SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

Executive summary

This research study has made a focus on internal administrative system and design analysis of a healthcare clinic. It has depicted various feasibilities of given case study that has included technical, financial and organizational feasibilities.

An entire detail of work plan and systems request is mentioned in this study. Various requirements of health clinic has described in this study that has included non functional and functional requirements.

As an evidence, used case of given health clinic is depicted in this study. Moreover, process model diagram along with other data models are illustrated through this research study. A case study analysis of Family First Clinic of Australia is described throughout this study.

Introduction

Family First Pharmacy Centre is a small chain of healthcare chain which not only caters to healthcare and diagnosis of patients but also has a pharmacy outlet attached with each centre, thereby allowing it to even operate in the retail pharmacy industrial sector.

Dr. Slate is noted to be the founder of this organization and it has outlets in North West Victoria. The case study aims to provide a system which would meet with the automation requirements stated by Dr. Slate to simplify the system of the organization.

Moreover, the economic, technical and organizational feasibility was analyzed and supported with the help of use cases and a process model and data model was provided for the system.

Systems Request

Project Name

The name of the project undertaken is Family First Medical Automation System (FFMAS). As per the research work of Nallas & Moon (2016), automation system is required for pathology and pharmacy sectors to ensure sustainability of the organization and reduction in diagnosis and treatment errors in the industrial sector. Hence, this project will be undertaken for the organization.

Project Sponsor

The sponsors of the project are Dr. Slate, Jennifer, Stephanie and Tom. The details of each of the sponsors of the project are provided as below:

Sponsor 1

Name: Dr. Slate

Designation: Founder of Family First Medical Centre healthcare chain

Contact: +61491571055

Email:dr.slate@familyfirstmedicalcentre.org

Sponsor 2

Name: Tom

Designation: Centre Manager of Horizon Hills outlet of Family First Medical Centre healthcare chain

Contact: +61491570122

Email: tom@familyfirstmedicacentre.org

Sponsor 3

Name: Jennifer

Designation: Pharmacy Manager at Horizon Hills outlet of Family First Medical Centre healthcare chain

Contact: +61491571069

Email: jennifer@familyfirstmedicalcentre.org

Sponsor 4

Name: Stephanie

Designation: Receptionist at Horizon-Hills outlet of Family First Medical Centre

Contact: +61491570720

Email: stephanie@familyfirstmedicalcentre.org

Business Needs and Requirements

Business Needs

It has been understood from given case study, that Family First Medical Centre of Australia has expanded its health clinic centres though it has a minimum numbers of employees. Therefore, for maintaining its business, Family First Medical Clinic has a requirement of increasing numbers of staffs.

On other hand, by expanding its centres, administrative costs are also increased which is difficult to handle. Thus, it has a corporate need to manage paperwork of various centres of this clinic. It has also a need of increasing number of contract physicians to improve its administrative costs.

According to Haddad & Wikramsanghe (2015), automation is required in every business entity to reduce costs, improve operations, and enhance the productivity of the firm.

As per case study, minimum 35 patients are treated by Family First clinic each day and have kept all prescription copies of those patients to operate pharmacy section properly.

This process has been taken a long time which has reduced administrative work speed and patients’ records files are overflowed. Therefore, it has a need to introduce a business system for increasing administrative work speed.

Hence, the organization requires such a system which maintains a record of information of patients, track the appointments of the healthcare service users and control the revenue and expenditure of the organization.

Requirements of Family First Medical Centre

As per the research of Marshall  & Lambert (2018), use of task automation system as an inventory in the organisation business results in saving of large data files and retrieval of same from cloud drive system. Moreover, it should involve the Internet of Things (IoT) allowing it to monitor the roster and drug administer to patients (Islam et al. 2015) (Refer to Appendix 1).

The system of Family First Medical Automation System (FFMAS) will meet the following requirements of the organization:

  • It will involve use of cloud drive system to maintain personal information of all the healthcare service providers involved in the organisation along with expiry of license of physicians and nurses in the organisation
  • Provide a system architecture involving an online scheduling system helping Stephanie to provide appointment timings to patients and recall the same for the organisation
  • Involve a financial tracking function in the system, enabling the system to be designed to track revenue of medical appointment, time period, and sales of the pharmacy along with monitoring of expenditure by the organisation
  • Implement use of IoT in web content providing patients with information about the information about physicians and link to engage in online booking of appointments
  • A drug log system will be applied within the automation system of the organisation, Family First Medical Centre to keep a check on the DPR and DEA requirements along with drug reorder reports and the delivery and sales of drugs in the pharmacy of Horizon Hills outlet.

