Analysis of the employee turnover crisis in Kelly Club
Kelly Club has been operating since 2009 and providing “the very best” before and after schools programmes that keep the children engaged in co – curricular developmental programme. There is enough participatory enthusiasm regarding the work the employees are asked to do. Still, there is a significant turnover ratio in the organisation.
Two types of factors mainly affect the turnover, namely, voluntary and involuntary. The factors affecting voluntary turnover have been identified as Career prospects and aspirations, intent to travel or move overseas and seeking more sustainable and steady source of income.
The factors affecting involuntary turnover are identified as, lack of clear communication regarding future prospects on part of the organisation, inability to set fixed employment routines or guaranteed work hours. Career prospects in the future and the work hours currently have been identified as the key limitations that propel the high rate of employee turnover.
This is further compounded by the fact that there is a clear lack of communication on part of the organisation to emphasize the importance of these employees and establish sufficient reward system for their work. Unless significant steps are taken to mitigate these factors affecting turnover, it could mean a high degree of volatility in the human resource section for the company.
Kelly Club is a platform which supplies OSCAR before-cares, aftercare and holiday programmes all over New Zealand. Their objective is not to just give “a childcare facility”, but to build a safe surrounding for the children where they can learn and enjoy at the same time. Kelly Club has been operating since 2009 and providing “the very best” before and after schools programmes that keep the children engaged in co – curricular developmental programme. They provide a diverse mix of “entertainment, education and relaxation” (kellyclub.co.nz, 2019).
The organisation however has been facing the issue of high employee turnover in the recent times. This report has been generated as a response to this development, so as to be able to understand the reasons behind the rise in employee turnover, specifically “voluntary employee turnover” in the organisation and then qualitatively identify the scope of impact that various organisational and personal factors have on the rate of turnover in the organisation, to develop and design recommendations that could help in mitigating the factors that are affecting the turnover ratio in the organisation.
In order to clearly understand the implications of employee turnover, there needs to be maintained a clear understanding regarding its definition. In defining employee turnover, there needs to be addressed a number of key issues. The most important among them all being the nature of turnover. Traditionally, turnover has been classified broadly into two categories based on the factors affecting the process, namely voluntary turnover and involuntary turnover (McBoy and Karakowsky, 2000; Price, 1977; Rodrigues, 2008). Voluntary turnover refers to those in which the employee takes a conscious decision to terminate their employment based on factors that are affecting them specifically (McEvoy and Cascio, 1987). Involuntary turnover, on the other hand, refers to termination of employment resulting from factors that are not in control of the particular employee themselves, like organisation downsizing, organisation underperformance, etc. (Allen, 2000). Therefore, special attention needs to be made while analysing employee turnover in any organisation so as not to collate the two types of turnover in the study as that might dilute the relevance of the study (Rodrigues, 2008). Therefore for the purposes of this report, the definition of turnover that is being considered is one indicated by Price (1977) which states that employee turnover means the “voluntary cessation of membership’ of an organisation by an employee of that organisation.” So, from here on, “turnover” or “employee turnover” in the context of this report would refer to voluntary turnover only, unless otherwise specified.
Morrell, et al. (2004) have elucidated that turnover could cause significant costs in terms of the resources invested which could otherwise have been avoided by the use of better human resource management, provision of opportunity, training and adequate reward structure. There, further, needs to be an assessment of the turnover in terms of whether it was “avoidable” or not.
Further, in studying the employee turnover of an organisation, it might not be feasible to study the employees that have already ceased their membership to the organisation and hence, there needs to be identified precursors to turnover while the employees still remain participant members (Cohen and Golan, 2007). Employees’ intent which informs their behavioural patterns has been found to be the most potent predictor of eventual turnover (Firth, et al., 2004). This in fact forms the underlying rationale of this report to analyse the behaviour of the current employees of Kelly Club and to decipher intent and the various underlying factors responsible for that.
Aims of the report
The main aim of the report is to clearly identify the factors affecting the increasing employee turnover ratio in Kelly Club and in doing so suggest recommendations of practice that could be utilised to reduce the “voluntary turnover rate” in the organisation.
