TM4021 Literature Review Assignment sample

Uses the tourism system as a framework to discuss the benefits of technological innovations in tourism

Literature Review

Due to technological growth and advancement, many people’s lives have been greatly influenced. On a fundamental level, it has radically revolutionised their attitude to their business as well as the way they conduct their personal and professional lives. When compared to any other industry, technology has brought about more changes in the hospitality, travel and tourist industries. This is especially true in the travel and tourism industry.


This accomplishment would have been difficult to achieve without the support of technological advancements, which made it possible in the first place. Because of its shortcomings, as this piece of writing has showed, technological advancements are crucial to the success of businesses in the hospitality and tourism sectors. 9Kim, D,2017)

Because so many other businesses throughout the world are incorporating technology into their operations, this industry is frequently referred to as one of the world’s major industries. This essay will address the advantages and disadvantages of technological advancements in the travel and tourism industry in a straightforward and succinct manner. A collection of software developed in the field of information technology (IT) or information and communication technology (ICT) to assist the operations of enterprises such as hospitality, transportation, tourism, and tours is known as technology for travel (also known as tourist generation technology). (Cai, W,2021)

Implementing new technologies

In tours and travel technology, the computer reservation device is used to generate digital excursions, which is much faster in a tech-enabled tourist sector. However, while it includes the tour enterprise as part of the digital excursion generating process, it does not include the tour operator. In tours and travel technology, the computer reservation device is used to generate digital excursions, which is much faster in a tech-enabled tourist sector. However, while it includes the tour enterprise as part of the digital excursion generating process, it does not include the tour operator. (Buhalis,,2019)

Interestingly, this concept is strikingly similar to the concept of digital tourism, which is also referred to as e-tourism in some circles (electronic tourism). A growing number of people are finding virtual tours to be more appealing during these challenging economic times, which is understandable. On the internet, you can take virtual tours of various locations.

Customers can view special tour options by accessing the internet via mobile applications, among other things, which has been beneficial to the development of cellular generation within the tourism industry. The growth of online commercial enterprise has also had an impact on the tour industry and tourism. 9Khatri,,2019)

Significant amounts of technology are being utilised in the tourism industry, and it has been successful in bringing far-flung destinations closer to home. As time has progressed faster, the demands on one’s time have increased in parallel; sooner or later, an extraordinary event may become commonplace in today’s culture, and travel has become both comfortable and convenient. (Troshin,,2019)

The capacity to complete tasks that formerly took 60 minutes has allowed travel technology companies to position themselves as industry leaders. By providing us with the most up-to-date tools for a genuinely amazing trip, we have been able to establish ourselves as leaders in the industry. (Xiang,,2018)

When it comes to establishing a stronger tourist sector, what role do you believe the best Tours & Travels mobile App Development firm in the United States is playing is critical to you. What role do you believe the best Tours & Travels mobile App Development firm in the United States is playing in the development of a stronger tourist sector is vital to you.

New Innovations

Nowadays, innovation has progressed rapidly, leaps and bounds ahead of the rest of the field. It is now impossible to picture the manufacturing industry working without the advancements in technology that have occurred in recent years, including the development of LEDs, computer systems, and machinery, among others. (Buhalis, ,2019)The use of this form of communication, however, has a number of downsides, as well as some advantages in certain situations. As a first and primary consideration, technological advancements have a big impact on the general public since they lower the amount of time people spend performing jobs and cause them to feel less comfortable in their surroundings.

People may be able to plan their excursions more easily in the future thanks to technological advancements, but for the time being, humans must rely on their own inventiveness to accomplish this, which is becoming more pleasant and straightforward as a result of advancements in artificial intelligence. (Xiang,2021)

In addition to learning more about the locations at their own pace, clients may use their mobile devices to search for first-class lodgings and rates, and they can even reserve a spot as a result of the information they obtain.

Improvement and industrialisation have poisoned our environment, causing it to become polluted as a result of the continuous flow of improvement and industrialization. As an illustration, consider the situation in which engine exhaust has an influence on fine particulate matter in the air and causes harm to the ozone layer.

