, the non-random method involves the selection of people based on judgments and patterns.

In this study, the researcher will be used the random-sampling method this study as it is best suited in references to provide detailed information about the research topic. However, the random method also reduces the chances of business in the survey activity which gives rise to the relevant research result or outcome. Therefore, the random sampling method proved to be effective for this research study.

2.6 Data Analysis

In order to analyze the data, the quantitative method will be used to collect the facts. It is done through the survey method. There are 100 employees are selected for the research sample. The researcher will analyze the collected data through the use of SPSS software which is quite relevant to analyze the data and interpret it properly to readers. The presentation of graphs and tables allows the reader to understand the facts appropriately and be able to develop the conclusion (Csikszentmihalyi and Larson, 2014).

This data analysis process definitely provides the best interpretation and analysis within which the researcher properly create the conclusion and provide the right guidance to the varied new or existing firm about the significances of business expansion on the international market. However, this is the major step of the methodology part as without it researcher is unable to present the facts properly. The data analysis section includes the process of collected data and it is an essential component in regards to ensure that data integrity is accurate and appropriate analysis of research finding. Basically, this section helps to examine the finding for reaching the research result.

2.7 Ethical Consideration

Ethical consideration is considered an important aspect of the research study as it helps the researcher to reach the right research result. However, the researcher needs to focus on certain aspects such as protecting the respondent personal facts from unauthorized access.

Other than that, the researcher also requires to focus on the secondary methodology through undertake the plagiarism or copyright areas as these are the common issue that occurred often. At the same time, the researcher should also focus on the research report guidelines so that each and every aspect of work can be covered and there is no chances of mistakes occur in the research work (Rahi, 2017). Thus, these ethical considerations definitely prove to be useful for the firm in terms to collect the right and relevant data for the research study and reach towards the right outcome.

Other than that, researcher should focus on the researcher team in respect to analyze whether they are conducting the survey properly or just showing the artificial facts in study without making any research work. This unethicality usually occurs when the research result presents an unfavourable analysis or solution to study. There are five principles that will use to carry out the research study in an ethical manner. It includes autonomy, justice, beneficence, and non-maleficence etc.

2.8 Validity and Reliability

It is stated that the researcher will use the quantitative methodology for this research study in order to reach the right research result. However, they also undertake the survey method for proving the null hypothesis and for this, the survey methodology is reliable as with the responses of employees, the researcher able to justified that whether expansion on international level proves to be significant for them or not.

This area also helps the reader to practically validate the study. The example based on UK famous firms like McDonald’s, Nike and many more clearly justified that expansion on the different markets helps them to gain larger customer base and recognition along with the high chances to increase the revenue or sales (Martínez-Mesa et al., 2016).

In addition to this study, the collected data from the research survey may successfully validate the research study as survey questions clearly directed or targeted towards the international expansion and its impact on the business. Moreover, the respondents also are the people of the retail industry.

So it becomes easy to understand that whether expansion strategy proves to be effective for business sustainability or should the firm avoid this strategy (Acharya et al., 2013). Thus, the employee’s responses are the major sources within which the expansion importances are achieved. That’s why it can be depicted that the research methodology of this study is able to validate the research result properly.

2.9 Timescale

This section presents the duration of the completion of the research study. It is found that this research study includes varied activities so it may take quite high time to reach the research result or outcome.

Activities 1 week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week
Approval of Research title
Literature Review
Research question
Research objective
Research methodology
Submission of the research report 

References

Acharya, A.S., Prakash, A., Saxena, P. and Nigam, A., 2013. Sampling: Why and how of it. Indian Journal of Medical Specialties4(2), pp.330-333.

Basias, N. and Pollalis, Y. 2018. Quantitative and qualitative research in business & technology: Justifying a suitable research methodology. Review of Integrative Business and Economics Research7, pp.91-105.

Csikszentmihalyi, M. and Larson, R., 2014. Validity and reliability of the experience-sampling method. In Flow and the foundations of positive psychology (pp. 35-54). Springer, Dordrecht.

Elliott, H., Ryan, J. and Hollway, W., 2012. Research encounters, reflexivity and supervision. International Journal of Social Research Methodology15(5), pp.433-444.

Jamshed, S., 2014. Qualitative research method-interviewing and observation. Journal of basic and clinical pharmacy5(4), p.87.

Martínez-Mesa, J., González-Chica, D.A., Duquia, R.P., Bonamigo, R.R. and Bastos, J.L., 2016. Sampling: how to select participants in my research study?. Anais brasileiros de dermatologia91(3), pp.326-330.

Mahajan, H.K., 2018. Qualitative research methodology in social sciences and related subjects. Journal of Economic Development, Environment and People7(1), pp.23-48.

Padilla-Díaz, M., 2015. Phenomenology in educational qualitative research: Philosophy as science or philosophical science. International Journal of Educational Excellence1(2), pp.101-110.

Peers, D. 2018. Engaging Axiology: Enabling Meaningful Transdisciplinary Collaboration in Adapted Physical Activity. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly35(3), 267-284.

Rahi, S., 2017. Research design and methods: A systematic review of research paradigms, sampling issues and instruments development. International Journal of Economics & Management Sciences6(2), pp.1-5.

Saunders, M.N. and Bezzina, F., 2015. Reflections on conceptions of research methodology among management academics. European management journal33(5), pp.297-304.

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