a man with books


Chapter 1: Introduction

1.1. Introduction

Education has been timelessly influencing knowledge, developing morals, and values of human beings along with brushing up skills like communication, efficiency in understanding and dealing with foreign education courses. In other words, this education system in India makes students more capable of coping with every difficult life situation and tame the obstacles both professionally and on one’s own (Dhanaraj and Mahambare, 2019). Even though education is the most efficient enlightener, it is not greeted or embraced by all and sundry. This research has been based on the mobility, increasing numbers of Indian students background study of the evaluation of the fact that Indian students, especially females in numbers, migrate to the U.K. and the responsible factors behind this. The researchers have surveyed that the education system in India, with its deficient and patchy image, has impelled young females to immigrate to the U.K. at a high rate.

Female education is regarded worldwide as an important way of reforming and developing a nation (Marginson, 2016). In this respect, India has remarkably made a difference by educating females of all backgrounds and belonging to any caste female education is considered as a key factor to curb population growth rate, improves their status, and aids their empowerment (Bishwajitet al., 2016). Higher education is not only important for females but also a necessity these days. Proper education has always helped to shape every female’s mind and character, giving them the power to reverse an adverse situation.

However, Gomala and Baluchamy (2018), stated that in India that female education is still contentious, although the scenario is slightly better than in the past, factors like discrimination, dominance, exploitation, and many more have always been there to harm their right to education. In this respect, it can be recognized that willingness and permission to have opportunities in the field of research can be able to find some major issues. Comparatively, on the other hand, an abundance of opportunities, balanced work distribution, fair and symmetrical education structure have grabbed the attention of young females (Melvin and Norrbin, 2017). A systematic and smooth education system has made them eager to move out for a furnished career.  The women literacy rate of the nation simply speaks about unattended education among the female (Dhanaraj and Mahambare, 2019). Limited openings, questionable systems have led females with bigger dreams to have their own decision in education as well as marriages (Hindustan Times, 2020). This indicates that the females living in India are mainly facing this issue in respect of claiming the rights of having higher education and shaping their careers well.

1.2 Background of the Research

Migration of young Indian women and issues faced by them

According to various reports, it has been found that there had been a rapid increase in the rate of international student migration. Despite this, there are minimum sources that provide further data regarding the same and represent explicit comparison. Various case studies that have been prepared are analyzed in a comparative manner to a certain depth. According to a source, it could be stated that around 63 per cent of Indian students choose to pursue their education in the UK (GOV.UK, 2020). The education of women has been mainly targeted for the improvement of their own status as well as the broader empowerment of women within the nation (Gautam, 2018). However, in modern India, a huge amount of individuals have started believing inequality in terms of education. It has been suggested that the concept of female education might prove to be different in bringing about the growth of India to a certain level and hence help in potentially achieving more than expected (Hirudayaraj and Doshy, 2018). Apart from this, higher education had also been considered as a vital factor for creating a particular future that is suitable in nature for females within the society.

However, the current scenario regarding the females and their education in India had been questionable in reaching up to various communities in India clarifies the fact reaching up to various communities in India clarify the fact that various issues exist relevant to females that stay in a higher level of education (Singh, 2016). There had been recorded various instances in which females had been suffering from educational discrimination. This particular situation has been alarming Gujarat, where the level of education provided to women is much lower compared to other states. These imply the fact that there exist those results in hindering the women living in Gujarat from staying in and carry out their higher education. This particular research had been fundamental for various reasons. Gujarat has been considered as a particular State located in India that is industrially developed (Dung, 2019).

According to some statistics, in the past decade around 27,000 Indian women had been benefited from the leading education system that persists in the UK. The UK had been considered as a home for three among the top ten universities in the world (Sro.Sussex.ac. the UK, 2020). More than 1400 walk-ins had been recorded at the current Study UK Fair that was held in New Delhi that provided students with a certain opportunity for interacting with various representatives from more than 50 universities located in the UK. India seems to have taken its initiative in developing the literacy rates among Indian women, opening some active sources and channels like missionary foundations as well (Flemming, 2019). This signified that the fact that the female takes these advantages may bring some positive changes within the environment of the nation as well. In spite of having rich resources, India’s promising approach towards these young females living in India seems to be changing gradually with time with technical innovation as well as changing social perceptions (Hindustan Times, 2020). However, there has been a growing unemployment ratio in India that has compelled to think about changing few perceptions of young female living in India asking for higher studies in aboard as well as desires to stay with permanent citizenship. In addition, there have been other motivational factors that came out in question and mind that served to find some satisfaction within the minds of the female that tends to make them feel secure in terms of employment internationally more than in India (Duttagupta, 2020). This has created a socioeconomic condition that definitely prioritizes women’s need for education. At the same time, generation after generation women had to face hazards considering education and academics (Szirmai, 2015).

Even now, when the nation has given time and shown care towards educating women by providing reservations, scholarships, these are yet not adequate (Dhanaraj and Mahambare, 2019). The concern is also that women in India in large numbers have procured education but kept looking for employment. This is a major drawback for the country, mainly due to the overcrowding. The system looks poor to provide a career path to any individual (Dung, 2019). This somehow has made the women think of procuring higher degrees, which might be beneficial. This only has made them move out and reach an ideal location like the United Kingdom, having an efficient system and a satisfactory working environment (Basu and Garg, 2017). The systems in the U.K. have bridged the gender gap wisely, but this seems impossible to have every Indian society. In this respect, women who have understood the importance of education and value knowledge have opted to secure educational opportunities as well.

According to Singh and Mukherjee (2018), it has been found that women are facing issues in terms of social barriers in pursuing education Abroad. In this respect, it indicates that women are trying to find an affordable range of course fees to manage their studies and dream out of India. However, major challenges like financial constraints as well as finding a scholarship to reduce the total cost and expenditure for studying abroad (Melvin and Norrbin, 2017). In this particular context, it could be stated that a lack of possibility in the female may not be able to find complete opportunity within the economic development of the nation. In India, women are considered to achieve much lesser education compared to men. According to Duttagupta(2020), cost differential areas might be strengthened in order to gain further options for completing the US /UK education system as well. This particular aspect has reflected that the government has a specific lookout to open wider opportunities abroad as well.

1.3 Rationale of the Research

The young Indian female is more likely to gain knowledge and education from abroad for being independent and better opportunities and having priority-based jobs in the sectors of Technology, as well as in the case of the engineering field as well mainly (Hindustan Times, 2020). It has been worth considering on the basis of the key fact that the majority of Indian women feel the same as well as finds such suitable security in terms of having this possibility in favour of having a suitable opportunity in the U.K. (Schoolapply.co.in, 2020). However, it has been identified that focusing on the majority of scope is concerned; it can be assumed that political impact may have a deeper influence on the young female in finding better scope in studying abroad with visa easily as well as waive off fees as well (Rathore, 2017). In this relation, it can be assumed that the matter has become an evident and integral part of the discussion for processing with the key opportunity of higher study facilities for them.

1.4 Problem Statement

According to an online review, Hindustan Times (2020), it has been identified that the majority of Indian Women students have key issues of getting admission to the university of the U.K. In addition, there are tremendous level challenges in terms of discrimination against priority-based education. At the same time, qualities of education lacks in Indian Women are having some key issues that cannot be avoided so far (Gautam, 2018). There also seems to have funding issues that restrict the hope of studying with visas easily due to the political impact on the nation as well. In this regard, it has been chosen for further investigation to have a better state of economic condition.

1.5 Research Aim

The main aim of the current research is to understand the key factors that could help Indian Women students to pursue higher education abroad. In other words, it is ensuring their stability of career and prospects in the global platform.

1.6 Research Objective

  • To identify the significant factors that enable Indian Women Students to pursue higher education in the U.K.
  • To evaluate the impact of socioeconomic structures and changes faced by the Indian Women Students
  • To identify the role of the state, national and international policies that interacted together in farming the trends for the pursuance of higher education by Indian Women Student

1.7 Research Questions

  • What motivated Indian women students’ decision to study in the UK?
  • What social and educational factors supported their ability to study in the UK?
  • What would be the effective strategies applicable for managing higher education course facility in abroad for Indian Women Students?
  • What are the implications for supporting Indian women students in studying in UK HE institutions?

1.8 Significance of the Research

From the above background research and problems identified that it has been well acknowledged that the majority of Indian females are facing issues of discrimination in terms of gender, race, and cultural backgrounds as well (Basu and Garg, 2017). In accordance with this situation, this research has been chosen for the purpose of establishing the education system in favour of such females so that they can be able to withstand any circumstances in life. Hence, the research has been significant for the very fact that it has focused on the confidential areas of the research as well.

