Research Proposal

Research Proposal

Answer One: Drafting a research proposal


In order to collect the opinions and views of staff including managers and delivery people, a qualitative approach is used over the quantitative research approach. In the research methodology, qualitative research approach deals with qualitative data. It does not describe data in the qualitative form or numerically in nature. The data collected through the qualitative approach are not measurable.

On the other hand, quantitative research is opposite of the qualitative research. Under the qualitative research, the research will collect the data and information by conducting interviews (O’reilly and Parker, 2013). For this, the researcher will ask a set of questionnaire that will help to know the opinions of the participants on the improvement of the workplace in the context of employees’ health and safety.


The main objective of this research study is to identify the ways to improve the workplace in the context of employees’ health and safety. In regard of this, the research will collect the views and opinions of the managers and delivery people to enhance their safety at the workplace (Smith, 2015).

In order to collate data, the researcher will select 20 participants includes both male and female. In this, five managers and 15 delivery people of Quick and Fast Courier Company will be participants. Furthermore, the researcher will prepare a set of questionnaire that will contain some relevant questions on the improvement the workplace safety (Silverman, 2016).

The researcher will take interviews of each participant and recode their response carefully. Along with this, the research will also maintain that demography information of the participants such age, gender, designation and work experience etc. It will help to represent the data in the understandable format.

Moreover, the researcher will use the data analysis technique to evaluate the collected data for accomplishing the research objectives and developing valid results. For this research will use the content data analysis technique that will present research outcomes in readable and easily understandable format (Taylor, et al. 2015).

Question Two: Research in financial reporting

  1. A)

The agency theory in the business environment determines the relationship between the agents in the business and business principles. The agency theory is focused on the problem resolving skills that are essential for an organisation to minimise the cost of the firm.

Typically, the agency theory is helpful to identify the issues and problem that happed due the different between the goals and desires between the principles and agents.

In the business firm, it is possible that the principle is not aware of the agent’s action and allocated resources for hiring the information (Liamputtong, 2013). The agency theory finds the executive compensation in the organisation that comes in the principal mechanisms alleviating the agency problem between the stock holder and managers.

However, a decrease in the organisational financial performance does not affect fixed compensation of the employees and managers. In the same concern of this, an increase in the financial performance of the company does not lead to decrease in the fixed compensation in the employees and managers of the firm.

But, on the other hand, due to the problem of the agency theory an influence in the financial performance affect the incentives of the employees that depend on the level of influence in the financial performance (Lewis, 2015).

  1. B)

Stakeholder theory is also a significant theory that is helpful to explain and understand several kinds of the relationship in the business. This theory is an alternative of agency theory, and both theories are able to identify the business challenges.

In this, the nature of the problem is not certain, it may be possible that problem rises due to the genuine misinformation (Mertens, 2014). The stakeholder theory determines the development of the organisation as a collection of the various people with the different interest and purpose.

Question Three: Research in auditing

  1. A)

In the research study, the aim of using the null hypothesis is to reject the hypothesis that has made by the researcher. The null hypothesis is opposite of the alternative research hypothesis. The research study conducted by A G Chandana Gunathilaka on the “Sri Lanka: The Role of Policy Makers” develops the below hypothesis (Neuman and Robson, 2014).

H1:  There has not impact of any lower the expectations gap.

H2: There has not significant perceptual difference about detection and prevention of frauds.


The research study of the A G Chandana Gunathilaka achieves the research aim and objective effectively. In this research study was an aim to examine the expectation differences among auditors and society regarding auditor responsibility.

This research study also checks the reliability of the audit function and measures the usefulness of audit (Creswell, 2013). In this research, the researcher collected the views and opinions of 252 participants that are selected randomly.

On the other hand, the research study is conducted by the Albert Agye with Baah Kusi Aye and Ebenezer Owusu-Yeboah. The main aim of this research study was to develop the understanding of the difference between what the public expects auditors to do and what auditors do.

In this research study, the research is used the qualitative research approach. In this research, it is concluded that there are a different expectation of the users of the auditing (Riff, et al, 2014). It is also found that in auditing process external auditors play a significant role.

  1. C)

From the above study, it is found that audit process is significant for a company to identify the financial risk in the income statement of the company.

Along with this, it is found that audit process is important for an organisation to minimise the fraud activities in the organisation (Punch, 2013).

Question Four: Evaluating research


In this, both qualitative and the qualitative research design (Mixed) have been used for the two studies. It is because it helped to get the data in the data in the numerical format for getting the maximum repose about the wear expensive clothes. As well as, the mixed method also to get the clear views about why the people pay to wear expensive clothes.


From the interview outcomes, it is determined that in order to complete the self esteem and to manage the standard of living, most of the people like to wear the high rates of clothes. Additionally, it is also clarified that most of the rich people, women and the celebrity like to wear the expensive clothes.

But at the same time, it is not clear that only rich people and the women only like to wear the clothes wear. It is because there are different individuals who like to wear the expensive clothes (Patten, 2016). It is because it depend the income of the people and the disposable income. Because of this, these results of the interviews are not clear about the use of high rate clothes.


No, from the reading of the article, it can be determined that if a person going to give the interview then there will be not the major impact of the costly clothes on their selection. It also doesn’t help to receive a higher salary. It is because the interviewer doesn’t consider the wearing of the clothes it just noticed the way of wearing the clothes.