- To analyse the voluntary employee turnover rate in Kelly Club and identify the factors affecting it.
- To design recommendations based on the findings that could be applied in practice by the organisation to stifle the turnover rate.
Labour is one of the most fundamental aspects that is essential for any organisation that wants to “improve effectiveness and / or increase productivity by relying solely on a basic economic model” (Sauian, 2002) and even more so in such business as Kelly Club wherein the primary product or service offered is based solely on the human resource that the company can boast of. Employees have to be at the very foundation of successful approaches and they alone are responsible in developing a significant institutional competitive advantage (Pfeffer, 1994) in such businesses. The activity of “control, cultivate and maintain” employees has over time developed into a “science” (Jackson and Schuler, 1987) which needs to be analytically studied. Employee turnover by itself is damaging to the organisation, but additionally it can have cascading effects that not only impact the organisation and the employee but also the “wider collegial team” (Clarke, 2001). An in – depth analysis and understanding of the impact of labour turnover could improve the understanding of the degree to which institutions and the employees within those institutions can adapt to, be nimble and contain the turnover process (Booth and Hammer, 2007; Rodrigues, 2008; Jackson and Schuler, 1995). There is abundant literature relating to the process of turnover in businesses and organisations (Price, 1977; Mobley, 1982), there has not been any models of measurement relating to the reasons why the employees decide to leave that is universally accepted (Rodrigues, 2008; Lee and Mitchell, 1994). A comprehensive study into this matter is beyond the scope of this report, however, a localised study specifically contained to the Kelly Club can be done so as to derive generalisations that would be beneficial for both designing specific recommendations for the company and also for devising generalisations that could have broader implications.
Employee turnover is a phenomenon that has been studied extensively over the years. The earliest studies conducted to analyse the factors affecting turnover can be dated back to the 1900s. Over the years, multivariate models which combine a multitude of variables that impact turnover have been developed by researchers. These models have subsequently been empirically tested in order to develop prediction mechanisms in determining why individuals might choose to withdraw membership from an organisation. However, inspite of this availability of information, the studies themselves are constrained to a relatively small number of variables that do not adequately take into consideration the complex psychological processes that are intrinsic to the turnover process and the underlying “intent to turnover” decisions. (Rodrigues, 2008)
Over the years researchers have developed multiple models on the topic employee turnover hence it is a widely discussed and much studied phenomenon worldwide. Back in mid 1900s there was even a famous literature on the various causes of voluntary employee turnover that have attained some prominent attention. The multivariate models initiated on the topic by various researches have successfully lead to a vast combination of a number of factors that have significantly contributed to the factors of turnover. These models were further been tested empirically to predict why an employee leaves an organisation mid way. In spite of these rich information represented by the models, there are still various models and studies which are not based on much eminent information and thus represent a small number of variables which further fails to provide definite explanations due to their limited focus. However, the entire subject matter of employee turnover and the intentions to turnover decision is very complex and cannot be nullified in just black and white. This is one of the main reasons why there are so many studies on this subject but still many fail to address the core reasons of it and these further leads to a line of criticism of turnover studies that fails to express the complex psychological processes in the individual turnover.
Several studies were conducted on this topic, some of them are by Brooke (2003); Lockwood & Ansari (1999), Mano-Negrin (2001) have tried to explain the core reasons of why individuals leave their job. One of the recent studies in the context of New Zealand employees, conducted by Boxall, Macky, and Rasmusses (2003) have tried to recapitulate that the drive for job-change includes several reasons and cannot be justified by a single statement. Hence, it is multi-faceted and just one reason cannot explain the entire phenomenon. However, over the years several studies have highlighted number of factors that have appeared to be linked to employee turnover. Mobley, Griffeth, Hand and Meglino (1979) have also conducted a study on the same and a review of it have revealed that factors such as age, tenure, job content, satisfaction, and commitment are all responsible for employee turnover. All these factors are negatively related to the matter. To put it straight, higher the variables, lower shall be the turnover. Griffeth, Hom, and Gaerther (2000) have conducted an analysis of 800 employees turnover studies and stated some well established findings on the various factors which have influenced employee turnover. Some of them have been explained bellow.