1.9 Thesis Structure

The structure of the report would be based on the systematic process from the first chapter telling about the introduction and the background of research. It would also highlight specifically the problem statement, which is the major problem and the motive of this research to identify it with the in-depth study as well.

The second chapter throws light on the literature review for an in-depth study and analysis of the key concerns with evidence-based secondary data.  At the same time, looking into the core areas of the setup objective, it is expected to find out a real and empirical piece of pieces of evidence as well.

Similarly going further into the research methodology is concerned, it will be analyzed with justifications that which appropriate methodology will be chosen as well as approaches. Along with that, there will be justifications on the basis of how the process of data collection goes on in an organization. Hence, this will be carried out with its discussions as well as analysis of the fourth chapter as well and finding results and ending in the fifth chapter as well as providing recommendations with future scope.

1.10 Summary

The summary of the research throws light upon the key corners and facts that females in India or in Asian nations is influenced by the international culture and norms in fitting themselves in thoughts and perceptions. Therefore, it has shed emphasis on the major concerns like supporting their needs and expectation from the end of the government of the state.

Chapter 2: Literature Review

2.1 Introduction

Literature Review is a chapter that is very crucial to be properly discussed as it helps out the researcher to use various academic journals, and books to understand the theoretical idea about the particular problem that has been observed in the topic. The chapter provides a  clear understanding of the factors that are motivating women students to pursue higher study in the UK and what problems do they face in order to do that. The chapter will critically analyse and discuss the various aspects of the topic in a dialectical way. This literature review would also aim at analyzing the factors responsible for migration of female Indian students to the United Kingdom at a large rate, which would resultantly bring out gaps in the Indian education system, which compel such migration at a higher rate than from most parts of the world. It would also be crucial to establish the various advantages and merits of becoming a part of the education system in the United Kingdom as will be established in the following paragraphs.

2.2 Critically analyse the significance of education amongst the young women

Education systems around the world have a unified goal of imparting education that is not only occupationally viable but also develops analytical thought and application of such analytics to real-world situations. This, in turn, enables students from this system to better envisage their requirements in difficult situations stumbled upon while working professionally as a novel chain of thought is also essential in being able to establish systems of critical approaches to problems which would ideally aid in prompt problem-solving. The following paragraphs will review various researches based on international student migration and their effects relating to female Indian students migrating to the United Kingdom. Education is one of the most fundamental rights presented in India for both a boy and a girl. If an individual is educated enough it is difficult to fool him as he turns out to be a smarter person and comes to know about various facts under the sun. Education level helps in advancing the awareness level of a particular individual (Sahoo, 2020). Decades ago there was a notion in the Indian mindsets that a girl might not need to be that educated like a boy as the boys were considered to be the primary bread earners for the families in the society. However, this perception has transformed lately with the gradual passage of time and the significance of education amongst women too is being realized. However, the rate of women’s education still lacks distinctly when it is compared to other developing countries of the world. Education aids in learning new things, hence a person becomes more evolved and mature. An educated individual is expected to be more practical. India is a third world country, hence it faces a lot of challenges when it comes to poverty. The GDP of India is marginally low as compared to that of other developed nations. As the GDP is low, India faces a huge challenge in allocating ample budget in the education sector, hence people who have merit fail to enjoy adequate resources of learning (Mallick and Rudra, 2020). Due to this aspiring and careerist students go abroad like the UK. Previous researchers have propounded that the rate of Indian students in the UK is around 40%.

Education can often be the bedrock of a more stable financial situation in the lives of people. It is thus essential for all individuals to receive proper education to at least a primary or secondary level in order to equip them for a more efficient and fruitful professional life. Devoid of such a professional life it would also be crucial in embedding a system of rational thought that would equip individuals to more informed decision making. According to Manning, Baruthand Lee (2017), this ability to make informed decisions would aid in creating more diligent and analytical citizens of any jurisdiction who are able to reason and not take spontaneous decisions that have not been adequately analyzed. Thus, responsible and educated citizens especially women in society is one of the most important outcomes of an efficient education system. The more educated a person is the more she or he is likely to minimize the vulnerability within herself and become a more self-dependent entity which is the requirement of humanity. Considering the importance of such education to young Indian women, it would become amply clear by a consideration of the literacy rate of India as a nation. As opined by Agarwallaet al. (2015), India is a country that, despite having vast resources, is unable to provide a literacy rate that would be up to international standards due to its overburdened demographics. This, when coupled with the vast rate of unemployment and abysmal distribution of wealth, would create a socioeconomic condition that does not, in any way, create an ideal situation for academia to be considered a priority. Moreover, the limited opportunities for women and the fact that women were denied education for several generations makes it particularly hazardous for female students to pursue a career under such circumstances. Despite India now giving importance to educating women and even providing for several reservations for women in educational frameworks as well as professional prospects, it has still been unable to adequately provide for promising career options. As stated above, including these conditions, the overgrowing populations seem to distance any individual from being able to provide for a career path or trajectory, which can be viewed as ideal, as stated by Das et al. (2015). Moreover, women in India in the present scenario have a large section of the total population that is educated but is unable to procure employment or satisfactory employment, which is primarily due to the population. The United Kingdom, with its primary application-based education system, is able to provide for ample opportunities of the sort and is thus an ideal location to migrate to under the prevailing circumstances. As opined by manning, Baruthand Lee (2017), it would also ideally ensure that women secure opportunities equal to men in a society, which is a disparity that cannot be bridged within the foreseeable future in India. Higher education in women makes them strong which helps them out to stop any kind of abuse on them. It is a way for upliftment of younger women in society. Exploitation and abuse can be stopped from the root with the help of the system.

2.3 Indian Women Students and their experience in obtaining higher studies in the U.K

Every year more than a million applications are received by universities across the UK but only the brightest of them get an opportunity to pursue their higher studies in these universities. Only a handful of male and female students across the world get the chance to fulfil their dreams (Quaye, Harper and Pendakur, 2019). For every student, the United Kingdom is an obvious and most sought destination for higher education. As the UK is the home to famous higher educational universities of the world such as Cambridge, Oxford etc, all these universities have great educational history and which is why people are likely to pursue their higher studies in the UK. It is no different for the Indian students also. The level of facilities and the extent of exposure the students get in the universities is unmatched as compared to other universities in the world. The great never-ending list of successful alumni are the prove of the conception. The faculty of the different universities spread across the UK has in-depth knowledge of the subject matter and vast experience, which helps the students to outperform their classmates in terms of academics (O’Shea, 2020). Many Indian students also go to the universities of the UK to pursue their higher education but when it comes to the female students from India they face a number of obstacles in getting admission to one of these universities. One of the greatest barriers for female Indian students for obtaining higher studies in the U.K. is the wide difference in culture and customs. Most female students from India are not able to get adapted to the customs and culture of the U.K., and that often makes them socially isolated. The orthodox views of the Indian female students as compared to the liberal views of the people of the U.K. somehow create a barrier for the Indian female students to pursue higher education in one of the universities of the U.K. Another barrier that often comes in front of the female Indian students from pursuing higher studies in the U.K. is the problem of lack of proper communication skills which often hinders the smooth flow of the academic curriculum. This hindrance often creates a gap with the other classmates and also with the professors and creates stress within the female Indian student. Another prime barrier that Indian female students face while pursuing higher studies at the universities of the U.K. is racial discrimination (Lomer and Anthony-Okeke, 2019). Racial discrimination is totally prohibited within the campuses of the universities of the U.K., still such discriminations on the roads, markets, multiplexes, malls, and anywhere outside the campus. This creates a social stigma among the students who often withdraw from the universities during the course of their studies. On the other hand, as expressed by Khoshlessan and Das (2019), these factors are not only creating obstacles but at the same time creating an opportunity for the student to pursue their dreams with utter efficiency. Most of the time the students are unable to get accustomed to this fact and often this has an impact on their psychological status.

