Business Strategy and the Impact of Managerial Creativity in Different Middle Eastern and European Companies

Use of Design Thinking for Business Strategy and the Impact of Managerial Creativity in Different Middle Eastern and European Companies

Research Title

The Use of Design Thinking for Business Strategy and the Impact of Managerial Creativity in Different Middle Eastern and European Companies

Chapter 1: Introduction

1.1 Research Problem

In this competitive business environment it is required for the firms to make regular innovations in their products and services to remain competitive in the market. In relation to this, it is challenging for the professionals to handle the today’s challenging technological and competitive environment (DAS, 2016). For this, professionals need to have certain skills like design thinking skills and managerial creativity that play an important role in the success and growth of an organization. Design thinking is required for the organizations to bring innovation and develop competitive position over rivals (Carlgren et al., 2016). It is important for the firms and professionals to understand the concept of design thinking that may be helpful to frame better strategies to achieve competitive advantage.

1.2 Research aim & questions

The aim is to analyze the viability of design thinking for business depending on the purpose of its use in Middle Eastern and European Companies. The below research questions are answered on completion of this study:

  • What is design thinking and managerial creativity? How is the process undergone?
  • What are some of the different companies that have used design thinking in Middle East and Europe? For what purpose?
  • Is the use of design thinking effective for such companies? Does it ensure a viable business strategy? Is the improvement perceived in the short term? Does effectiveness relate to type of industry?
  • What is the next step for design thinking and how managerial creativity could be perceived in the future?

The above main research questions on which this project and research is based upon are answered. The questions are answered by academic research on existing literature review, interviews and opinions of industry professionals, and interviews and surveys in companies from different industries and different sectors that have implemented design thinking or plan to implement it in the future. In this, the information is gathered from all levels of organizational structure or all the levels involved.

1.3 Key definitions

Design thinking is a process where the end goal is clearly known but the benefit is on the creativity of the process (Dijksterhuis, 2017).

1.4 Identification of the key variables

The below variables are considered in this research to determine the impact of design thinking and managerial creativity:

Independent variables:  Design thinking and managerial creativity

Dependent variables: Customer relationship management, organizational change and corporate strategy

This research assesses the impact of adaptation of Design thinking and managerial creativity on Customer relationship management, organizational change and corporate strategy.

1.5 Significance of the research and the how the knowledge gap is being addressed

Business Strategy and the Impact of Managerial Creativity in Different Middle Eastern and European Companies

This research is based on the significance of design thinking as a tool for business strategy and impact of managerial creativity. This study considers different case studies in Different Middle Eastern and European Companies to determine the relevance of design thinking and managerial creativity to achieve success. Professionals can acknowledge the design thinking and use it to develop better strategies to achieve high success. Apart from this, implications of managerial creativity can be significant for the firms to develop competitive advantage in the market. Readers can assess design thinking by showing and evaluating results of companies that have implemented design thinking in their culture.

This research is important for developing the concepts related to design thinking and managerial creativity in business. It is also crucial to understand how the design thinking can be helpful to develop a viable business strategy. In addition, this study provides generalized results because it focuses on different industries from different sectors that have implemented design thinking and adapted managerial creativity in their culture and part of their organizational structure. The research outcomes can be helpful for other industries to know how design thinking can be useful for their business and beneficial to achieve competitiveness. There are many reasons why a company would use design thinking and the purpose behind its use might differ greatly from one industry to another. Design thinking might be effective in one industry more than the other, or depending on the purpose of why it is used. This question is answered by evaluating the results of specific companies of many industries that have implemented design thinking, and assessing the impact that it had on their strategy. Furthermore, interviews and surveys are done to companies, company heads, and industry professionals. Design thinking is widely used in different industries. This question would be answered by academic research on existing literature of how design thinking was applied to different industries for what it was used. Surveys to industry professionals are effective to identify business trends and assess where different industries are going the relevance of design thinking in their growth.

Chapter 2: Literature Review

2.1 Introduction

This research chapter emphasise on the theoretical concept of design thinking, its process, use, and adoption of design thinking and concepts related to managerial creativity such as culture and impact in organisations. The part analyse each research question by reviewing the existing market research in area of design thinking and managerial creativity conducted by other researchers, theorists and field academicians.Additionally, in this chapter of the research, the effectiveness of the impact of managerial creativity, design thinking use and viability for business strategy is discussed indifferent industries and sectors in the context of Middle East and European regions. Along with this, future of design thinking and perceived managerial creativity are also discussed. The review of existing literature offers a clear theoretical framework to the researcher to understand and conduct the research to determine the design thinking use for business strategy and managerial creativity impact in different companies in Middle Eastern and European regions. This chapter has helped the researcher to develop a theoretical understanding about the research topic.