Comparison between actual and perceived alternate opportunities
Mark and Simon’s (1958) seminal work on ease of movement have marked the link between the actual and perceived alternative opportunities to employee turnover on an employee level. Over the following years many research were aimed to focus on the relationship between different subject such as employee turnover, perceived alternative opportunities and job satisfaction. It was only in recent times that the role of both actual and perceived alternative opportunities has come into the limelight and has become a subject of debate and concern in the context of explaining employee turnover.
Kirschenbaum and Mano-Negrin (1999) research in the 1990s indicated that an actual job opportunity has better offers on confirmation of actual employee turnover behaviour than that of the perceived alternative employment market opportunities. The author, in his study, on medical units have used perceived and actual job opportunities in both external and internal market and hence the author concluded that for actual turnover behaviour, actual job opportunities were the best set of predictors than that of perceived internal or external employment market opportunities.
Griffeth et al. (2000) in contrast, have concluded in an updated meta-analysis that employee turnover can be significantly predicted by a perceived alternative job opportunity. However, actual opportunity does appear as a better predictor of turnover but there are some valid justifications of the relationship between actual turnover and perceived alternative opportunities. Thus, to recapitulate, prominent literature states that actual job opportunity has a strong relationship with turnover and thus is a factor that influence employee turnover.
Intent to leave membership
Several empirical researches have been conducted on employee turnover, which have solely focused on actual turnover. However, studies have found that perceived alternative opportunities are highly associated with the intent to quit but not the actual turnover. Hellman’s (1997) research has further supported the statement and observed that link between one’s intention to quit is basically stronger to job satisfaction and not for the actual turnover. Mobley et al. (1979) in their research study presented the view that even though the link between intention to quit and turnover is persistent; it only stands for a less than a quarter of the variability in turnover. Hence, it is clear to understand that there are some practical difficulties that follows when turnover research are been done among individuals who have quit an organisation.
Firth et el. (2004) in his study on the subject have stated that the behavioural patterns in employees can highly be influenced by the managers of the organisation and thus this can further influence ones intention to quit. This hypothesis was further supported by some relevant study delivered by Ming, Mellor, Siong, Moore and firth (2006) who is of the same view that if the management is not supportive and willing to resolve employees problems than this can severely affect the job satisfaction and can further lead to an increase in stress level that can influence the employees to quit. Hence there is a strong relationship between intention to quit and perceived alternatives as it have been reflected in literatures several times.
Over two decades, numerous turnover studies have been spanning around where the relationship between job satisfaction and turnover have been highlighted vigorously. Mobley et al. (1979) has conducted a research where it has clearly stated that job satisfaction is negatively linked to turnover but little have been expressed in terms of variability in employee turnover. Thus, Griffeth et al. (2000) have further presented a picture in comparison where it states that the turnover is moderately been predicted by job satisfaction. A New Zealand based study which is considered to be quiet fresh by Boxall et al. (2003) revealed that one of the main reason for individuals leaving their job is finding a new one which is more interesting in nature. Over some extended period the studies were conducted, but however, the results were quit contrasting as it states that job satisfaction has a valid connection to turnover. But it must be noted that if job satisfaction as a single variable cannot have much influence on employee turnover as it is contingent on other variables such as economic and psychological factors in order to possess explanatory and predicative power. ( Lum, Kervin, Clark, Reid & Sirola, 1998)
Previous studies have significantly brought to light correlations between the parameters of organisational commitment and the intent to turnover among employees (Cohen & Hudecek, 1993; Lum et al. 1998). There exist various different kinds or types of organisational commitment. Allen and Meyer (1990) in their paper studied the correlations between “intent to turnover” and what they identified as the three attributes of attitudinal commitment of an organisation, namely, “affective”, “continuance” and “normative.” Here, affective continuance refers to the emotional attachment of the member or employee to the specific organisation that they are working for; continuance commitment refers to the “need of the employee” to continue his job in the specific organisation based on the associated Costs to Organisation (CTO); and finally, normative commitment refers to the obligatory feelings that a member can develop which gives them a sense of retaining with the organisation (ibid.). Allan and Meyer (2010) further showed that all of these three components resulted in a negative to the intent to turnover.