2.4.1 Socioeconomic structures and their impact on higher education

In order to understand the socioeconomic factors, it is crucial to understand the background of the social as well as economic situation and context of the factors in the country. According to Flemming (2019), the divide in social stratification and the economic implications of the same are overbearing on a society crafted towards productivity but failing due to its inability to provide for all individuals capable of being productive. On a larger scale, the primary and secondary education that forms the basis of pursuing higher education is based on a flawed public school system that is overrun by inefficient teaching staff and often subject to appalling conditions that would render any interested student redundant in such a system. Moreover, the social stigma relating to the education of women in the lower strata of society is blatantly prevalent in the country. The societal system and the structure makes it difficult for women to pursue education at a higher level as in many cultures, serving the household is considered more important for women than learning or pursuing a career. As opined by Marginson (2016), there is also a massive dearth of scholarships and other programs that would be able to uplift the conditions of the lower strata of society at a greater rate. Thus the socio-economic conditions practically dictate the ability to procure quality education, and it is a disappointing state of affairs for all those below certain strata of society. Kritikos (2014), also observed that the rate of education has been on a steep rise in India in the past few decades; however unemployment is a staggeringly high rate overwhelming the ability of people to secure employment that would be satisfactory. Now coming to the aspect of higher education as established above, the question of such education does not arise unless basic education is first procured by the individual. This is because it may be argued that despite having a dearth of scholarship programs and others of similar nature in the framework of a particular country, the United Kingdom provides ample avenues for such relief sought by migrating students.

On the contrary, Students’ mobility in foreign countries as well as with effective possibility in finding complete knowledge has been pertinent to note that the system of evaluation in the United Kingdom provides for a more productive environment for students to grow due to its grading systems as well as the elimination of the chance of classification based on scores. According to Kritikos (2014), it encourages the use of individual analytical thought and an evaluation of such an analysis as opposed to standardized testing, which has not been seen to provide the most favourable outcomes for education systems. However, these would strongly be dependent on the social-economic condition of the student in question. Moreover, despite having relief programs, education by migrating to the United Kingdom can be viewed as an expensive venture, which is also partly due to the increased cost of living, especially after currency conversions. However, as opined by Szirmai (2015), it would be an ideal environment for the growth of scholars motivated to pursue their respective fields.

2.4.2 Benefits offered by the international study to the Indian women students

Besides a range of obstacles that are faced by the women students belonging to India, there also exists a huge range of benefits that are enjoyed by them. Some of the benefits mentioned below

Quality education: As per Wylie (2020), the United Kingdom had attempted to retain their position as a very popular destination for various international students that owe to its tradition of delivering quality education to the students. The overall standard of providing education as well as research at the universities of UK and colleges is regularly graded and assessed by various official organisations in order to ensure that the benchmarks that had been set are met effectively. The institutes of the United Kingdom had been known to take the responsibility of ensuring the quality as well as standard of various programs. Audits are also performed by the Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education. Various professional bodies are also responsible for guiding the overall curriculum and hence perform certain reviews on every department of the institutes. Apart from this, it is also been found that London has been rated as one of the best student-friendly places in the entire world. This meeting has been provided by the QS rankings in the year 2016.

Opportunities offered by the education system: among the huge range of benefits that are provided to the international students, one more benefit that is offered includes the range of choices in selecting the field that is favourable for the student as well as the institution located in the place. According to Kritikos (2014), the students are offered around 150000 courses in colleges and universities throughout North Ireland, Scotland, England, Wales and some more. The students could directly contact the university and order a prospectus for their reference. Indian women students aspire to pursue a particular master course in the United Kingdom, they might find the one year course of masters program as the biggest advantage. As a result, alternatively, the students could opt for a PHD along with the combination of a master’s program. Help the students to save a year in their education but also reduce the duration of the courses in the United Kingdom. Apart from this, the UK had also attempted to reduce the accommodation as well as tuition cost which helps Indian women students to a greater extent. The education system of the United Kingdom helps in promoting closer interaction between lecturers as well as students and hence provide the overall freedom for combining various subjects in a certain course of study. The support of the English language is offered by most of the institutions in the UK for helping the international students in developing the necessary study along with language skills that are required for completing their academic course effectively. In most cases, the universities offer counsellors as well as advisors for providing data along with support to the Indian women students. These counsellors help the students in getting along with the education system and some more additional aspects in the course.

Strong infrastructure for research: As per Cairns (2014), a particular research student will have the ability to evaluate the overall benefits that are provided by the educational system that prevails in the UK. Various students have noted that the nation puts across around 6.4 % of the journal articles present across the globe, around 11.6% of the citations are available and around 15.9 % of the highest cited articles are also available for the reference of the students. According to the Research Excellence Framework which is known to check the overall quality of the research that has been carried out by around 154 universities is located in the United Kingdom, more than 30% of the research had been classified as world-leading and 46% had been classified as internationally excellent. Around 95, 184 number of degrees in research doctor had been awarded in the United Kingdom from the span of 2018 – 2019 and 2012- 2013.

Working while studying: most of the Indian women students located in the United Kingdom are known to obtain work experience apart from pursuing their studies. The students are offered a particular internship, a part-time job or placement at the time of their vacation. This helped them in developing a huge range of valuable skills that could be added to their CV. A particular word placement has been considered as a part of their study course for some universities, colleges. In some places, the colleges also assist in the process of providing the placement.

Work permit after their study: there had been brought about a huge range of changes in the work visa since the year 2015. The students are allowed to stay back in the United Kingdom after they have completed their graduation if they hold a job offer with a salary of around 20800 pounds. The Indian female students are allowed to stay back in the United Kingdom after the completion of their course and hence look for a job for themselves or pursue further studies. For the purpose of voting in the United Kingdom after the course of the students are over, they require to switch from their four-tier visa to the tier 2 general visa. This will require the Indian female students to apply for a particular work visa and they could opt for the same. This depends on the employment status after the completion of the course of the student.

2.5Factors supporting their social and educational mobility

The UK always has believed in rendering quality education and has maintained a remarkable rank in providing excellence in education. Reviews and analyses are made periodically by official organizations present in the UK to assess whether the standards of teaching are following the predetermined benchmarks or not. The UK comes to be considered as a hot destination for aspiring researchers as the various universities of the country offers diverse programs in the fields of medical sciences, health sciences, community sciences, trade, commerce, and humanities. As discussed in the earlier segment, the UK is a developed nation and it provides the required resources, ranging from scholarships to domains, to the aspiring students that many other countries in the world do not usually provide. Nevertheless, several other factors add to the reason for becoming international students in the UK (Hayes, 2020). One of the most primary factors is the presence of internationally acclaimed and recognized universities and the qualification degrees they offer. For instance, top-notch eminent universities like the University of Oxford, Cambridge University, London Imperial College, and the University of Edinburgh are all from the United Kingdom (Wylie, 2020). The UK offers the benefit of acquiring relevant work experiences while studying. The international students are eligible to gain required skills and expertise while studying, during the time of their vacations, through internships and part-time jobs. Work permits are offered to the international students of the UK after completion of their studies. Furthermore, health benefits are also being given that assimilates.

Judging the premise from a strictly Indian perspective, the key answer to this would be opportunities. The balanced population and system of distribution of wealth, as well as the welfare policies harboured by the United Kingdom, would grant it the position of a particular ideal education system to be a part of as per Cairns (2014). Additionally, there are also ample opportunities for international students to seek employment within the United Kingdom and also gives them access to other opportunities within Europe that would otherwise be unreachable from India or devoid of any education in Europe or the United Kingdom. Thus it would be able to provide a proper education system that is able to nurture students in ways that develop their personalities as well as knowledge. This is crucial as discussed above; analytical thought would be the foundation of responsible citizenship. This is particularly important in the case of international students as a very high percentage seek to retain their right to reside within the jurisdiction and would thus have to be shaped into responsible citizens who would ideally enhance the societal standards prevalent within the United Kingdom as opposed to degrading the same. Thus the United Kingdom has an education system that is effectively able to provide for such a need. This additionally makes the environment ideal for students to venture into various disciplines selected by them.

2.5.1 EG Globalization and internationalization of HE

As influenced by Alldredet al. (2018), stated that globalization and internalization of HE deals with encouraged participation of women and men altogether in association with higher regulatory concerns as well as focusing on self-destructive areas where concrete experiences are meant for self-progress. It determines the fact that the lack of opportunities within India can also be combated through pursuing such education.

However, on the other hand, Guerrero, Cunningham, and Urbano (2015) opined that it would be important to ensure that the right way to implement a productive education system is to provide for one that depends on an evaluation system that fosters growth. It determines the fact that to ensure a lack of opportunities among men and women within such jurisdiction can be handled in a way that truly paves the way to a more empowered system for women. Moreover, it can be quite easily assessed that the population density and demographics in the country would be able to provide for more structured career paths to all individuals, thus being an added advantage to Indian women who are unable to procure the same within their country of domicile. It is important to be discussed to understand why the higher education system of the UK is more attractive and desired for Indian women than in their own country.

