SP0748 The Research Process Assignment Sample

Assignment 2 (SP0748 The Research Process Assignment Sample)

Task 5: Qualitative Analysis

The procedure of data analysis in the current context consists of a thorough analysis of interviews that had been conducted and recorded. Interviews helped provide a clear idea about interpretations made by common people when it came to a given case.  Interviews have also helped in providing a clear idea about the opinions and perceptions of individuals when it came to a given scenario (Lee, 2018). It has also helped in identifying different patterns present, along with interests that are common among participants of the interview. Following the procedure is important as it helps provide a clear-cut idea about how participants banded together to work on a given cause. One aspect that is very evident from the interview process is the difference of opinion and thoughts which also highlights the fact that it is difficult for such aspects to be developed separately by a researcher.

A closer look at the study will highlight the fact that a separate coding procedure has been taken into consideration which has helped in providing clarity on how interpretations have been made. Use of this procedure has also helped in further identifying and analyzing research questions that had been presented. As it can be seen from the case study, a huge change has taken place with the community leisure center in the community facing closure. As a result, residents of the area have taken it upon themselves to work as a community and stop the leisure center from being closed (Oršolić et al. 2021). However, the project has turned out to be very challenging for the community, of which the major reason is low human resources. As a result, the community has come together and banded together by transferring this project into a long-term goal which would help them save the center along with managing their work. Responsibility has been adequately divided amongst volunteers in the community. This had a significant effect on the entire community as the center became more productive with more people joining in and providing support. This also helped the community-led center include more new activities which further increased the popularity of the center.

Coding of interview transcripts into separate themes had a significant effect on how the analysis was conducted. There have been four major aspects based upon which coding and analysis have been conducted, namely, management structure, financial constraints, community support, and role of sponsors and subsequent popularity. Based upon these four aspects, analysis was conducted which helped in gaining clarity on how each element had a role to play in making community projects successful. The management structure outlined the role community people played by dividing responsibilities amongst themselves and developing a structure. Financial constraints outlined funding issues that were faced by communities and areas that suffered as a result of constraints (Lauersen et al. 2018). Community support outlined the role of volunteers in taking up responsibilities and acting on them responsibly. Lastly, sponsorship referred to entities that came forward to support initiative and popularity, which brought in more funds.

Quotes Lower Order Themes Higher-Order Themes
“They said, they made a promise that if we got into financial trouble in the first 2 years that they would, they would help us, in inverted commas, but they didn’t ever really say what that help would be.” 1.1 The issue in the transfer of power 1.Management Issue
“I think for us it’s the businesses in town and the surrounding areas understand more of what we’re about so in terms of how we operate we do make a surplus, where that surplus goes and they’re keen to help support it and to keep it going really so even things like free room hire through to discounted leaflet printing, free support with fundraising events.” 1.2 Division of work responsibility
“I think people that come and give up their time free of charge are supported by the customers.” 1.3 Human resource Availability
“…but it was only kind of came to look at the facility and I said we got some publicity out of it and so did he so I wouldn’t say it was all one-way in terms of he was looking for some points to score but in terms of our district council I pretty much have no contact.  “ 1.4 Limited Support from the Council
“They came back with you’ve got a massive surplus so you’re being greedy now, you can afford that. So I say ah okay.. [laughs] So sometimes it works, yeah, against us doing well!” 2.1 Lack of funds 2. Financial Constraints
“So I did at the meeting about, you know, let’s all get together and do this. And then, started to work with the people that sort of expressed interest, started to work with those people organizing meetings to try and rally everybody around together to try to create a steering group. “ 3.1 Flexibility 3. Community Support
“I think we had about two years left and they wouldn’t take it on that principle so we had to apply to the Council for an extension.” 3.2 Time constraint
“Not so much, the day-to-day management we see as a skilled salaried team to coordinate the volunteers so that would be myself and the rest of the full-time staff kind of coordinating the volunteers so mainly the volunteers do a variety of roles such as life-guarding, reception, maintenance, gardening.” 3.3 Volunteers
“…they gifted us a massive inflatable that we use for summer holidays, and it’s got a shark on it and they can walk the plank and stuff, and so it’s good for kids.” 4.1 Funding Sources 4. Role of Sponsors
“The Directors did that, I’m trying to think, then we had some monies from a loan from some organisation to pay the staff while we were closed because we didn’t want to lose the staff.  Obviously we’ve had some monies coming in.” 4.2 Loans
“It is a charitable Trust.  We had to apply for charitable status and the Trust section wasn’t too bad at all.  The charitable status was more of an ongoing affair.” 4.3 Local sponsors