Personal characteristics of the employee
Although a vast number of studies have been done to identify the various characteristic traits that affect the turnover statistics, however, only a few characteristic traits have been identified which have been identified to “meaningfully predict employee turnover” (Cotton & Tuttle, 1986; Mobley et al. 1979). Among all the factors studied, only age, number of dependents, gender, and tenure were deemed to be negatively associated to turnover (ibid.). For example, female employees who were young, had lesser number of dependents, and had fewer years of experience in an organisation had more likelihood of turnover as opposed to a older person, who has been with the organisation for a longer tenure, who is also progressively less likely to turnover, as length of service or tenure has been found to be one of the best predictors of turnover.
There are several factors intrinsic to this parameter and can be listed as such: wages satisfaction, job satisfaction, job performance, wages, supervision, promotional opportunities, work description and career commitment (Rodrigues, 2008). There have been conflicting studies in this regard, where some have suggested that wages have no relation to turnover (Mobley, et al, 1979), where as some have suggested that turnover is inversely related to the wages (Martin, 2003; Tang, et al., 2000) regardless of the job satisfaction parameter based on the importance that the specific member or employee places on monetary returns. Further, the correlation between the variables supervision, wage satisfaction and work description have been found to be negatively related to each other (Lima & Pereira, 2003) which indicates that the low wages prompted the members to be less satisfied with the supervision that they receive and also attain less satisfaction from the work, which in turn would prime them for turnover.
Career Progression and Training
Hansson (2007) has highlighted the fact that the members or employees perceive staff development and training as a motivational tool to make them more marketable. Forrier and Sels (2003) further established the connection between training and future employment, in that, the employees view their future employment dependent on the training and staff development procedures incorporated in an organisation. In summation, organisations need to rationalise and tailor make the type of training provided in order to reduce intent to turnover and actual turnover (Rodrigues. 2008).
To create a theoretical framework for understanding the factors affecting turnover, there needs to be set clear parameters for those factors. Over the years, there have been many studies conducted and many theories developed regarding the factors that affect the motivation among the employees in an organisation, and therefore by extension, affect the intent to turnover. One of the most prominent among those is the “hierarchy of needs theory” which was proposed by Abraham Maslow. He describes the five classes of needs as Physiological needs, which form the most basic necessities for an individual like water, sleep, food and sex; Safety needs which comprise of pursuit of safety in both physical and emotional aspects like from accidents, assault, fear, tensions, unemployment, etc.; Social needs which refers to the tertiary level of need for an individual comprising of development of meaningful social relationships; Esteem needs which comprise of both self esteem needs like self – respect, confidence, competence, independence, etc and also esteem of other like power, prestige and recognition, etc.; and finally Self-Actualisation needs which refers to the ambitions and pursuit of realising an individual’s full potential. Although this theory makes intuitive logic and has an intrinsic ease of understanding, there are several critiques of this theory as well regarding its validity, applicability and order. It had yet to receive significant empirical or other research back up. Also other researcher have pointed out that the order of the needs might not be the same for all the individuals and additionally everyone may not even have the same needs.
Another prominent theory regarding employee motivation is Fredrick Herzberg’s “Two factor theory.” This theory identifies two separate sets of factors that affect the employee motivation in an organisation, namely, Hygiene factors and Motivators. Hygiene factors relate to the external factors to the job specifically and relate more to the environment of the job. These factors include salary, supervision, company policy, job security, etc. These factors are called “dissatisfiers” as their presence need not necessarily case any additional motivation for the employees, however, their absence can cause serious discomfort. The second set of factors that had been identified was the Motivators which are more intrinsic to the job that the employees undertake. Parameters like recognition for their work, achievement, etc fall under the purview of this category. Absence of these factors does not affect the motivation of the employees per se but presence of these parameters can motivate the employees to a large extent. The below table would more clearly depict the differences and categorisation more clearly.