2.5.2 Student Mobility and marketization for HE

Students’ mobility is concerned, it cannot be denied from the fact that marketization in higher education courses has influenced the majority of the student studying abroad. Reason (2016), opined that marketing and promotion of the course of study advertised in a banner for highly ambitious professionals cannot be treated as a suitable one in terms of acquiring admission on that basis. It has tried to focus on a key area that some women are more likely to get influenced by the advertisements and tempted to pursue higher education abroad rather than getting formal procedure of adopting the degree in that respect. Based on that concept, an evaluation system that fosters growth, would be impossible to implement a system that can create reasonable and responsible citizens who contribute to the growth of the jurisdiction that they are a part of or aspire to be a part of. This would thus mean that the system is flawed, and it is not able to effectively give the students what they seek to achieve through such education This would eventually translate into a failure of the education system as a whole, and as the United Kingdom has been able to curb any risk of such a situation through centuries of their existing education, it would be unreasonable to expect a degradation of such systems over time.

Other than this, Melvin and Norrbin (2017), commented that it would be essential to provide a system of education that is practical for those opting for the curriculum. This would include enough vocational training to be able to effectively train students for professional fields during the course of their academic pursuits, which the United Kingdom is able to provide efficiently. To conclude, it would be amply evident that due to the prevailing condition of the education system in India, the United Kingdom is a viable and valid option for various students who seek to procure satisfactory employment. It would also be pertinent to note that this would be especially enhanced for female students from India due to the lack of equal opportunities in the jurisdiction. The ability of the education system in the United Kingdom to create an environment that breeds analytical and rational thinking is one of the primary reasons for its international acclaim, and this provides for an additional reason to partake in such a system of providing education.

2.6 Higher Education System in the UK

The UK education system has gained a lot of reputation when it comes to providing quality excellence in education. The UK maintains strong standards and never compromises with its education structure (Bhopal and Pitkin, 2020). Here in this write-up, the various stages of the education structure that the UK follows is being critically discussed. British higher education structure essentially lays required emphasis on five stages of education, viz. early years, primary years, secondary education, additional education, and finally higher education (Erickson et al., 2020). This particular system of education makes the education available for the students who deserve them and not manipulated by any external factors. The sole focus of the system is education and learning process-oriented. That is why the one who is graduated from the universities have done great in their fields. The stage of Primary Education is referred to as “Compulsory Education”. In this stage when an individual is three years age, is supposed to take admission to a school where he will be educated till he attains the age of sixteen years (Aldous and Brown, 2020). After completion of this stage, the further stages are based on his own choices. If he wants he can give up on studying. In the UK, everybody aged over three and below sixteen are mandatorily obliged and bound to attend schooling as per the states’ policies on education (Gamsu and Donnelly, 2020). During the primary stage, the students are made familiar with the basic and essentially fundamental practices and concepts of literature, mathematics, geography, history, science, etc. Pupils are made aware of the phonic characters in the initial levels of this stage, later on, more insights are being awarded to them on core subjects. At the end of this stage, the pupils are being asked to appear for examinations on the English language and vocabulary skills that they have adopted. Examinations on Maths and Sciences are also taken. The English and Mathematics assessments will be led by the National Testing Agency of the UK whereas the teachers are supposed to independently examine the students in person in the case of Science. After the primary stage, the students are supposed to attain the secondary stage of education where they are supposed to select subjects and domains as their specializations. More knowledge of the chosen domain will be given to the students to frame a better idea and concept about the study area. Here also tests at a national level are being conducted to evaluate the pupils. For instance, if a student is more interested in Music than in any other subjects, and wants to take up Music only as his career, he might go ahead with the selection of Music as his domain in this stage, and seek to attain more specialized knowledge about it. However, rendering fundamental knowledge about other subjects will also be in continuance. In the next stage, that is when further studies are being done, apart from the core subjects, some foundation subjects such as Computer Applications, Physical Education, and Citizenship are being introduced to a student. Subjects such as Modern Foreign Languages or Design and Technology are also being taught during this stage (Owusu-Kwarteng, 2020).

When the high school period is over, the students are made to appear in a gateway examination conducted at the national level, which makes them understand whether they are eligible enough to match the benchmark criteria laid down for pursuing further studies or not. Those who fail to secure the required criterion drops the plan of studying higher. As this dissertation specifically takes into account the reference of Indian students, it has been seen in India there is a difference between a college and a university, where the colleges are anticipated to provide undergraduate programs and the universities are supposed to deliver post-graduation programs. Nevertheless, there is no such distinction between a college and a university in the UK. Any college and any university can provide higher study qualifications, however, based on certain criteria not all colleges in the UK can be referred to as a University in the UK. Which higher education provider will be coined as a university primarily is based on two regulations (Gupta et al., 2020). If a higher education provider in the UK has been awarded the license by the Privy Council under Further and Higher Education Act which was formulated in the year 1992, then only it will be considered as a University. Furthermore, the higher education provider is also expected to comply with the provisions laid down in the Company Act which was formulated in the year 2006.

An international student who wants to pursue higher studies in the UK is supposed to have a Tier 4 Student VISA, which is valid for a couple of years the study is tentative to be undertaken (Kettell, 2020). To seek a Tier 4 Student VISA, an international student is expected to show the UK Government the required amount of money as his bank balance that will be required to provide financial support during the stay. Most of the Universities in the UK are state-financed.

Though in most of the parts of the UK, it typically requires three years to complete an undergraduate qualification but in Scotland, the state exempts a year for its students, as Scotland requires four years to get a Bachelor’s Degree completed. The undergraduate Bachelor’s courses that are of four years are referred to as “Sandwich Courses” because the students are expected to spend one year of their total course period in a professional work environment being gainfully employed. Some universities offer fast track Master’s Degree programs where post-graduation qualification can be achieved when the student is pursuing his Bachelor’s only, the biggest advantage being a lower cost of studying.

2.7 Differences in experience gather by women and men

There have been several disaggregated data that are drawn by Indian students as well as string bias found in terms of gender discrimination part in establishing themselves abroad. For example, in archetypal middle-class Indian families, boys are treated with the sole earner and carry out the responsibilities of financially supporting the household duties. According to Sondhi and King (2017), gender perspectives and geographies of power differences studying in Europe or in any other foreign nations face challenges while studying for higher education. In this regard, it has been acknowledged that gender is the key concern in this context as well as migration purpose in pursuing higher study as well as embodiment and performance. Other than this, gender education in India has been suffering from tremendous levels of pressure for women, which has changed the scenario of the current state of women’s education system as well (Alldredet al., 2018). In this respect, education in India has provided open scope for men and women at the same time, along with their growth opportunities as well as future goals.

As mentioned by Sheikh (2017), the higher education system in India has seen a clear upliftment in women enrolment within the system. During the academic year, 2011-12 the total higher education enrolment was 203 lakhs approximately and women participation in the level was more than 86 lakhs which is almost 42% of the total higher education system of the country.  Similarly, in a report presented by the All India Survey on Higher Education, it has been identified that the current trend of higher education and the gender gap in the same has gone down in considerable numbers. In the 2019 report, it has been noted that the total higher education enrolment is 37.4 million and amongst which 19.2 were male and 18.2 female (NIC, 2020). The gender gap is decreasing rapidly which shows the ability of the government to deal with the issue of the higher education system in the country. The government of the country has taken various schemes and policies to manage the gender gap in the system and also to make sure that the outgoing number of students to foreign countries to avail higher education can be minimized at a considerable level. The various government higher education policies and schemes are thus required to be discussed in order to understand the situation of the country in that particular area. It is important to understand the status of higher educational system in the country from where the students are coming from so that the researcher can realise the basic and core reason behind the students growing interested in pursuing higher education in the UK or abroad.

2.7.1 Government Schemes and Policies for higher education

As mentioned by Frisanch, and Krishna (2016), the most important and prominent higher education and University-related schemes undertaken by the government are Rashtriya Uchchatar Shiksha Abhiyan, and National Research Professorship. These policies and their implementation are managed by the Department of Higher Education under the HRD ministry. Apart from the two, there are several other schemes and policies the government has taken. Also, an easy education loan system has improved the situation. Hence the new and the revised government schemes have benefitted the women of the country who are looking forward to achieving higher education.