 Table 1: Separation of themes

 Task 6: Quantitative Analysis

The following test has helped in comparing the means of two independent groups to help determine evidence that has been presented (Liu, 2019). As it can be seen from the table below that people were more excited and likely to watch the game when provided with season tickets. The reason is that mean for season tickets has been estimated at M=1.62, and standard deviation has been estimated at SD=0.82. The t-value has been estimated at, t=-1.48 for franchise and, t=-5.4 for season tickets. As it can be seen that franchise is not important when it comes to season tickets, as mean for franchise has been estimated to be at M=3.66 and SD=1.30. Hence, it can be stated that fans are more engaged in the game when provided with season tickets and can see the game in person rather than on TV.

It is therefore evident from analysis that fans become more engaged in the game when they are provided with season tickets and can catch action live. A franchise is not as important as watching a game live which has been proven from the significant difference present between mean and standard deviation values.

A closer look at the correlation table highlights how important season tickets are for fans, as it is significant at 0.000 level of significance when compared to watching NFL on television. The same is also significant with the number of games fans can catch life, which has been estimated at 0.017 level of significance (Abebe, 2019). Considering the case of correlations (where p=0.01) it has been found that season tickets play an important role in influencing the decision of fans regarding the game.The same is also the case for the rest of the values where each of them is significant, showing that fans are more engaged with live-action when it comes to watching sports. [Refer to Appendices]

Task 7: Qualitative Discussion

A closer look at Task 5 has highlighted those four separate themes had been used to interpret and analyze the interview. As it has been evident from the interviews, when it came to management, the community suffered significantly due to a lack of support from the council. The issue was evident right at the beginning of transfer and the council also did nothing at the later stages when the community was struggling to get the leisure center up and running. Secondly, when it came to the finances, the council made a little contribution towards the reformation of the leisure center (Chen et al. 2019). Despite promising to help, they showed no inclination to follow up on the promise made. This caused a lot of financial challenges, leading to cost pile-up and delays in renovations.

Thirdly, when it came to community support, the number of volunteers was not enough to finish the entire project on time. Furthermore, the volunteers had their own lives and responsibilities which made it difficult to provide their complete attention to the leisure center project. Lastly, the number of sponsors was few and the contributions were not of significant amounts, as a result managing the budget took on a lot of time. Furthermore, the popularity of the center also happened much later, with the major bulk of work done with financial issues.

 Task 8: Quantitative Discussion

The t-test results have made it evident that fans are more eager to watch the game live through the use of season tickets than catching the show on television. This shows that fans feel a stronger connection when they can watch the game on the field and thereby making them have a strong attachment to the game. Furthermore, being on the field provides a different sort of thrill factor which is subsequently absent on the television sets.

Studies have shown that football fans feel more emotional and connected with their teams when attending the games on the field. It has also been found from the t-test that the franchise is not important when compared to going to the field. Fans would take any kind of season tickets they get if they learn to watch the match on the field (Lester et al. 2020). However, it should be noted that the number of games being played per season is important and is a deciding factor when it comes to buying tickets. A strong correlation has also been observed when it came to attending matches and buying tickets for the season, rather than watching the game on TV. Therefore, it can be stated that fans are more compelled to catch the game on the field than the TV when given a chance.