For the purposes of this study, the two factor theory has been selected for use as this provides a lot more basis for effective qualitative data collection as opposed to the hierarchy of needs theory. Further, for employee turnover analysis, this also proves to be more prudent as it clearly defines parameters that can be categorically analysed based on which specific recommendations can be made.
In order to satisfactorily undertake a research into understanding the employee turnover issue in Kelly Club, a primary data collection method along with an emphasis on secondary data collection for context has been deemed to be the most prudent. The various considerations regarding the various specific aspects of this study have been discussed in details below.
The research paradigm of interpretivism has been given preference over the paradigm of positivism. A positivist approach can help in understanding the cumulative perception of the sector however, the interpretivist method has been deemed more prudent in this case because it can provide a better understanding of the ingrained behavioural aspects in relation to the sector and also assist in the ground up analysis of the same. The table given below would provide a more apt differentiation of the two research paradigms.
|Relationship between the society and individual||Behaviour can be explained through the social norms that the individuals are being exposed to.||Individuals are complex and intricate, which requires specific analysis to understand the objective reality of their subjective opinions.|
|General Focus of the research||Quantitative methods which afford the researcher to gain perspective on the broader picture while remaining detached from individual opinions.||Qualitative methods that allow for closer interaction with the respondents.|
|Preferred research Methods||Quantitative
· Official Statistics
· Social Surveys
· Structured Interviews
· Personal Documents
· Participant observation.
· Unstructured interviews.
Therefore, considering the requirements of this research, a paradigm of interpretivism has been selected for this study.
For research methodology based on the collection of primary data, the researcher first needs to evaluate the approach that the data analysis stage of the study would require. There are two distinct approaches that can be undertaken for the purposes of this research, namely, inductive and deductive (Schoonenboom and Johnson, 2017). The deductive approach incorporates the evaluation of existing theories to develop a new hypothesis and then designing the methodology of the research so as to be able to test the validity of the hypothesis (Wilson, 2010). On the other hand, inductive approach is initiated with specific observation being made first hand, and then specific or generalised conclusions are drawn through the process of the research. Given, the selection of the observation criterion have been considered and selected properly, then the generalisations can be extended to all other groups that are in similar conditions and situations (Zalaghi and Khazaei, 2016).
As such, for the purposes of this research, a more ground-up inductive research approach has been selected to be able to present a body of work from which further deductive hypothesis can be drawn.
In order to devise the strategy for this research, the research paradigms and the approaches that have been selected as optimal for this study need to be carefully considered in designing a research strategy for the research at hand. In conducting a primary data collection methodology, the most prudent form that can be considered is that of the survey analysis. Survey analysis is a method of data collection that relies on targeted enquiries (Marsland, et.al., n.d.). These enquiries could be face – to – face, through forums or through long distance communication.
Having considered the requirements of this research at hand, and the paradigm of interpretivism that has been deemed prudent, survey analysis stands out as the most effective mode of data collection, where in specific structured queries can be made to a selected sample size so as to be able to record the responses.
Primary data collection refers to the collection of first hand data through a variety of methods (Kabir, 2016). There are two separate methods that can be utilised in the collection of primary data for the purposes of research, namely, quantitative and qualitative. Quantitative data collection refers to the collection of empirical data from the given sample population, where as qualitative data collection refers to the collection of primary data regarding the subjective opinions and observations from the surveyees and derive their cumulative perspective on the subject matter at hand. These can be collected through structured interviews, semi – structured interviews, and some other methods as well. For this research, mostly the qualitative data collection methods have been taken into consideration, so as to be able to derive hypothesis that are reflective of the perspective of the surveyees. This also allows for the researchers to be aware of the biases in responses that respondents might have and also adjust for those in the data analysis part of the process. This required a randomised collection of data from a sample size, the size and derivation of which has been detailed below.