According to Ansari, and Tripathi (2017), the RUSA scheme has its focus on inclusion of all people irrespective of their race, gender, caste, etc to opt for higher education in the colleges and universities of the country. Under the same authorities are required to monitor how well the universities are maintaining the norms and engaging in an equal educational system where every individual gets a fair chance. On the other hand, it has also been observed that the scheme is not enough to address gender domination in higher education properly as it only focuses on the system of colleges and universities. The government of India instituted the very scheme of National Research Professorship in the year 1949, in respect to honour the distinguished academics and the various scholars in recognition for their parts of contributions to knowledge. The governmental approach of the existing country towards higher education of the country is the root that influences the decision of the Indian woman to go to the UK to complete higher education.

2.7.2 India’s Curriculum, its Issues, and Challenges in India’s Higher Education Sector

According to Leventhal et al., (2016) India’s Curriculum or the higher education system has undergone a huge expansion in the period of Post Independent India with the national resolve in order to establish numerous universities, research and technical institutions across the country to generate knowledge merged with the noble. The issues and challenges that are continuously faced in the Indian education sector involve Enrollment, that is the GER or the Gross enrollment ratio of India in the fields of higher education is considerably low when bought in comparison with the other developed or developing countries. The second is Equity, where there is no value in GER among various areas of society. GER for guys (26.3%), females (25.4%), SC (21.8%) and ST (15.9%). There are provincial varieties as well. While a few states have high GER some are a long way behind the national figures. The school density (number of universities per lakh qualified / eligible populace) varies from 7 in Bihar to 59 in Telangana when contrasted with the All India aggregate of 28. The third is the quality of higher education in India which is plagued with outdated learning, lack of employment, and development of skills for the students. In terms of the infrastructure of schools and universities is a greater challenge for the students to face (Sundar et al., 2016). These are the main reason why the Indian woman are likely to go overseas for their higher education as the Indian education system and curriculum is not as much efficient as the western system of education.

2.8Differences in Education Strategy of the UK and India

The schools and universities provide international benchmarks to safeguard and make the necessary choices. Skills and training developed offer wide flexibility and unique solutions that are required in a world full of astonishments where usually the nature of work and the employment scale is changing at a speed unnoticed since the years of the Industrial Revolution. According to King and Sondhi (2018), the Uk has best-in-class education offerings with a global reputation along with a great hold of reputation in the overall International education system. The higher education institutions set up in the UK are known to be amongst the most renowned and is the most prestigious institutions in the world sphere. Amidst the growing competition, the UK is remarked by quality, pioneering, and excellence thought leadership (Beech, 2018).

Indian students are all set to benefit from an improved visa on the post-study regime as an essential part of the new “International Education Strategy” that is launched by the government of the UK in preparation for its post-Brexit policies (Pawar, 2020). This particular strategy aims at improving and increasing the numbers of international students across the world who choose to study in the UK higher education system from the present level of 460,000 to 600,000 every year by 2030. This new implementation of the strategy is considered to be rolling out in the upcoming years, eventually offering the students in graduations and masters the golden opportunity to stay in the UK to efficiently look for any work for the next six months after their graduation. This strategy helps the students to gain a greater amount of motivation and a push towards success and having a good hold of time in their hands to decide about their future-making in the UK. It can be stated that these particular aspects have been helping the UK based educational institutions to increase their market size and money that are achieved from them.

The Indian Students, those usually occurring for a major part or chunk of applicants coming from outside the various European Union after China, are known to be sensitive towards the scheme or strategy of post-study work criteria to getting the opportunity to work or gain work experience in terms of their degree in the UK universities (Wadhwa, 2016).

The main target is the growth in the numbers of the students on the international scale in the UK scenario must be having an impressive number of 6,00,000, must send a clear message to all the students across the world. Under the various strategies being planned and implemented the students from the undergraduate or the master’s background will also be given 3 months before their graduation during the period where they can find employment for themselves and can eventually switch to a work visa in the UK from the study visa. In the present scenario, the procedure to shift from a student to the employment sphere in the UK is quite complex. Besides, the PhD students can stay in the UK for a year or up to a year in order to find employment after the completion of their graduation phase, and also would have three months of the period before their graduation during which time when they can find employment and eventually can switch from a study visa to a work visa.

During the period of Post-study leave, students will be offered unrestricted access to work and employment, the strategy claims. In addition to it, the graduates internationally would be given two years after their graduation at the time when they can apply to make a shift from the UK study visa to a work visa in the UK, which is helping out the students to pursue their higher education in the country. This new strategy marks its focus on not just only in retaining the existing strengths of the market but also making raise to the profiles of the education sector in the entire global markets such as Africa, Asia, and Latin America. As an important part of the strategy, the UK government will also appoint a new “International Education Champion” that will be responsible for boosting the activities performed overseas and hence striking the major partnerships.

2.9 Literature Gap

After rigorous studies and analysis of the scholarly portion such as books, journals, articles, etc, it has been observed that there are some portions that are missing from those articles. Even though the research paper and articles or books have dealt with the international educational system, national educational system, policies, schemes, curriculum, women’s participation in both the countries higher education system have been discussed yet few areas have not been covered in the scholarly sources such as the psychological as well as social factors. The growth of availing higher education in foreign countries especially in the UK has been a trend, young people of the country have been much more oriented towards going and getting a degree from a foreign university can be affected by some social and psychological pressure for women which has been missing from various articles. These missing portions can affect the result of the research to be a little biased yet, the researcher has covered every other area that is related to the women’s contribution to the higher education system in the UK. The gap in the literature can not entirely determine the research paper but if it had not been there the possibility of a more feasible outcome could have been achieved.

2.10 Conceptual Framework

The main purpose of this particular figure is to highlight the reason that is determining the choice of the Indian woman to pursue higher education in the UK and what factors are affecting their dreams to be achieved on a large scale.

UK higher education system and Women of India
Gender Gap
Education System
Socioeconomic structure
Obstacles in the UK for Indian Women

2. 11 Summary

The researcher here has taken into account the various factors that integrate and complement each other to encourage the pursuance of studies in the UK. The learner has analytically deliberated about the scopes that are available in the UK for international students and the general education structure that the UK relevantly follows.

Based on the overview of the literature, it can be recognized that the majority of pieces of evidence highlight in respect of gender discrimination from Indian families, whereas abroad, there are better fair opportunities in respect of staying with permanent stability is the biggest challenge for such women. The research will be further analyzed in the following chapters for in-depth knowledge as well.

Chapter 3: Research Methodology

3.1 Introduction

In this chapter, the researcher outlines a wide variety of components undertaken during the research such as research design, research strategy, and research approach among others. The research will follow a systematic process and flow. The chapter will be organized in a way so that the methods can be properly designed one after the other. At the beginning of the chapter, the understanding of philosophy, design and approaches of the study will be made. Thereafter, the Research Strategy, data collection, data analysis, limitation of the study, ethical consideration, the timetable of the research and the summary will be presented.  Hence, the chapter will discuss every ground of the research methods and processes that has facilitated the topic of higher education trend in the Indian women towards the UK.

3.2 Outline of the methods chosen

Research methodology can be regarded as the science regarding the procedure of research that is being done scientifically (Ørngreen and Levinsen, 2017). In other words, it can also be regarded as the procedure through which researchers go through their research, predicting, evaluating, and describing the phenomenon (Fletcher, 2017). The primary aim of this research methodology is that it aims to provide the work plan of the research that is to be conducted.

3.2.1 Justification of the methods chosen

In order to provide support to the chosen tools of research, the researcher has provided sufficient justification. This research had not followed interpretivist framework, this particular framework had not been selected because it uses detailed knowledge regarding the research area using observation and not using hypothesis testing. Quantitative research can be regarded as the systematic investigation of a certain or particular phenomenon by gathering data that is quantifiable in nature along with performing mathematical, computational and statistical techniques (Goertzen, 2017). This research in particular requires data of both secondary and primary nature. In the context of the current research, the research shall choose the post-positivism philosophy, deductive approach and descriptive design of research as considering we will be dealing with women in Indian higher education and the obstacles faced by them.