Business Values

It was understood from the given case that Family First Medical Centre would generate a system to fulfil the following business values:

  • Keep a 100% record and apply retrieval system for information on doctors, nurses and other licensed health professionals
  • To reduce problems in administrative costs by 45%
  • To improve operations in services by 95% through automation of booking and provision of appropriate doctors and licensed healthcare professionals
  • To improve logistics involved in pharmacy department by 80%

Constraints in the case system

The research work of Ford et al. (2017) revealed that every business has to face certain limitations in inventory application in business operations. As revealed from the case study, the constraints which will encounter certain challenges in the use of the new system:

  • The system will involve use of WAN in IoT leading several patients to use devices like computer systems, laptops, tablets and mobile phones to contact the centre and book appointments online. This could lead to jamming and reduce speed of system.
  • The system will only be used by Stephanie, Tom, Jennifer and Dr. Slate. The measure would have to be taken to overcome not only lack of acceptance in technology by even avoid issue of errors in reporting by other staff members.

Work Plan

Serial No.Task NameDescription of the Task
1Meeting with Dr. SlateCreate an appointment to go and meet with Dr, Slate to find out about the project
2Business needs and valueTo find out the needs and requirements of the organisation
3FeasibilityTo check if the project is feasible
4Fulfilment of needsTo check the functional and non-functional requirements of system
5Business modelUse business model of Family First Medical Centre to plan the system
6Use casesTo provide flowcharts of how FFMAS system would work
7Process modelProvide an overview of how system process would work
8Data modelProvide data entry demo of the system

 

Responsible PersonEstimated
Durations (days)StartFinish
1130/06/201930/06/2019
111/07/20191/07/2019
233/07/20195/07/2019
326/07/20197/07/2019
4209/07/201910/07/2019
5113/07/201913/07/2019
6514/07/201918/07/2019
7419/07/201922/07/2019

 

ActualDependencyStatus
StartFinishDifference in Duration (days)
30/06/201930/06/20190nilcompleted
2/07/20192/07/201911completed
3/07/20195/07/201902completed
6/07/20198/07/201913completed
09/07/201912/07/201924completed
13/07/201913/07/201905completed
14/07/201918/07/201906completed
19/07/201923/07/201917completed

 

Table 1: Work plan

(Source: As created by the author)

Feasibility Analysis

Technical feasibility

In healthcare industry, different types of technical issues are emerged due to over-dependency on electronic devices such as a computer. As cited by Elhoseny et al. (2018), due to technical feasibility, a healthcare clinic has suffered some issues within its management system in context of maintaining proper record of patients and many other administrative works.

According to given case study of Family First Medical Centre, some issues have emerged which are mentioned below:

  • A patient while visited in one of the healthcare centres of Family First Clinic, and then detailed information has saved on computer system of that clinic. After that, if that patient has visited other clinics then a problem has raised as main detailed information has saved on previous clinic. Therefore, another new file has to create for that patient. Various detailed files of same patient can hamper proper record-keeping system of a patient.
  • The entire management process has depended on computer system and pharmaceutical sector of this clinic has maintained a record of available medicines on this system. Therefore high-data protection required to keep technical system updated and secure which is not present in this clinic.
  • Due to technical issue, online payment facility is not present in this clinic.
  • A patient can book an appointment along with the doctor over telephone. This telephonic appointment booking concept is also responsible for emerging a technical issue in clinic, however, telephonic appointment is not valid all the time as some patients do not present on given appointment time at clinic.

Organizational feasibility

To maintain an organizational management a proper administrative management approach is required. As suggested by Gelogo, Hwang & Kim (2015), organizational feasibility can hinder internal work environment.

  • There has one manager other operational staff in each centre of Family First Clinic; however, all staff is not very familiar along with their specific responsibilities. As stated in given scenario, Tom is centre-manager of Horizon Hills centre whereas Stephanie is receptionist and these two are entirely precede all patient description and are tracked all records of doctors. No other roles of other employees are stated in this case study. Therefore overloading work pressure can decrease job satisfaction level of employees and not only that overloaded work may be a reason for creating mistakes in administrative work as employees have to do some paper-based work.
  • Jennifer, who is pharmacy manager of Horizon Hills Centre, has served entire pharmacy responsibilities along with handles pharmacy stocks of medicines. Due to absence of proper organizational management process, Jennifer cannot generate medicine re0order report on time and therefore sometimes some medicines are not available on its medicine store.

Economic feasibility

An organization mainly depends on economic components. As mentioned by Ginter, Duncan & Swayne (2018), economic issues of an organization can decrease growth pr profit rate of that organization.

  • Drug values are increased day-by-day and therefore financial feasibility has risen within First Family clinic of Australia.
  • Some local investors are not provided payment on time or delayed for a lengthy period.
  • The billing method is not appropriate that can make a negative financial impact on monetary condition of this clinic.
  • As it has less number of staffs, though this clinic has to buy two more new computer systems for supporting its work pressure.
  • Installation of different systems has charged different rates and this clinic has to pay 25 percent of annual profit as a system installation charge.