While undertaking an endeavour to collect primary data, there need to be made certain ethical considerations regarding the acquisition, publication and use of that data. In this case, special care had to be taken to ensure that the communication regarding the collection of data and its intended use had been made abundantly clear to the parties and had been made without any deception regarding the use of it. Further, it had to be made sure that all requests had been made formally to all the necessary parties and achievable assurance had been made regarding the publication of private information without the proper given consent. All the requests for anonymity have been adhered to. It has also been made sure that the private information that were deemed irrelevant have been destroyed after the completion of the data so as to not facilitate any untoward use of that data.
The main advantage of using a primary data collection method is that, verifiable and precise responses to the requisite queries can be collected from parties that are most involved in the matter. Their variances in perspectives can be accounted for and the appropriate control measures can be applied based on the necessities and requirements of the study at hand.
One of the major weaknesses of the methodology is that, this only accounts for the subjective opinions of the employees that are involved in the organisation and does not allow for a detailed overall situational analysis of the sector. However, consistent with the aims and objectives of this project, this methodology is apt considering that we will be utilising secondary data for contextual placement of the findings.
In conclusion, in reference to the research methodology, it can be summarily said that primary data collection methods were used for this study. The research paradigm of interpretivism was chosen over positivism. The approach for the design of the research has been decided to be inductive rather than deductive. As far as the research strategy is concerned, a Survey analysis method was deemed to be more appropriate for the study which would include mainly qualitative data collection methods. Finally all ethical considerations that would need to be considered have been discussed in this chapter. Following this, the strengths and weakness that are intrinsic to the selected research methodology have been discussed in this chapter which provides a more clear idea of the limitations of the study and scope thereof.
|Participation||Beginning teachers gained acceptance because of their enthusiasm and vitality.|
|Progress in employment||Often required extra assistance in the early months of their teaching career, particularly in areas such as classroom management thereby increasing the importance of retaining the new recruits and prevent turnover.|
|Work environment||Beginning teachers likes the teaching aspect of their work, however, were frustrated and overwhelmed by the amount of paper work that they had to undertake.|
|Training and Staff development||More comprehensive and organised training schedule was wanted by most of the beginning teachers.|
|Future plans||More than 1/3 of the beginning teachers claimed that they want to continue in the teaching sector in NZ and the remainder mostly wanted to remain in the sector but transfer overseas.|
(Source: Education Counts, 2002)
|Participation||Most of the staff members interviewed responded that they do like and enjoy the work that they do. The reasons for pursuing this job however varied from fulfilment to part time income to perceived training for future jobs.|
|Progress in employment||Most of the respondents (all except one) viewed this job as a learning experience and a training ground for careers in the education industry elsewhere, none of them however, perceived this job as being able to provide adequate sustainable employment in the future.|
|Work environment||The main identifying factor in the work environment that could be identified is the wage and work allocation, limitations and lack of sustainability of which could be identified as a major hurdle for developing employee loyalty.|
|Training and Staff development||Most of the respondents viewed the work experience as training for further employment in the education sector but not in this organisation.|
|Future plans||All except one respondent claimed to want to shift to another profession, most of them wanted to continue in the education sector, however, Kelly Club was not deemed as an alternative for the future exclusively in any of the cases.|
|Hygiene factors||Salary||H1||Present but not satisfactory. Most of the staff are employed as part time.|
|Company policy||H2||Not motivating as there is no clear line of communication regarding future prospects and also their worth to the company.|
|H3||Not motivating as there is no real effort to provide sufficient work to sustain for most of the interviewed staff.|
|Work Conditions||H4||Satisfactory and generally motivates employees the most.|
|Motivators||Job satisfaction||M1||High, most of the employees are enthusiastic participants.|
|M2||Not present, most of the employees do not see paths of progression in the company.|
|Growth||M3||Not present, most of the staff interviewed did not perceive any growth opportunities in the company and had plans to say in the sector, however either overseas or in other organisations.|
From the above two cases we can clearly see that, both in Kelly Club and the broader educational sector there is a distinct participatory enthusiasm among the employees to continue in the sector. However, the key difference being that the Kelly Club employees did not find the employment opportunities offered to them as being sustainable for their future. This represents a clear lack of initiative on part of the Kelly Club in their retention strategies and also a distinct lack of communication with their employees regarding their expectations from their jobs. Another factor that could affect the turnover ratio in the sector is the high mobility or intent to mobilise among those involved in the education sector which could also be a key factor that is affecting the retention of the employees.