Task 9: Research Proposal

Proposed title of Research
Identifying the preference of football fans when it comes to watching a live game at the stadiums: is affordability of tickets a major issue?
Aim and Research Questions
The aim of the paper is to identify whether the ticket prices have a role to play when it comes to football fans watching a game live at the stadium. It is important to note that ticket prices have a great influence on the decision of fans of whether to watch a game at the stadium or catch it on TV. One of the reasons that can be outlined is the rising ticket prices of football games, which has already caused a lot of uproar for football fans across the UK. Football games in the UK have significant impact on the minds of the football fans. It should be noted that the level of impact varies depending upon the attachment a fan has with the game. It has been found that fans who care little about the number of games that have been able to watch in a season are not affected by whether they watch the game on TV or not. It has been found that fans are more eager to watch live games compared to watching the games on TV. Thus, it can be stated that the level of emotional attachment is significantly less for this section of people and thus, makes it easier to watch the game on TV instead. There is significant research conducted in this field that has stated that there exists a certain group of fans who were found not watching the game even when it was on TV because of the likelihood of not being able to purchase a ticket. Such fans can be categorized as people whose commitment to the game is on the extreme (Jenkins et al. 2018). The factor of financial ability plays a significant role in assessing the ability of the fans to watch a game live. Thus, the price of tickets has the ability to influence an individual to decide whether to go to the stadium or stay at home and catch the game on TV. This group of fans believes that unless provided with a live experience, it is better to avoid watching the game at all. Considering the case of NFL it has been found that the level of frenzy about the game is similar to what is found in the UK. However, when it comes to the UK fans, they are more committed towards UK football and have little interest towards NFL games in the US. Thus, this highlights the deep-seated commitment that is present in the fans when it comes to football. It has been identified that there lies a different kind of eagerness present in football fans when it comes to buying season tickets. On most accounts the price of these tickets is outrageously high and therefore as a result only a handful of fans are able to purchase the same. However, it has been seen that there is a strong likelihood that people who buy season tickets to catch the game live may incline to be more invested in the game. In fact, when a comparison was drawn it was found that fans who are regulars at buying season tickets to UK football games have a greater likelihood of watching the NFL games on TV when given a chance. Furthermore, it has been seen from several studies, there lies a strong positive relationship when it comes to the number of games attended by a player to purchasing season tickets thereafter. The reason is that fans feel a strong emotional attachment when watching the game on the field, which later compels them to buy season tickets.

The data for this research will be obtained through interviews of local football fans who are regulars to the games. It will mainly focus on the opinion and feelings of the fans and how they feel about both UK football and the NFL in the States. This will also include asking them whether they will watch an NFL game on TV when there is a football game is going on followed by their thoughts on the NFL game. Lastly, it will include asking them about the likelihood of ticket prices playing a role in watching a live game at the stadiums. Interviews will also be conducted with one of the directors of a football club to better understand the reason for price hike in tickets.

Aim and Objectives of the Study

·         What is the role of ticket prices when it comes to watching a live football game and how does it impact a fans decision on watching a football game?

·         How influential are season tickets when it comes to watching a game live or on TV?

·         Why are the UK fans not very receptive towards the NFL and is it the inability to watch a live NFL game an important factor which influences their decision?

Research Activities and Sampling
Considering the structure of the research, a qualitative analysis will be followed in the given paper, based upon interviews that have been conducted beforehand. The use of interviews will provide the participants with an opportunity to express their opinions regarding the subject. The investigator will need to take help from the University to approach the local students, and also make ways to keep in touch with the local fans of the game in the area (Lee, 2018). This will help provide them with an in-depth idea regarding the willingness of the fans to regard the game. There is also the requirement to follow the USA-based franchise games so that a better idea regarding the differences and similarities between NFL and UK Football can be achieved. The use of coding mechanisms and the creation of themes will further help in simplifying the analysis of the given datasets. A purposive sampling method will be used to have a balance present between the populations from whom the data will be gathered. It should also be noted that the participants must be selected in such a way that they have a strong interest in sports especially the NFL and UK Football.
Recruitment and Safety Issues
The investigator will be taking help from the university when it comes to recruiting students who will be a part of the project. As a purposive type of sampling is being used in the research, therefore, the university will be taking the responsibility of asking the students through mail and telephone regarding their participation in the project. The reason why there needs to be permission obtained from the students is that there needs to be greater insight regarding the subject matter and thus the personal opinion and feelings on the subject matter need to be closely monitored in the given scenario. Furthermore, it is important to ensure that the participants are comfortable with the type of questions being asked in the interview. All ethical standards will be maintained in the study, when it comes to maintaining the confidentiality of the participants as per the Data Protection Act 2018 (Oršolić et al. 2021). The maintaining of ethical standards is important as it will provide the participants with the security of their identity remaining anonymous unless asked otherwise. Therefore, all ethical standards will be taken into consideration and maintained while obtaining data from the participants in the study.
Data gathering materials used
The number of participants that will be considered for this given paper has been estimated to be 10 people. Each of the participants will have to sit through an interview that will span a total of 45-60 minutes. The interview will be conducted over online mediums such as Zoom or Skype keeping in mind the current pandemic situation. The questionnaire will consist of open-ended questions which will require the participants to answer them in detail reflecting on their personal experiences that they have regarding the subject matter. The participants in the project will be provided with a sheet that consists of all the details regarding the subject matter along with a consent form (Kruckeberg et al. 2021). Through these documents, the participants will be provided with a clear idea regarding the topic of the subject matter and also give them the option of whether they would like to continue with the interview further. A debrief sheet will also be provided to the participants with the contact number if the participants wisje\s to learn about the outcomes of the paper in the future.