3.3. Research Philosophy

Figure 3.3: Research Philosophy

(Source: Dougherty et al. 2019)

Research philosophy can be stated as a vast topic and hence cannot be discussed at great lengths. Research philosophy primarily deals with the development, nature and source of knowledge. In other words, research philosophy can be defined as the belief regarding the various methods being employed in the collection and analysis of the data collection (Dougherty et al. 2019). The selection of a particular philosophy of research has the potential to affect the analysis and outcome of the study. Research philosophy can be divided into three types namely Positivism, Interpretivism and Realism. Interpretivism that is also being regarded as interpretivist usually involves interpretation of studies by the researchers thus integrating human interest in a study. On the other hand, the philosophy of realism primarily depends on the assumption that a scientific approach is required in the knowledge development. On the contrary, the philosophy of positivism primarily states that only knowledge of factual nature can be deemed to be trustworthy. The primary reason behind choosing the post-positivism research philosophy, in particular, is the nature and requirement of the study. Post-positivism can be deemed as the most suitable research philosophy in the context of the study. According to Ospinaet al. (2018), Post-positivism can be regarded as a certain pluralism that apparently balances both interpretive and positivist approaches. Post-positivism can be regarded as the evolved version since this particular research will be linked with how women from India tend to pursue higher education abroad and what sort of obstacles they face while applying for the same universities abroad.

3.3.1 Justification

Post-positivism with quantitative analysis usually includes the different perspectives regarding a wide variety of aspects such as comparative, philosophical, phenomenological and historical analysis. The major reason behind choosing the particular philosophy is that it emphasizes the data findings, which are fact and reality-based and not mere ideology.  As the research paper is focused on understanding a real issue or problem that is based on the higher education trend or tendency which is real and the data that are collected are equally real in nature. Hence, it is justified to select this particular research philosophy and not realism or interpretivism.

3.4 Research Approach

The research approach can be regarded as the procedure and plan that primarily consists of the various steps of assumptions to the in-depth methods of collecting, interpreting and analyzing. The research approach can broadly be divided into two parts namely Deductive and Inductive approach. According to Zalaghi and Khazaei, (2016), the deductive approach is primarily concerned with the development of a hypothesis that is apparently based on theory that is already in existence followed by the designing of the research strategy in order to test the claimed hypothesis. It can further be added that the deductive approach primarily follows the idea of logic much more closely than others. The reasoning initiates with a theory that leads to a hypothesis. On the other hand, the Inductive approach is also regarded as inductive reasoning primarily commences with theories and observations that are usually proposed based on observations at the end of the research process (Liu, 2016). The researcher for this study has chosen the deductive approach in particular.

3.4.1. Justification

It can be stated that the Deductive approach primarily explores a phenomenon or a theory that is already known and also tests the validity of the theory in the given circumstances. The primary reason behind not selecting inductive research is that the current research does not require the development of a new theory that emerges from data.  The researcher has developed questions based on data, models and theories that are already in existence. Therefore, the deductive approach has been chosen instead of the inductive approach. According to some estimates, during the last decade, about 27,000 Indian women have gained from the leading educational program that still operates in the United Kingdom. The United Kingdom was deemed to be host to two of the tenTen colleges around the globe (Sro.sussex.ac.uk, 2020). More than 1400 walk-ins were registered at the recent Study UK Fair held in New Delhi, which presented students with a certain opportunity to engage with representative from more than 50 UK-based universities. India seems to have taken the initiative to improve literacy rates among Indian people, opening up several influential outlets and networks such as missionary’s institutions. The data for the research topic is already there and there is no need to include more data that are not directly related to the topic as well. The researcher is not looking forward to coming up with a new concept or idea but is required to understand the already existing issue and its implication thus, the lengthy process of the inductive approach is not suitable for the paper but the deductive approach is.

3.5 Research Design

The research design can be regarded as an overall strategy that a researcher usually chooses in order to integrate the various components of a study in particular in a logical and coherent way, thereby ensuring that the research problem is addressed effectively (Avella, 2016). This research design constitutes the method for collecting, measuring, analyzing and interpreting data. The research design of this research is exploratory research design which has been regarded as the sort of research that is primarily used for the purpose of investigating the problem. On the other hand, explanatory research is also conducted for the sort of problem that has not been researched earlier and is primarily focused on enunciating the different aspects of the study in details. Initially, policy documents had been referred to by the researcher and secondly, a literature review had been carried out for better extraction of data. The interview had been carried out considering 8 respondents.

3.5.1 Justification

The descriptive design of research can be regarded as the method of research that usually describes or refers to the questions of research, analysis of data and research design. It is also regarded as an observational method of research as any variables that are part of the study of the research are usually influenced. It has been chosen as the design of the research as in comparison with exploratory research as descriptive research employs a design that is planned earlier. According to Hunter and Howes, (2020), moreover, in comparison with the explanatory research design, descriptive research primarily employs and implements tools such as median, mean, frequency and average. The explanatory research, on the other hand, provides the researcher to employ and implement tools that are usually qualitative in nature (Munawaret al. 2018). Thus, the descriptive research design perfectly aligns with the nature of the study undertaken and can be regarded as suitable for the current study. The descriptive design is capable of providing a solution to the problem that has been identified in the research paper therefore, the design is the most suitable for the research paper.

3.6 Field Site

The researcher has conducted the entire research process and its progress from the United Kingdom, as the study is based in the country. The participants of the interview have been selected from the UK only and the topic is engaged with the UK higher education and the migration of Indian women to pursue the same, so the field site is the University campuses of the UK. The researcher is based in the UK and so is the study topic and their components hence, no other location has been considered for the paper and it is not required at all. The UK had been selected because there is a huge range of students that move from India to the UK for their further studies and there are various issues and opportunities faced by them.

3.6 Research Strategy

A research strategy can be regarded as an overall blueprint for conducting a study. A researcher strategy usually involves and provides guidance to a researcher in the different steps such as planning, monitoring and executing the study (Erbeet al. 2016). The research strategy can broadly be divided into two parts namely quantitative and qualitative. The decision of selection of the best research strategy primarily depends on a wide variety of factors such as the identification of the type, nature and purpose of the study along with the information or data that is usually required for conducting the research. Qualitative research can be regarded as the type of research method that is primarily concerned with the focus on gathering data through conversational and open-ended conversation (Saunders et al. 2018). The research strategy chosen in this study is an interview of 8 women students. It would be relevant to the deductive approach.

3.7 Choice of selected research

In the context of the study, techniques or tools such as interview has been selected as it can be related to deductive research approach (Dobson et al. 2019). In the context of an interview, the respondents are usually defined beforehand in order to gain various insights and information on the given topic. A research interview usually involves two parties namely the interviewer and the interviewee. Interviews can be regarded as an appropriate procedure that is beneficial when detailed information on the thoughts, experiences, feelings and opinions of the people are required. As per the demand of the research paper, the researcher has chosen the particular strategies that can perfectly understand and address the problems and issues that is the focus of the particular research paper. The mixed strategy of qualitative can provide the researcher with the ability to get a clear insight about the topic and its aspects. Some of the advantages of the interview are that is highly flexible in nature as we had dealt realistically with the women participants of the nation who had ventured outside, literacy is not an issue, the non-verbal behavior of the respondents can be judged by the interviewer and so on.

3.8 Data collection methods

Data collection can be regarded as an essential or crucial aspect of research methodology while the underlying purpose for the collection of data is primarily to seek and capture the quality of the evidence (Paradiset al. 2016). The researcher can deduce and obtain quality information that can be regarded as relevant information, useful for making decisions that are well-informed. In other words, it can be regarded as the methodical process of collecting, interpreting and analyzing data. In the context of the study, two different types of data collection methods namely secondary and primary have been used in the current study. In order to collect primary data, an interview would be implemented. Secondary data can be regarded as the collection of data that are already in existence in the form of theories and facts. Therefore, it can be evident that the researcher has gathered secondary data through various sources such as journals, books, and websites. In comparison with primary data, secondary data can be found and collected easily. The process of primary data collection has been done by the researcher in a systematic way. The researcher has selected a sample from the field site, then handed them over the declaration form and the set of questions for it along with the answer options, and in the end, has collected those from them one by one. Similarly, for the Interview, the selected people have been called and then asked the questions. The interviewers have approached in a positive way as all of them were glad to help and respond to the research findings. On the other hand, the researcher collected the secondary data by manually going through the journals from the campus library, and websites.

Figure 3.8: Data collection method

(Source: Paradiset al. 2016)

3.9 Population and Sampling method

Sampling can be regarded as the process or method implemented for the selection of a sample within the context of statistical population in order to estimate the characteristics of the entire population (Cha et al. 2018). Sampling is usually done in order to represent samples out of the entire population. In other words, population sampling can be regarded as the process of considering a sub-set of subjects representing the entire population.