Further along the two factor theory, there could be identified some key factors that needed to be addressed as well. Among the dissatisfiers or the hygiene factors, Company policy and security had an adverse effect on the staff where as the salary and the work conditions have been conducive to retention. In the motivators job satisfaction was relatively high, however, the advancement and growth parameters showed significant deficiencies which can have causal effect on the intent to turnover among employees of the organisation.
The training and recruitment of new employees in the sector and developing them into effective assets takes a lot of investment upfront moth monetary and time related. However, there has been identified a remarkable rate of turnover in Kelly Club employment. Several parameters could be identified through this report that affects this phenomenon. Those include some factors that are intrinsic to the employees themselves and also some that are beyond the control of the employees. This is what causes the turnover in both the “involuntary” and “voluntary” fashions. Career prospects and aspirations, intent to travel or move overseas and seeking more sustainable and steady source of income are key factors that affect the voluntary turnover. In addition to that, lack of clear communication regarding future prospects on part of the organisation, inability to set fixed employment routines or guaranteed work hours are other factors that cause involuntary turnover in the organisation.
Kelly Club has been operating since 2009 and providing “the very best” before and after schools programmes that keep the children engaged in co – curricular developmental programme. There is enough participatory enthusiasm regarding the work the employees are asked to do. Still, there is a significant turnover ratio in the organisation. Two types of factors mainly affect the turnover, namely, voluntary and involuntary. The factors affecting voluntary turnover have been identified as Career prospects and aspirations, intent to travel or move overseas and seeking more sustainable and steady source of income. The factors affecting involuntary turnover are identified as, lack of clear communication regarding future prospects on part of the organisation, inability to set fixed employment routines or guaranteed work hours. Career prospects in the future and the work hours currently have been identified as the key limitations that propel the high rate of employee turnover. This is further compounded by the fact that there is a clear lack of communication on part of the organisation to emphasize the importance of these employees and establish sufficient reward system for their work. Unless significant steps are taken to mitigate these factors affecting turnover, it could mean a high degree of volatility in the human resource section for the company.
Allen, R. K. (2000). Lean and mean: Workforce 2000 in America. Journal of Workplace Learning, 9 (1), 34-42.
Binu, V.S., Mayya, S.S. and Dhar, M. (2014). Some basic aspects of statistical methods and sample size determination in health science research. Viewed on 6th August, 2019. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4279315/
Booth, S., & Hamer, K. (2007). Labour turnover in the retail industry. Predicting the role of individual, organisational and environmental factors. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 35 (4), 289-307.
Boxall, P., Macky, K., & Rasmussen, E. (2003). Labour turnover and retention in New Zealand: the causes and consequences of leaving and staying with employers. Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources, 41 (2), 196- 214.
Brooke, L. (2003). Human Resource costs and benefits of maintaining a mature age workforce. International Journal of Manpower, 24 (3), 260- 283.
Clarke, K. (2001). What businesses are doing to attract and retain employees becoming an employer of choice. Employees Benefits Journal, 26 (1), 21-24.
Cohen, A., & Golan, R. (2007). Predicting absenteeism and turnover intentions by past absenteeism and work attitudes. An empirical examination of female employees in long term nursing care facilities. Career Development International, 12 (5), 416-432.
Education Counts (2002). Recruitment and Retention in New Zealand Secondary Schools. Viewed on 28th August, 2019. Retrieved from: https://www.educationcounts.govt.nz/publications/schooling/5307
Firth, L., Mellor, D. J., Moore, K. A., & Loquet, C. (2004). How can managers reduce employee intention to quit? Journal of Managerial Psychology, 19 (2), 170-187.