Major importance

As previously said, because the vast majority of technology, such as computers, is rather expensive, it leads to financial issues in homes as a result of inflation, which exacerbates the situation. In the wake of this development, it is likely that individuals who do not have the financial wherewithal to make such an investment would continue to spend their lives in fear. (Navío-Marco, ,2018)Specifically, I believe that the importance of innovation in the movement and tour enterprise lies in the ability to obtain information through research, to aid in increasing the organization’s earnings, to obtain information from customers and other important organisations, to deliver information at incredible speeds, to reach visitors who are physically separated from the sender, and to increase availability and receptiveness within an organisation.

In addition, if not handled properly, another drawback of innovation can result in war and stress, as well as a general lack of confidence, which can result in a reduction in business profitability and other negative consequences.

Before technology breakthroughs, marketing products and services in the tourism and hospitality industries to potential clients may be incredibly challenging. Being constantly separated geographically, like in thousands of kilometres apart, made it an exceedingly expensive and time-consuming endeavour. The clients were continually separated geographically, as in hundreds of kilometres apart.

On the other hand, the development of information technology has made commercial transactions easier while simultaneously expanding the number of clients. Due to people’s ability to communicate and connect with one another beyond geographical borders, businesses have discovered that it is easier and less expensive to offer their products and services.

In the early days of information technology, the inter-organizational system (IOS) was the most extensively utilised type of information technology since it connected organisations together and functioned as a link between them. The hefty costs, on the other hand, prohibited many businesses from making efficient use of this resource”.

Because of the development of global distribution systems during the twentieth century, people all over the world were able to engage and connect with one another. Because timely dissemination of information benefited the organisation in boosting the number of bookings it had received, the number of bookings increased as a result.

As a product of computerised reservation systems, worldwide distribution began as a type of inter-organizational technology that allowed airlines to receive information from a variety of sources and consolidate it in one centralised area. Additionally, because of these tie-ins, clients were able to book their trip reservations through a single online marketplace, which resulted in improved overall levels of customer satisfaction.

As early as the 1960s, these systems were in widespread use, and integration with a modern computer was not considered a practical alternative at that time due to the lack of available resources. Due to technological advancement, the internet and the World Wide Web have emerged, both of which have fundamentally impacted the way individuals connect and conduct their business operations (Cristiana 2008, p. 345).

Businesses who market their hospitality services and tourism products on the internet have the potential to attract new customers and so enhance their earnings. Through the use of this platform, it has been possible to bring together people from all over the world. This has resulted in the development of the world into a truly global community of people. When people are in different geographical locations, it is still possible for them to speak with one another in real time through technology. These individuals are able to share their thoughts and opinions without the necessity of meeting in person for the first time. Because of technological advancements, numerous forms or platforms have been developed that enable the integration of a variety of diverse systems to function as a single unit.

In order to engage with clients all over the world, the tourist and hospitality industries are currently utilising various social media platforms such as MySpace, Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn, and others to boost the number of visitors to their destinations and, subsequently, revenue (Alexis, & Buhalis 2007, p. 389).

A variety of changes have occurred in how people perform their business operations and operations management as a result of technology improvements, particularly the internet, according to Clayton and Criscuolo (2002).

Market Benefits

This development is projected to need the formation of a route through which new ideas can be turned into commercial products that can then be transferred later to a larger market at a cheap cost of entry into these industries, as well as the identification of prospective purchasers.

Getting started in the sector and launching new products to the market are made easier as a result of this approach. Because of this, there has been a significant shift in the way information is communicated between individuals and between organisations in general (p. 14). The hospitality and tourist industries benefit from a wide range of vital and significant technological advancements, which are summarised in the following table. When we look about in our daily lives, we can see the benefits of information technology in action practically wherever we go. Throughout recent years, the ability of people to access and connect with one another over the internet has become increasingly crucial in their daily lives. People may share information with persons who are physically close to them in real time thanks to the internet, personal computers, fax machines, cell phones, and emails, among other technologies. People can share information with those who are physically close to them in real time by using personal computers, fax machines, cell phones, emails, and the internet, among other technologies (Cristiana 2008, p. 346).