3.9.1 Sampling type

Sampling can broadly be divided into two parts probability and non-probability sampling. It can be stated that both the sampling types can be associated with the collection of primary data (Etikan and Bala, 2017). While probability sampling includes a certain random form of data collection and provides equal opportunity to be selected, non-probability sampling, on the other hand, the selection of an individual is not known (Etikanet al. 2016). Probability sampling provides an unbiased outcome; non-probability provides a biased result. The basis of selection in the case of probability sampling is random, while in case of non-probability it is usually arbitrary in nature.

3.9.2 Sampling choice

The primary reason behind choosing both types of sampling is that the current study requires conducting an interview. As stated by Vaioleti (2016), two types of sampling are there, they are non-probability and probability. Both of them are associated with the primary data collection. The probability sampling is suitable for the interview sessions where the researcher can get more accurate. Thus, probability sampling is the best way for it. Hence, for this research, the researcher has selected both probability and non-probability sampling.

3.9.3 Sample size

For the data analysis process of the primary data collection, 8 people shall be chosen for the interview. These 8 people would be Indian nationals studying in the UK and belongs to the age group of 20-35 years and they have come for the spring session of the academic year 2020. After analysing the responses of the people through implementing qualitative method, and all of them would be chosen by the application of the probability technique. This particular section for the interview will provide a better understanding as they are the first-hand experiencing of people of the particular system.

3.9.4 Selection of questionnaire

The questionnaire has been made or created based on the research objectives provided in the first chapter. The sample size has been taken is four, and the questions would be asked on these 8 people. The questionnaires for the interview have been provided in the below sections. Mostly the questions will deal with the core idea of the concept and not popular idea. The interview questionnaires would be more descriptive and will seek a detailed analytical understanding of the topic.

3.9.5 Questionnaire design

The design of the questionnaire primarily depends on the perspective of the researcher along with the methods and strategies being implemented while conducting the interview.  The questionnaire would be designed based on the researcher’s perspective. Basically, it depends on the way in which the researcher wants to conduct the interview. Kurinczuket al. (2016) has stated that the researcher should ask questions related to the topic.

Interview process

Data has been collected from women who are already pursuing higher education in the UK. The interview was conducted via Zoom, Skype or telephonic mode of conversation. The questions were mostly left descriptive for the paper so that the interviewers can answer in a systematic way and provide their insight on the same.

1) What were the obstacles that you faced while applying to the university?
2) What were the financial obstacles you had to overcome while getting admitted to the university?
3) What could have been done better according to you while applying to the university?
4) What sort of obstacles did you face while studying in the university as a woman?
5) Were there any instances of racism as an Indian woman that you had to face till now?
6) How have been the housing scenarios while staying at the University?
7) How has the current Covid-19 situation brought upon the issues of Indian international students especially women in the nation?

8) Can you tell me about your prior studies in India (What were you studying and where?)

9) Why did you start to consider studying abroad?

3.10 Process of data analysis

The analysis of the data would be done through a thematic process of data analysis and also a qualitative process of data analysis would be done in the process. Thematic data analysis process would help in analysing the understanding accurately. On the other and for interview data there is no need for calculation, it will be interpreted by the ability of the researcher only.

3.11 Validity and Reliability

The validity of the research can be regarded as the extent to which the scientific methods of research might have been followed while conducting the study (Sung et al. 2019). Reliability refers to the nature or quality of the outcome being provided by the researcher that can be verified by implementing the same methodology and instruments more than once. The researcher has used authentic data from the journals and books and have collected the information from the interview participants on the basis of their will and not by any manipulation, thus, it is clear that the answers are free from biases. The authenticity of data and sources are efficient to provide an accurate answer. The researcher has also taken all the necessary measures to organize the research, and has also revised the findings, and it is likely that it will provide accurate findings. All the information that is provided is true in nature.

3.12 Limitations

The researcher faced various impediments during the course of conducting the research due to which the research could not be done more elaborately. Shortage of time and lack of monetary resources have further contributed to the limitations of the study. While conducting this research work, the researcher has faced some issues or limitations. Elaborate research has been done by the researcher to gather the information or data. For the interview, the researcher was decided to target limited number of people as the respondents.

3.13 Ethical Consideration

There are some ethical codes that have been followed by the researcher such as, the participants in the research has been forced or threatened to participant in the process or every source and their anonymity have been kept for the research paper. Similarly, the researcher has not tried to malign the belief and culture of any region or any people involved in the research. The legal policy of conducting research and the privacy policy of the country has been maintained by the researcher as well and also the educational systems and processes have been maintained. The researcher has also given the participants the authority to eliminate themselves from the research process.

3.14 Time Table

Activities 1st to 3rd week


4th to 6th week


7th to 9th week


10th to 12th week


13th to 15th week


16th to 18th week


19th to 21st week


22nd to 24th week


Choosing the research topic
Background of the project
Determining the aims, objectives and Questions of the research
Literature review
Determining the methodology
Analyzing the interview
Scheduling the Time Plan
Findings for the research
Analyzing the collected Data
Concluding the overall research
Self Reflection
Submitting the project

 3.15 Summary

Research methodology can be stated as the path that is being followed by the researcher during the process of conducting the study and hence the significance of this chapter in particular is immense. The researcher has discussed the research philosophy, design and approach briefly along with justifications for choosing them. Similarly, the researcher has mentioned the mixed strategy and the reason behind the decision, the field site for the paper has also been discussed. After that, the researcher has discussed the data collection and analysis process which has facilitated the understandings, at last, the reliability, accuracy and ethical consideration have also been discussed in the Research Methodology of the research paper and all these aspects are essential for the topic.


Aldous, D., and Brown, D., 2020. A critical analysis of CIMSPA’s transformative aspirations for UK Higher education sport and physical activity vocational education and training provision. Sport, Education and Society, pp.1-14.

Alldred, P., Cullen, F., Edwards, K., and Fusco, D. eds., 2018. The SAGE handbook of youth work practice. SAGE.

Ansari, M.S., and Tripathi, A., 2017. An investigation of the effectiveness of mobile learning apps in higher education in India. International Journal of Information Studies and libraries, 2(01).

Avella, J.R., 2016. Delphi panels: Research design, procedures, advantages, and challenges. International Journal of Doctoral Studies, 11(1), pp.305-321.

Basu, S., Garg, S., Kumar, R., and Shukla, A., 2017. The willingness for using mobile phones for health education among women caregivers of under 5 children in an urban resettlement colony in Delhi, India. Indian Journal of Community Health, 29(4).

Beech, S.E., 2018. Adapting to change in the higher education system: International student mobility as a migration industry. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 44(4), pp.610-625.

Bhopal, K., and Pitkin, C., 2020. ‘Same old story, just a different policy’: race and policymaking in higher education in the UK. Race Ethnicity and Education, 23(4), pp.530-547.

Bishwajit, G., Sarker, S., and Yaya, S., 2016. Socio-cultural aspects of gender-based violence and its impacts on women’s health in South Asia. F1000Research, 5(802), p.802.

Cha, C.B., Tezanos, K.M., Peros, O.M., Ng, M.Y., Ribeiro, J.D., Nock, M.K. and Franklin, J.C., 2018. Accounting for diversity in suicide research: Sampling and sample reporting practices in the United States. Suicide and Life‐Threatening Behavior, 48(2), pp.131-139.

Dhanaraj, S., and Mahambare, V., 2019. Family structure, education, and women’s employment in rural India. World Development, 115, pp.17-29.

Dobson, R., Herbst, P., Candy, S., Brott, T., Garrett, J., Humphrey, G., Reeve, J., Tawhai, M., Taylor, D., Warren, J. and Whittaker, R., 2019. Understanding End-User Perspectives of Mobile Pulmonary Rehabilitation (mPR): Cross-Sectional Survey and Interviews. JMIR Formative Research, 3(4), p.e15466.

Dougherty, M.R., Slevc, L.R. and Grand, J.A., 2019. Making research evaluation more transparent: Aligning research philosophy, institutional values, and reporting. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 14(3), pp.361-375.

Dung, J.D., 2019. Education reform, open education and closed society, the status of women in India, and social stratification in Orissa. International Journal of Physical and Social Sciences, 9(9), pp.1-9.

Duttagupta, I., 2020. Ireland Becoming Hotspot For Indian Students Going To Study Abroad. [online] Economic Times Blog. Available at: <https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/blogs/globalindian/ireland-becoming-hotspot-for-indian-students-going-to-study-abroad/> [Accessed 15 June 2020].