Griffeth, R. W., Hom, P. W., & Gaertner, S. (2000). A Meta-analysis of antecedents and correlates of employee turnover: Update, moderator tests, and research implications for the next millennium. Journal of Management, 26 (3), 463-488.
Jackson, S. E., & Schuler, R. S. (1987). Linking competitive strategies with human resources management practices. The Academy of Management Executive, 1 (3), 207-219.
Jackson, S. E., & Schuler, R. S. (1995). Understanding human resource management in the context of organisations and their environments. Annual review of Psychology, 46, 237-264.
Kabir, S.M.S. (2016). Methods Of Data Collection. Viewed on 6th August. Retrieved from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/325846997_METHODS_OF_DATA_COLLECTION/link/5b3127b3a6fdcc8506cc9d48/download
Kellyclub.co.nz (2019). QUALITY BEFORE- AND AFTER- SCHOOL CARE. Viewed: 28th August, 2019. Retrieved: https://www.kellyclub.co.nz/our-programmes
Lee, T. W., & Mitchell, T. R. (1994). An Alternative Approach: The Unfolding Model of Voluntary Employee Turnover. Academy of Management Review, 19 (1), 51-89.
Lockwood, D., & Ansari, A. (1999). Recruiting and retaining scarce information technology talent: A focus group study. Industrial Management & Data Systems, 99 (6), 251-256.
Mano-Negrin, R. (2001). An occupational preference model of turnover behaviour – The case of Israel’s medical sector employees. Journal of Management in Medicine, 15 (2), 106-124.
March, J. G., & Simon, H. A. (1958). Organizations. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Marsland, N., Wilson, I., Abeyasekera, S. And Kleih, U. (n.d.). A Methodological Framework For Combining Quantitative And Qualitative Survey Methods. Viewed on: 6th August, 2019. Retrieved from: http://web.pdx.edu/~stipakb/download/PA555/Qual-Quan1.pdf
McBoy, K.K. and Karakowsky, L. (2000). Examining sources of influence on employee turnover in the part-time work context. Leadership and Organisation Development Journal, 21 (3), 136-144.
McEvoy, G. M., & Cascio, W. F. (1987). Do good or poor performers leave? A meta-analysis of the relationship between performance and turnover. Academy of Management Journal, 30 (4), 744-762.
Mobley, W. H. (1982). Employee Turnover: Causes, Consequences and Control. Reading, London: Addison-Wesley Publishing.
Mobley, W. H., Griffeth, R. W., Hand, H. H., & Meglino, B. M. (1979). Review and conceptual analysis of the employee turnover process. Psychological Bulletin, 86 (3), 493-522.
Morrell, K., Loan-Clarke, J., & Wilkinson, A. (2004). Organisational change and employee turnover. Personnel Review, 33 (2), 161-173.
Pfeffer, J. (1994). Competitive Advantage through People. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press
Price, J. L. (1977). The Study of Turnover. (1st ed.). Ames, USA: Iowa State University Press.
Rodrigues, W. (2008). An investigation into staff retention issues in a New Zealand District Health Board. Unitec New Zealand. Viewed: 26th August, 2019. Retrieved: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org
Sauian, M. S. (2002). Information Technology & People. Integrated Manufacturing Systems, 13 (6), 435-438.
Schoonenboom, J. and Johnson, R.B. (2017). How to Construct a Mixed Methods Research Design. Kolner Z Soz Sozpsychol. Vol. 69(2). pp. 107-131.
Wilson, J. (2010). Essentials of Business Research: A Guide to Doing Your Research Project. SAGE Publications.
Zalaghi, H. And Khazaei, M. (2016). The Role of Deductive and Inductive Reasoning in Accounting Research and Standard Setting. Asian Journal of Finance & Accounting. Vol. 8(1). pp. 23-37. Viewed on 6th August, 2019. Retrieved from: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/52f5/f38f2d481716e6e139b81115fa072f08de68.pdf
Academic Research Writing Arm of Global Research Services.