Requirements Definition

Functional

The system would fulfil the following via the FFMAS system app implemented for automation of functions at the Family First Medical Centre:

Online booking system

Online booking system is defined to be an electronic means of management and monitoring of reservation.

IoT

IoT is defined as a group of infrastructure which connects devices together for access and generation of data (Dorsemaine et al. 2015).

Electronic prescription

As per research of Marshall & Lambert (2018), electronic prescription is defined to be a technology framework used by medical receptionists, physicians and nurses to prescribe pharmaceutical drugs in place of handwritten documents.

Cloud Drive

According to Nallas & Moon (2016), cloud drive is a web based service which enables the organisation to store and retrieve large size of data.

Non-functional

Operational

  • New operating management system of this clinic has to maintain all personal information of employees and contract doctors of Family First Clinic.
  • This system has to create a weekly schedule for each contract doctor to track work assignment of doctors.

Security

  • This system may prevent any mistakes within computer system by its updated technology. In order to keep safe personal data of doctors, patients and employees this new system has to emerge a password and username for internal administrative use.

Performance

  • New system has to update any telephonic appointment or cancellation quickly.
  • It has to provide a proper and maintained record of contract doctors and roster of those doctors. Therefore, receptionist can easily suggest a doctor to a walk-in- patient.

Political

  • Proposed new system for Family First Clinic has to provide an annual customer medication list, expenses for maintaining income-tax report.
  • It also has to generate daily log of dispensed drugs and also has to provide a separately controlled log to meet DEA and DPR requirements.
  • A proper inventory list of stock by valuation and quantity has to be provided by new management system for inventory tax aspects.

Documentation

Use Cases

Case Name: Booking AppointmentID- UC 1Priority- Medium
Actor- Receptionist
Description- A receptionist can take appointment of patients through telephone or face-to-face communication. Foe any walk-in patient receptionist has suggested available doctors as per patient’s requirement. After doctor consultation receptionist has informed billing amount of that patient and issued a receipt from the cash register of clinic.
Type: Temporal
Preconditions:

·       Patients can make their appointment through telephone or face-to-face methods.

·       Patients have to fill up a blank information form in clinic for first time visit.

·       After completing information form receptionist has prepared a clipboard and send it to doctor chamber. Then at the roster of a patient receptionist has informed that and sent patient to doctor.

Normal course:

·       During the time of doctor’s consultation, doctor has to fill consultation details that have included complaint of patient, diagnosis process and the prescribed treatment.

·       At the time of a patient’s consultation, receptionist has prepared next patient’s information card for the doctor on another clipboard.

Post conditions:

·       After consultation, doctor gives a prescription to patient and hands back patient card and clipboard to the receptionist.

·       Receptionist has informed consultation amount to patient and has collected payment amount.

·       After collecting payment amount receptionist has issued a receipt.

Expectations:

·       Under this case, it is not mentioned that if any doctor is unavailable after booking an appointment then either patient is transferred to another available doctor or not.

 

Case Name: Filling prescription in pharmacyID- UC 2Priority- Medium
Actor- Pharmacy manager
Description- Pharmacy manager of Family First Clinic has verified a patient’s name and address and therefore after some procedure of prescription filing, manager can give medications to the patient.
Type: Temporal
Preconditions:

·       Only prescriptions which are written by contract physicians of Family First Clinic are filled in this pharmacy.

Normal course:

·       After verifying patients’ address and name manger has retrieved a prescription profile-card in case of new patient.

·       Then type bottle label of prescription.

·       Getting prescribed product from shelf.

·       Putting appropriate amount on patients’ bottle.

·       Manager has used a numbering stamp-machine for assigning sequential number of prescription.

·       Then manager has mentioned prescription price.

·       After it, record price and prescription information on profile card of the patient and transaction log of pharmacy.

Post conditions:

·       Re-arranging patients profile card in alphabetical order.

·       File all prescriptions numerically.

·       Presents prescription to patient and collects accurate payment.

·       Manager has handed over prescription receipt to patient.

Expectations:

·       In case of chronic condition, it has required to make a traditional relationship along with regular physician for maintaining ongoing treatment of that patient.