Expected benefits

The expanded capabilities that have emerged from technical improvements have helped a diverse variety of economic sectors as a result of these developments. When it comes to the hotel and tourism industries, it is necessary to make international marketing efforts because this is one of the sectors that needs the adoption of successful marketing strategies on an international scale.

Thank god for the internet, which makes it possible to accomplish this with relative ease and with a little outlay of resources, both in terms of time and money. Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) have established a variety of websites, which they utilise to market their products and services to customers all over the world, including those in foreign countries. A lot of websites have been maintained by businesses. One of their distinguishing characteristics is the capacity to tailor their services to match the precise requirements of each individual customer, which they do. Another advantage of technology is that it has made the process of globalisation considerably less complicated, which is a significant improvement. Small towns and cities can no longer exist on this planet since there is no longer enough space for them. Individuals are able to communicate with one another through the usage of social media platforms and internet-based communication networks. It used to be that information could only be obtained with a single click of the mouse, but these days it is possible to obtain it considerably more swiftly.

Summary of Discussed pros and cons

A number of organisations in the hospitality and tourist industries have taken advantage of this chance to share information and ideas about their respective organisations. Among the benefits has been the opportunity to develop relationships between people who were previously divided by geographical limits, as well as between people from a variety of cultural backgrounds, as a result of the Internet.

Because this industry is heavily reliant on information, technological advancements have provided it with a competitive advantage, as consumers are now able to obtain information about areas where they can go on vacation, spend their leisure time, or spend their vacations resting as a result of technological advancements. As a result of technological advancements, consumers are now able to obtain information about areas where they can go on vacation, spend their leisure time, or spend their vacations resting. Customers are now able to acquire information on locations where they might go on vacation, spend their leisure time, or rest during their vacations as a result of technological developments.


Using the internet to plan their travel reservations to a broad range of destinations, Cristiana (2008) discovered that a significant number of Americans use the internet to plan their travel reservations to a diverse range of destinations (p. 344). On a day-to-day basis, the rate of increase continues to accelerate. It is expected that more than 75 million people travelling throughout the world would utilise the internet to investigate their vacation destinations, for example.

In order to make travel preparations, verify and compare expenses, and book their visits to various tourist destinations, many individuals are turning to the internet. There are a large number of individuals who travel across international boundaries, and the hospitality industry also accommodates a large number of individuals who travel across international borders. As a result of this, they are able to make major contributions to the sector.


Buhalis, D. (2019). Technology in tourism-from information communication technologies to eTourism and smart tourism towards ambient intelligence tourism: a perspective article. Tourism Review.

Xiang, Z. (2018). From digitization to the age of acceleration: On information technology and tourism. Tourism management perspectives, 25, 147-150.

Navío-Marco, J., Ruiz-Gómez, L. M., & Sevilla-Sevilla, C. (2018). Progress in information technology and tourism management: 30 years on and 20 years after the internet-Revisiting Buhalis & Law’s landmark study about eTourism. Tourism management, 69, 460-470.

Cai, W., McKenna, B., Wassler, P., & Williams, N. (2021). Rethinking knowledge creation in information technology and tourism. Journal of Travel Research, 60(6), 1377-1384.

Xiang, Z., Fesenmaier, D. R., & Werthner, H. (2021). Knowledge creation in information technology and tourism: A critical reflection and an outlook for the future. Journal of Travel Research, 60(6), 1371-1376.

Kim, D., & Kim, S. (2017). The role of mobile technology in tourism: Patents, articles, news, and mobile tour app reviews. Sustainability, 9(11), 2082.

Rejeb, A., & Karim, R. (2019). Blockchain technology in tourism: applications and possibilities. World Scientific News, 137, 119-144.

Khatri, I. (2019). Information technology in tourism & hospitality industry: A review of ten years’ publications. Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Education, 9, 74-87.

Troshin, A. S., Sokolova, A. P., Ermolaeva, E. O., Magomedov, R. M., & Fomicheva, T. L. (2020). Information technology in tourism: Effective strategies for communication with consumers. Journal of Environmental Management & Tourism, 11(2 (42)), 322-330.


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