The Strategic Role of Festivals
This paper critically evaluates the impact of destinations and festivals over the tourism strategy. Additionally, public sector promotes the festivals and maintaining the historical places in order to retain the charm of destination among the traveller. In order to illustrate this idea, the report analyses the effect of festivals on the development of cities and benefits which gained at local, regional and national level. In regards to this, there are various festivals, events held every year that add image and competitive advantage for the host country (Popescu and Corbos, 2012). Likewise, UK has famous destination such as art gallery, historical places and towers which will attracts various visitor. It would provide benefits to the UK economy in the form of high employment rate; improve standard of living and increasing foreign investment in the local and regional area of UK.
In concern to study, the paper will briefly discuss about the UK famous destinations, festivals impacts towards the attracting of travellers towards the country. In this, the role of public sector will be studied. Lastly, it will identify the ways to build the balance and strategic event portfolios (Hays et al., 2013). Similarly, the strategic planning approach will be identified for the development of festival and events tourism. Thus, this report provides the detail knowledge about the significances of festival and destination of particular country over the traveller behaviour.
There are numerous destinations available in the country UK and such locations are always considered as a centre of attraction for tourist. It includes historical places, cultural events and festivals. In regards to this, there is some famous destination that proves to be successful in terms to grab the attention of maximum tourist (Agha and Taks, 2015). These places tends to be tower of London, science & natural history and national gallery, tower Bridge, Hyde Park and River Thames, London Eyes and many more. However, the destinations of particular country involve the authentic culture, traditions and customs and these areas might attract more the tourist. This is because now-a-days people want to explore or develop an understanding related to different culture and religion which allows them to visit several areas (Banerjee et al., 2018). Other than that, the UK much follows the English culture which is quite associated with USA. That’s why, several elements in the form of cuisine and rituals are relatable to Western cultural countries. Even in the case of art and language area, the English art is driven by the catholic and western areas. These similarities also bring interest of different religious people to come and explore the UK destination which presents their culture and other country religion also.
According to Ramukumba (2014), different historical places of UK try to attract the maximum tourist from different part of countries because it presents the true and original culture and heritage of English people. Other than that, art gallery including the national gallery houses also very rich in heritage as it present the pure culture of British with the way of painting form. This is the best practice to communicate the tourist about the customs of British people. Thus, it can be identified that the heritage and monuments are places that might influences high towards attracting the tourist.
In contrary to the study of destinations, Haven‐Tang and Jones (2012) found that festivals and events tend to add more value for attracting and retaining the people towards UK country. It is believed that majority of youngest are more crazy one for the festivals, music and food. Hence these areas have major contribution towards attracting to people in different cultural group. In concern to UK, there are big UK city festivals including art & literature, carnivals & parades, culture & lifestyle and music etc (Tien et al., 2011). In UK, the Chelsea Flower show and Edinburgh festival fringe consider as a best event which shows the pattern of British people to celebrate the festivals. This activity brings the enjoyment in people and this allows tourist to make an interest. Besides that, Holy festival of colours, African culture, food, dance and folk tend to follow by the British. Thus, these festivals of different country attract the local people. For instance, an Indian tourist find more exciting when they see British people to playing holy. On the basis of study, it is cleared that festival, destination and events build the image of country, city or state and provide advantage in the form of promotion of local cultures and festivals at the global network (Haven‐Tang and Jones, 2012). Therefore, these areas contribute as major source of attraction for the tourism sector.
Benefits of festivals and events to local communities can be extensive when tourist found such events attracting. It is estimated that local people contribute largely towards the supplying the food, services, beverages. It means that local people get the employment opportunity with the events or festival as tourist find it attracting so to make them convince for buying particular product become easy for the local people (Hudson et al., 2015). Other than that, festivals and events support the regional peoples in the way to spread awareness about the different cultural of regions among the global platform. For example, Peak District Regional festivals is organised in 2018 at peak district. This event is basically a music function in which local musician present their songs. It would help to present the British culture to the tourist. This event takes place between January and April every year and young musician welcomes around 40,000 audiences (Cudny, 2013). At the same time, festivals and events not only support the local and regional area of UK but it also proves to be effective at national level. In short, it directly influences nation in a way to raise the standard of living due to strong economic condition as high tourist investment bring the economic growth and development. This become possible with the people visiting into the different destination of UK and explores the local culture cuisine. This action helps the UK people to exchange their culture, habits with different individual and develop standard of living. From this study, it is interpreted that festivals, events and destination provides huge benefits to the UK local, regional and national level. But at the same time, Ooi and Pedersen (2010) depicted that festivals does not provide that much affect in terms to attract the tourist and believes that monuments and historical places has far more better influences in regard to attract the tourist. Sometimes, the tourist might also affect the country in a negative manner. It can be done through increasing waste, deforestation and overlapping of different culture over local religion (Mason, 2015). Through this manner, country gets influence.