Erbe, C., Reichmuth, C., Cunningham, K., Lucke, K. and Dooling, R., 2016. Communication masking in marine mammals: A review and research strategy. Marine pollution bulletin, 103(1-2), pp.15-38.

Erickson, M., Hanna, P., and Walker, C., 2020. The UK higher education senior management survey: a statactivist response to managerialist governance. Studies in Higher Education, pp.1-18.

Etikan, I. and Bala, K., 2017. Sampling and sampling methods. Biometrics & Biostatistics International Journal, 5(6), p.00149.

Etikan, I., Musa, S.A. and Alkassim, R.S., 2016. Comparison of convenience sampling and purposive sampling. American journal of theoretical and applied statistics, 5(1), pp.1-4.

Flemming, L.A., 2019. Women&#39;s Work for Women: Missionaries and Social Change in Asia.Routledge.

Fletcher, A.J., 2017. Applying critical realism in qualitative research: methodology meets method. International journal of social research methodology, 20(2), pp.181-194.

Frisancho, V., and Krishna, K., 2016. Affirmative action in higher education in India: targeting, catch up, and mismatch. Higher Education, 71(5), pp.611-649.

Gamsu, S., and Donnelly, M., 2020. Social network analysis methods and the geography of education: regional divides and elite circuits in the school to university transition in the UK. Tijdschriftvooreconomischeensocialegeografie.

Gautam, T.S.R., 2018. Women Empowerment Through Education In India (No. 2018-26-03).

Goertzen, M.J., 2017. Introduction to Quantitative Research and Data. Library Technology Reports, 53(4), pp.12-18.

Gomala, T.B., and Baluchamy, S., 2018. Impact of socioeconomic conditions of Dalit women with respect to rural areas in Dindigul district of Tamil Nadu. International Journal of Research in Humanities, Arts and Science, 2(3), pp.21-25.

GOV.UK. 2020. 63% Increase In Indian Students Choosing To Study In The UK. [online] Available at <https://www.gov.uk/government/news/63-increase-in-indian-students-choosing-to-study-in-the-uk> [Accessed 24 June 2020].
Sro.sussex.ac.uk. 2020. [online] Available at: <http://sro.sussex.ac.uk/id/eprint/75235/1/ISM_UK_India_Movitation_comparison_upload%20GSE.pdf> [Accessed 24 June 2020].

Gupta, S.K., Antony, J., Lacher, F., and Douglas, J., 2020. Lean Six Sigma for reducing student dropouts in higher education–an exploratory study. Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, 31(1-2), pp.178-193.

Hayes, A., 2020. Epistemic Democracy and International Students. Journal of International Students, 10(2), pp.vi-vii.

Hirudayaraj, M., and Doshy, P., 2018. Role of Education in Developing Women Leaders in India. In Indian Women in Leadership (pp. 91-108). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.

Hunter, D.J. and Howes, D., 2020. Defining Exploratory-Descriptive Qualitative (EDQ) research and considering its application to healthcare. GSTF Journal of Nursing and Health Care (JNHC), 4(1).

Kettell, L., 2020. Young adult carers in higher education: the motivations, barriers, and challenges involved–a UK study. Journal of Further and Higher Education, 44(1), pp.100-112.

Khoshlessan, R., and Das, K.P., 2019. Analyzing international students’ study anxiety in higher education. Journal of International Students, 2017 Vol. 7 (2), 7(2), pp.311-328.

King, R., and Sondhi, G., 2018. International student migration: a comparison of UK and Indian students’ motivations for studying abroad. Globalization, Societies, and Education, 16(2), pp.176-191.

Leventhal, K.S., DeMaria, L.M., Gillham, J.E., Andrew, G., Peabody, J. and Leventhal, S.M., 2016. A psychosocial resilience curriculum provides the “missing piece” to boost adolescent physical health: A randomized controlled trial of Female First in India. Social Science & Medicine, 161, pp.37-46.

Liu, L., 2016. Using Generic Inductive Approach in Qualitative Educational Research: A Case Study Analysis. Journal of Education and Learning, 5(2), pp.129-135.

Lomer, S., and Anthony-Okeke, L., 2019. Ethically engaging international students: student-generated material in an active blended learning model. Teaching in Higher Education, 24(5), pp.613-632.

Mallick, S.K., and Rudra, S., 2020. Women Education to Empowerment: An Indian Overview. Studies in Indian Place Names, 40(3), pp.6980-6987.

Marginson, S., 2016. The worldwide trend to high participation in higher education: Dynamics of social stratification in inclusive systems. Higher Education, 72(4), pp.413-434.

Melvin, M., and Norrbin, S., 2017. International money and finance.Academic Press. The reason, J., 2016. Managing the risks of organizational accidents. Routledge. student learning. Higher education, 67(6), pp.711-719.

Munawar, S., Toor, S.K., Aslam, M. and Hamid, M., 2018. Move to smart learning environment: exploratory research of challenges in computer laboratory and design intelligent virtual laboratory for eLearning Technology. EURASIA Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 14(5), pp.1645-1662.

NIC, L., 2020. Department Of Higher Education | Government Of India, Ministry Of Human Resource Development. [online] Mhrd.gov.in. Available at: <https://mhrd.gov.in/higher_education> [Accessed 8 July 2020].

O’Shea, S., 2020. Crossing Boundaries: Rethinking the ways that first-in-family students navigate ‘barriers’ to higher education. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 41(1), pp.95-110.

Ørngreen, R. and Levinsen, K., 2017. Workshops as a Research Methodology. Electronic Journal of E-learning, 15(1), pp.70-81.

Ospina, S.M., Esteve, M. and Lee, S., 2018. Assessing qualitative studies in public administration research. Public Administration Review, 78(4), pp.593-605.

Owusu-Kwarteng, L., 2020. ‘Studying in this England is wahala (trouble)’: analyzing the experiences of West African students in a UK higher education institution. Studies in Higher Education, pp.1-12.

Paradis, E., O’Brien, B., Nimmon, L., Bandiera, G. and Martimianakis, M.A.T., 2016. Design: selection of data collection methods. Journal of graduate medical education, 8(2), p.263.

Pawar, S.K., Vispute, S., Islam, T., and Chanda, R., 2020. International students’ motivations for studying in Indian universities: Implications for value proposition and positioning strategies. Research in Comparative and International Education, p.1745499920910579.

Quaye, S.J., Harper, S.R. and Pendakur, S.L. eds., 2019. Student engagement in higher education: Theoretical perspectives and practical approaches for diverse populations. Routledge.

Rathore, N., 2017. A Study on the Empowerment of Women in India.

Sahoo, D., 2020. Women Empowerment and Education: A Socio-Cultural Study.

Saunders, B., Sim, J., Kingstone, T., Baker, S., Waterfield, J., Bartlam, B., Burroughs, H. and Jinks, C., 2018. Saturation in qualitative research: exploring its conceptualization and operationalization. Quality & quantity, 52(4), pp.1893-1907.

Sheikh, Y.A., 2017. Higher education in India: Challenges and opportunities. Journal of Education and Practice, 8(1), pp.39-42.

Singh, K., 2016. Importance of education in the empowerment of women in India. Motherhood International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Development, 7(1), pp.39-48.

Sondhi, G., and King, R., 2017. Gendering international student migration: An Indian case study. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 43(8), pp.1308-1324.

Sundar, S., Qureshi, A., and Galiatsatos, P., 2016. A positive psychology intervention in a Hindu community: the pilot study of the Hero Lab Curriculum. Journal of religion and health, 55(6), pp.2189-2198.

Sung, K.S., Yi, Y.G. and Shin, H.I., 2019. Reliability and validity of knee extensor strength measurements using a portable dynamometer anchoring system in a supine position. BMC musculoskeletal disorders, 20(1), p.320.

Szirmai, A., 2015. Socioeconomic development.Cambridge University Press. universities&#39; activities: An exploratory study of the United Kingdom. Research Policy, 44(3), pp.748-764. why so few among so many? (No. 15-55). International Monetary Fund.

Wadhwa, R., 2016. Students on move: Understanding the decision-making process and destination choice of Indian students. Higher Education for the Future, 3(1), pp.54-75.

Wylie, P., 2020. Critical Education.

Zalaghi, H. and Khazaei, M., 2016. The role of deductive and inductive reasoning in accounting research and standard-setting. Asian Journal of Finance & Accounting, 8(1), pp.23-37.

Leave a Comment