Table 2: Research Proposal

References

O’Connor, C. and Joffe, H., 2020. Intercoder reliability in qualitative research: debates and practical guidelines. International Journal of Qualitative Methods19, p.1609406919899220. Available at: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1609406919899220

Lester, J.N., Cho, Y. and Lochmiller, C.R., 2020. Learning to do qualitative data analysis: A starting point. Human Resource Development Review19(1), pp.94-106. Available at: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1534484320903890

Chen, F., Chen, H., Wu, M., Li, S. and Long, R., 2019. Research on the driving mechanism of waste separation behavior: based on qualitative analysis of Chinese urban residents. International journal of environmental research and public health16(10), p.1859. Available at: https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/16/10/1859/pdf

Jenkins, E.K., Slemon, A., Haines-Saah, R.J. and Oliffe, J., 2018. A guide to multisite qualitative analysis. Qualitative health research28(12), pp.1969-1977. Available at: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1049732318786703

Lauersen, J.B., Andersen, T.E. and Andersen, L.B., 2018. Strength training as superior, dose-dependent and safe prevention of acute and overuse sports injuries: a systematic review, qualitative analysis and meta-analysis. British journal of sports medicine52(24), pp.1557-1563. Available at: https://bjsm.bmj.com/content/bjsports/52/24/1557.full.pdf

Kruckeberg, B.M., Chahla, J., Moatshe, G., Cinque, M.E., Muckenhirn, K.J., Godin, J.A., Ridley, T.J., Brady, A.W., Arendt, E.A. and LaPrade, R.F., 2018. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of the medial patellar ligaments: an anatomic and radiographic study. The American journal of sports medicine46(1), pp.153-162. Available at: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/0363546517729818

Oršolić, M., Barbaros, P. and Novak, D., 2021. Talent in Sports Is Never Enough: A Preliminary Qualitative Data Analysis. Collegium antropologicum45(1), pp.45-53. Available at: https://hrcak.srce.hr/file/370698

Lee, S.Y., 2018. Analysis of relationship marketing factors for sports centers with mixed methods research. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics. Available at: https://translateyar.ir/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/Analysis-of-relationship.pdf

Liu, C. and Sun, Y., 2019. A simple and trustworthy asymptotic t test in difference-in-differences regressions. Journal of Econometrics210(2), pp.327-362. Available at: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/am/pii/S0304407619300363

Abebe, T.H., 2019. The Derivation and choice of appropriate test statistic (z, t, f and chi-square test) in research methodology. Journal of Mathematics Letters5(3), pp.33-40. Available at: http://article.mathletters.org/pdf/10.11648.j.ml.20190503.11.pdf

Appendices

Independent Sample Test

SP0748 The Research Process Assignment Sample 1

Table 2: Group Statistics (Source: SPSS)

SP0748 The Research Process Assignment Sample 2

Table 3: Independent Sample Test (Source: SPSS)

SP0748 The Research Process Assignment Sample 3

Table 4: Correlation (Source: SPSS)

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