In context to UK, the local, regional and national level gets the advantage with the increasing tourist and in this activity, the festivals and destinations has a vital role. However, community festivals or destinations may bring the revolutionary businesses and promoting economic development across the globe (Luonila and Johansson, 2015). Community festivals, arts, historical places contributes towards the enhancing the tourist and they support towards the create jobs, support local businesses through attracting the USA and Australian government (Okech, 2011). Thus, it can be analysed that community festivals and events would offer significant development with strategic planning and well-set goals. In short, festivals are one of the fastest growing forms of tourism and offer numerous benefits toward the economic development at global level.
In today’s developing economy, development of public sector policy is creating huge impact on the society and economic development. The public sector policy is related to goal-directed process and it is developed by government, agencies, laws & regulations and so on. The public sector policy provides a power to special interest group in order to seek the influence over the policy. The role of UK public sector policy on festival and event tourism development is quite effective as it helps in developing local areas tourism (Henderson, 2017). For this, UK government develops an attractive policy that attract more tourism to the country UK i.e., policy or provision related to infrastructure development, using promotional plan, etc provides support for development of tourist experience and attraction.
Nowadays, tourism is an important sector for every economy as it includes UK economy where tourism industry is developed by creating or maintaining a destination more beautiful place to visit around the world. According to Veal (2010) public and private sector both should work together for attracting more tourists to the economy in order to achieve economy stability in term of financially and non-financially. In concern to this, there is different public sector policy which creates impact on the tourism in either positive or negative manner such as local communities or government, climate change or energy, etc.
All these stated tourism strategy for Britain creates impact on tourism because when in different climate change there is different festivals and events are organized in different destination place such as in Spain there is tomato festival where everyone throws tomato on each other and this festival is called as La Tomatina. In similar manner, there are other destination places which have their own festivals that are organized by considering the climate change and energy. The UK public sector policy is developed by UK government by considering the development of tourism (Case, 2013). The public sector policy includes the policy related to development or improvement in infrastructure facility, providing timely transport services, offering affordable products and services, etc.
The UK public economy is responsible to main UK energy by promoting the festivals and events that help in tourism to develop. The public sector policy also creates influence on the culture media and sport of tourism such as art gallery and so on. In year 2016, UK government played a significant role in which Government published or developed a tourism plan for major tourism destination (Raj, et al. 2013). In respect to this, UK government focused on developing a tourism plan by updating the main five point plan. The new update related to tourism plan is developed with the strategy which helps in understanding the global trend, barriers and opportunities which tourism sector can provide to the UK economy.
While studying, it is identified that Tourism is one of the largest performing sectors or industries in UK. The role of UK public sector policy is found very effective as public sector collaborates with the UK government effectively in order to align the priorities as a common goal (O’Toole, 2011). In addition to it, the UK government is more concern towards attracting tourist so that revenue productivity gets increases of the economy in comparison to other country. In UK, there are different beautiful and attractive destination places which attract the tourism to explore those places to a large extent in order to experience great things.
Moreover, there are different cultures which is adopted or played by public in UK economy i.e., at a different regional areas such as Spain, Paris, London, England, etc. The public policy goals are developed by the government by considering the economic, social and cultural environment of the economy where more tourism gets attracted (Foley et al., 2012). However, it is very important to measure the public spending towards the tourism sector. In order to get ensure, all stakeholders are provided with the benefits in the public sector when they invest in the events and festivals. The public sector policy is developed in order to develop the festival and event for tourist.