 Process model

Context model

SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

Figure 1: Context diagram

(Source: Lo Storto & Goncharuk, 2017)

Level 0 diagram

SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

Figure 2

 DFD level

SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

Figure 3

SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

Figure 4

SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

Data Model

ENTITYATTRIBUTEREQUIRED TYPEFIELD LENGTHDESCRIPTION
User Email IDYes varchar25Primary key
First nameYes varchar25
Booking IDYes Integer25
Last name

 

Yes Varchar25
Receptionist Staff IDYes Integer25Foreign key
First nameYesVarchar25
Last nameYes Varchar25
Service IDYes Integer25
Nurses Staff IDYes Integer25Primary key
First nameYesVarchar25
Last nameYes Varchar25
Service IDYes Integer25
Casual staffFirst nameYes Varchar25NA
Last nameYes Varchar25
Staff IDYes Integer25
Service IDYes Integer25
Center DetailsYes Varchar25
Contract doctorsFirst nameYes Varchar25Foreign key
Last nameYes Varchar25
Service IDYes Integer25
Center detailsYes Varchar25
Shift detailsYes Varchar25

Table 1: Data Model

(Source: created by researcher)

Conclusion

From the above research study, it can be concluded that an overall internal system and design analysis is required. An entire overview of work plan and system request is described along with a process model diagram.

Feasibility analysis and requirement definitions are also mentioned through this research study which is mainly based on giving a scenario of Family First clinic of Australia.  Context diagram, DFD level, level 0 diagram along with data dictionary and ERD are also thoroughly illustrated in this research study.

References

Dorsemaine, B., Gaulier, J. P., Wary, J. P., Kheir, N., & Urien, P. (2015, September). Internet of Things: a definition & taxonomy. In 2015 9th International Conference on Next Generation Mobile Applications, Services and Technologies(pp. 72-77). IEEE. Retrieved from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Bruno_Dorsemaine/publication/282218657_Internet_of_Things_A_Definition_Taxonomy/links/560833be08ae8e08c0946052.pdf [Retrieved on 27 August 2019].

Elhoseny, M., Ramírez-González, G., Abu-Elnasr, O. M., Shawkat, S. A., Arunkumar, N., & Farouk, A. (2018). Secure medical data transmission model for IoT-based healthcare systems. IEEE Access6, 20596-20608. Retrieved from: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?arnumber=8320774

Ford, G., Compton, M., Millett, G., & Tzortzis, A. (2017). The role of digital disruption in healthcare service innovation. In Service Business Model Innovation in Healthcare and Hospital Management (pp. 57-70). Springer, Cham. Retrieved from: https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-46412-1_4 [Retrieved on 27 August 2019].

Gelogo, Y. E., Hwang, H. J., & Kim, H. K. (2015). Internet of things (IoT) framework for u-healthcare system. International Journal of Smart Home9(11), 323-330. Retrieved from: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/8be1/77fd8653b980dac1158639ad0ef5143e06e7.pdf

Ginter, P. M., Duncan, W. J., & Swayne, L. E. (2018). The strategic management of health care organizations. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.

Haddad, P., & Wickramasinghe, N. (2015). The role of IT governance in generating business value from IT investments in healthcare: Lessons from an Australian experience. In Bled eConference (p. 23). Retrieved from: https://domino.fov.uni-mb.si/proceedings.nsf/Proceedings/E7BC8972AD97DDC9C1257E5B0048DBA9/$File/2_Haddad.pdf [Retrieved on 27 August 2019].

Islam, S. R., Kwak, D., Kabir, M. H., Hossain, M., & Kwak, K. S. (2015). The internet of things for health care: a comprehensive survey. IEEE Access, 3, 678-708. Retrieved from: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?arnumber=7113786 [Retrieved on 27 August 2019].

Lo Storto, C., & Goncharuk, A. G. (2017). Efficiency vs effectiveness: A benchmarking study on European healthcare systems. Economics & Sociology10(3), 102-115. Retrieved from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Corrado_Lo_Storto2/publication/320508371_Efficiency_vs_Effectiveness_a_Benchmarking_Study_on_European_Healthcare_Systems/links/59e90d8b0f7e9bc89b779aa8/Efficiency-vs-Effectiveness-a-Benchmarking-Study-on-European-Healthcare-Systems.pdf

Marshall, T. E., & Lambert, S. L. (2018). Cloud-based intelligent accounting applications: accounting task automation using IBM watson cognitive computing. Journal of Emerging Technologies in Accounting, 15(1), 199-215. Retrieved from: https://aaapubs.org/doi/abs/10.2308/jeta-52095?journalCode=jeta [Retrieved on 27 August 2019].

Nallas, R., & Moon, J. (2016). Integration of automation and clinical decision support systems. In Improving health management through clinical decision support systems (pp. 165-185). IGI Global. Retrieved from: https://www.igi-global.com/chapter/integration-of-automation-and-clinical-decision-support-systems/138645 [Retrieved on 27 August 2019].

Appendices

Appendix 1: Basic Concept of IoT integration in system architecture

(Source: https://www.researchgate.net/figure/IoT-healthcare-network-IoThNet-issues_fig21_280696619)

 

 

 

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