Along with this, it will just help them to show a professional person and will also help to give the interview effectively but the selection of the person will depend on their interview and the knowledge. Because of this, it can be determined that there is not any vital importance of wearing the clothes to hire for the job and receive a higher salary (Smith, 2015).


There are different factors that influence the people donations aside from the clothes. In this, the living standards of the other people, to self esteem, to increase the personal status, etc are the major factors that directly influence the people to provide the donations from the clothes.

Question Five: Quantitative and qualitative interviews

  1. A)

In the research, there are two types of the research questionnaires that are qualitative and quantitative. They both questionnaire include some the questions. There are three kinds of the questions that are descriptive research question, comparative research question, and relationship based research question.

Through the descriptive research question, the research describes the variables that researcher has to measure (Zablotsky, et al 2015). Through the comparative research question, the researcher examines the variance between two or more variables in which one is dependent, and other are independent.

In additionally, by the help of the relationship research question, the research tries to find out relationship. These questions are asked in the interviews of the quantitative studies to achieve the research objectives. Along with this, these are also asked in interviews to answer the research questions.

  1. B)

In the qualitative research study, there are two types of the questions that are asked in the research. In the qualitative research, the research can ask open ended and close ended questions with the participants. In this, open ended allows the participants to provide their views openly.

Beside of this, the close ended question allows the interviewee to give responses from the available opinions (Silverman, 2016). The main aim of using these questions in the qualitative research is to avoid the use of quantitative words such as relate, influence, effect, and cause.

In the qualitative research interview, by the help of these questions, the researcher tries to collect the data and information on the behaviour, experience, opinions, belief, feelings, knowledge, sensory, background on the participants.

Question Six: The role of variables in quantitative studies

  1. A)

In the views of Sekaran and Bougie, (2016), the variable is known as an aim, event, idea, feeling, period, object and another kind of category. The main purpose of the variables plays in quantitative studies is to establish a relationship between the independent variable and the outcomes variables.

It will help to generate the valid the effective outcomes of the issues and for any research. Along with this, it also has an aim to identify and determine the phenomena that observation reflects with numerical presentation and manipulation of the observation.


In each research, the researcher has an aim that is achieved by the researcher in the future. In the same concern of this, the research topic also includes some variables. The research variables are the base of any research. In the research methodology, it is important to know what variables are.

A variable is known as the anything that has quality and quantity that varies. Nevertheless, in the research, there are three kinds of variables that are independent variable, dependent variable and control variable (Kaur, 2013). In this, each variable has different characteristics that are explained below:

Independent Variable: – The independent variables are those variables, whose variable does not depend on another variable. It stands alone and does not change with the other variable, whose value is to be measured.

But, at the same time, the independent variable is able affect the dependent variable. It is a kind of variable that is used to measure the influence on the dependent variable (Neuman and Robson, 2014).

Dependent Variable: – The dependent variables are those variables, which depend upon other variable or factors. It does not stand alone and keeps on changing with the other variable, whose value is to be measured (Lewis, 2015).

In the research methodology, the researcher is more depended on the dependent variable. To measure changes in the dependent variable is the primary aim of the researcher in the research. For this researcher uses the various techniques.

Control Variable: – The control variable is an element, which does not change in the entire experiment. It is because there is an unchanging state in control variable that creates relationship among different variables, which are to be tested for developing better understanding (Mertens, 2014).


Creswell, J.W. (2013) Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. USA:  Sage publications.

Kaur, S.P. (2013) Variables in research. Indian J Res Rep Med Sci, 4, pp.36-8.

Lewis, S. (2015) Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches. Health promotion practice, 16(4), pp.473-475.

Liamputtong, P. (2013) Qualitative research methods.

Mertens, D.M. (2014) Research and evaluation in education and psychology: Integrating diversity with quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods. Sage publications.

Neuman, W.L. and Robson, K. (2014) Basics of social research. Canada: Pearson.

Neuman, W.L. and Robson, K. (2014) Basics of social research. UK: Pearson.

O’reilly, M. and Parker, N. (2013) ‘Unsatisfactory Saturation’: a critical exploration of the notion of saturated sample sizes in qualitative research. Qualitative research, 13(2), pp.190-197.

Patten, M.L. (2016) Questionnaire research: A practical guide. UK: Routledge.

Punch, K.F. (2013) Introduction to social research: Quantitative and qualitative approaches. USA: Sage.

Riff, D., Lacy, S. and Fico, F. (2014) Analyzing media messages: Using quantitative content analysis in research. UK: Routledge.

Sekaran, U. and Bougie, R. (2016) Research methods for business: A skill building approach. USA: John Wiley & Sons.

Silverman, D. ed. (2016) Qualitative research. USA: Sage.

Smith, J.A. ed. (2015) Qualitative psychology: A practical guide to research methods. USA: Sage.

Smith, J.A. ed. (2015) Qualitative psychology: A practical guide to research methods. USA: Sage.

Taylor, S.J., Bogdan, R. and DeVault, M. (2015) Introduction to qualitative research methods: A guidebook and resource. USA: John Wiley & Sons.

Zablotsky, B., Black, L.I., Maenner, M.J., Schieve, L.A. and Blumberg, S.J. (2015) Estimated prevalence of autism and other developmental disabilities following questionnaire changes in the 2014 National Health Interview Survey.          



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