In respect to this, strategic event planning process is used by public sector where event tourism goals are developed. In contrast to it, Getz and Andersson (2008) also added his view point by stating that the role of UK public sector is not enough for improving the events and festival tourism development as it also require a full support from the stakeholders internally and externally. In support to this, Quinn (2010) also stated that for developing tourism, there is a need to develop an event tourism organization structure. At the same time, Grix and Houlihan (2014) also stated that for making the UK, the best destinations choice for the tourist then there is need that government focus on creating a wealth, improve their communities environment and also deliver the best events for the tourist to explore and experience. Thus, the role of UK public sector policy is effective in development of tourism festival and events.
For developing a balance, there is need to appreciation from tourist regarding the services which are provided to them at a destination places. There is a need to develop or create a balance in the festivals and events which are organized by the UK government for attracting the tourist. In context to it, Stokes (2008) also explained that developing a strategic event portfolio is quite complicated because there are large number of events that are facilitated and managed in different cities and destinations of UK. Moreover, Event portfolio is strategically developed by the government because government thinks to generate a high return on investment which they made on improving the infrastructure facility for attracting the large number of tourist.
For maintaining a balanced in the festivals and strategic event portfolio, then government need to play a significant role where proper research is one to understand the market trend which changes frequently. In respect of it, Shone and Parry (2013) also elaborated that a portfolio of event is managed and desired by the UK government for attracting a tourist then it might be assume that normal strategy will be used to its maximum cumulative and also for attaining the long term value. While developing a strategic portfolio of event, at that time, portfolio manager should focus or undertake the need for balancing the risks and costs and to provide the balance in benefits that required to be attained.
In addition, Quinn (2010) explained that in event portfolio, there is proper hierarchical model for events which includes local events, regional events, national events, periodic events and international events and so on. The appreciation is required to be undertaken by the government for developing or creating a balance in the culture and festival which are followed by the tourist and local publics. In the study of Rovai (2016) clearly stated that there are major elements which are contributing to the festivals in terms of processes and relationships such as visitors, destination places and residents.
In today’s global phenomenon, festivals and events portfolio have developed a rapid growth in relation of creating customer awareness and unprecedented festivals and events. It is very much clear that festivals and events changes with the changes over the years in particular seasons and heritage sites. This change in the developing need of a festivals and event portfolio required to be appreciated by the government in terms of development in the offering services to tourist such as more additional services are provided to tourist at heritage place (Pappas, 2016). The event portfolio is specifies a range of values which is assigned to or for achieving a benefits which might drive from a planned events. While developing strategic event portfolio, there is a basic approach that portfolio manager uses for designing an effective portfolio such as intrinsic and extrinsic value. However, the use of proper model and approach might help the UK economy in attracting large numbers of tourist to their destination visit.
For managing and developing a balance, there is a need to focus more on adopting a recognised strategic planning approach in order to achieve the development of festival and events tourism. The strategic approach is a portfolio approach which portfolio manager can use to manage the number of vents and festivals in an efficient manner. In the research study of Bowdin, et al. (2011) it is clearly demonstrated that portfolio approach is an effective and good strategy which helps in managing the event portfolio. The main component of this approach is to recognise the events on the basis of value like market share, cost, sustainability, high level output and also this portfolio might be developed for different level of events that are organized in different areas and seasons.
(Source: Getz and Page, 2016)
In addition to this, Getz and Andersson (2008) also illustrated that there are number of events that are organized by tourist sector in order to attract visitor to a destinations places. Simply, using the strategic planning approach process might help the tourist sector of UK in improving their existing event portfolio because visitors preferences and choices changes with the change in expectations level. Developing an event portfolio with the help of recognized portfolio approach might lead to achievement of sustainable festivals. For maintaining a sustainable festival, there might be requirement to focus on diverse roles and value of festivals. Thus, Andersson et al. (2017) critically stated that using a recognized strategic event portfolio approach will provide a benefit to the tourism sector in achieving its desired motive or aim of attracting a more number of tourists to its destination places.
From the above study, it is concluded that festival consider as a major role in regards to attracts the tourist or traveller towards the country. Likewise, tourism agency of UK develop the strategies to retain the tourist through mention the destinations such as art gallery, tower and historical places which attracts the people of different areas. Moreover, there are numerous benefits that a festival provides in the form of making economic growth through increase employment and standard of living. At the same time, UK public sector also supports the tourist companies in a way to make an investment in the maintenances of historical places infrastructure. Furthermore, it also provides funds to the organiser to conduct the festival events so that traveller can attract and understand the UK culture. At last strategic planning approach such as portfolio approach is used to develop the festival and events tourism.
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