2.2 Concept of Design Thinking (DT)

Design thinking is an emerging field in the design practices. According to Müller and Thoring (2012), design thinking constitutes the exploration and development of creative strategies in the designing domains utilized by designers. Brown and Katz (2011) define design thinking as an approach, tool and principle to solve complex problem by bringing designers. In the words of Kimbell (2011), design thinking is a human oriented innovation process that focuses on collaboration, observation, business analysis, idea visualisation, prototyping and learning. Thus, it can be said that design thinking methodology is useful to develop innovative solution for challenging problems by incorporation of human interests, values and concerns in the process of design. However, the various definitions by authors indicate that a general accepted definition is yet to become known among the advocates of design thinking and its practitioners. The concept of design thinking as a new creative problem solving methodology is well suited to cite business complexity, innovation, and creativity and growth decisions to improve the outcomes of the business.

In favour to this study, Razzouk& Shute (2012) analysed that design thinking is not considered as a problem-focused but it is more solution focused as its actions guides towards future. Basically, it draws the solution based on the logic, imagination, intuition and systematic reasoning and it allows to exploring the desired outcomes. Thus, currently this strategy widely use by the companies in order to attain the relevant solution to the problem. However, this terminology is described as a discipline that uses the designer for matching the individual needs with recent technology and business strategy. Such practice encourages company to convert the business operations into the feasibility and viability. In regards to design thinking, the framework includes various activities that business follows when it uses this concept.

The above mention framework integrates with classic creative problem-solving with art and design methodologies. In this, design thinking offers the organised and formal structure framework which allows to achieving the innovation in such way that support the business growth and adds value to the customers (Rodan, 2010). Furthermore, the design thinking cycle works properly through observe the unmet needs of the people and then framing the opportunity and scope so that growth can be achieved. Under the opportunities, company tends to generate creative ideas&testingetc.It gives rise to the innovations in solution. Thus, it is stated that the design thinking plays a significant role in terms to achieve the creative solution for the problem which contributes towards long-term growth and development.

2.3 Managerial creativity

Managerial creativity is one of the essential skills required by manager in the 21st century to arrive at appropriate strategic decisions.  Fillis and Rentschler (2010) viewed managerial creativity to be dynamic in nature which is affected by individual factors, risk preferences and capabilities. The author elaborates managerial creative behaviour inspire to craft different levels of creativity. The views of Carlgren et al. (2016) also discuss the general intelligence, personality domain, divergent thinking and the cognitive ability of an individual are different criteria to form managerial creativity. On the different side,Liedtka (2015) argues creativity of managers as one of the key cognitive abilities in the design process theory. It can be said that in every design creativity has been a prime feature to arrive at unique solution.In regards to this study, managerial creativity is critical area because creative skill manager is quite challenging to find. The increasing competitions in market tend to raise the requirement of talent and intelligence workforce. In such case, to retain and attracts the skilled individual is quite tedious job for the company. Thus, the human management skills and their managerial creative thinking ability becomes the important resources for the company in order to grab the opportunities and able to sustain in this strong competition over the longer duration (Bissola and Imperatori, 2011). Managerial creativity is the solution of various problems such as managing physical human, financial resources. On the basis of this, it is interpreted that managerial creativity becomes one of the highly rated skill which individual needs to possessed in order to predict the uncertainties and foreseen the future opportunities.

In accordance to Turkson and Appiah (2010), the managerial creativity comes with inherit or cognitive thinking, intuitions, perceptions and leanings etc., that’s help the manager or leader to develop the managerial creativity. In today’s era, managerial creativity is quite important to address the management problems and provide solution to such issues. Even in the absence of the managerial skills, the company conduct the training session for the managers or employees so that they strengthen their ability or potential to generate managerial skills. It indicates the requirement of managerial skills in today’s era.In support to this study, Fillis and Rentschler (2010) depicted that the company whose has great creative person that possess managerial skill are likely to prove more worth full as compare to business which has enough capital to invest but has lack experienced employees. This is because it is must to know how to use the optimum resources rather than blindly use of capital. Hence, managerial skill is the foundation of the design thinking as without having such skills people can’t bring the innovation and value to the business.

2.3.1 Impact of managerial creativity

In the views of Tang and Chang (2010), the managerial creativity provides various advantage in the form of reduce the gap in the management. It allows the manager to introduce innovation within their business operations. The effects of creativity will be positive in regards to predict the unmet needs and accordingly cater such needs. Thus, it can be stated that creativity and innovation has a positive correlation in terms to fill the gap between the strategy and R&D. The creative strategy allows to accelerating the performances of the organisation. There are various organizations which uses the creativity in their business operations. The best example is the Tesco. Tesco IT manager uses their creative skill and replenish the application system in order to bring the innovation. Oracle retail house management system is the creative innovation that helps to systematically operate the warehouse. At the same time, Tesco also install the self-checkout system in its retail outlets which contribute towards the reduction of customers complaints. The long line and high waiting time affects the consumer decision of parking. In favour of this study, Helfat& Martin (2015) depicted thatsocial site practice is the creative strategy which is widely used by the companies whether it is small or large both are engage in such activity. Creative managers develop the unique message for the target audiences and this creative strategy proves to be most effective in concern to attract the global customers.Furthermore, Facebook is the most popular site which is widely focused largely by the companies. However, IT manager focus on Facebook through creates the page in which it shares their products and records the people response. This practice helps the company in multiple ways such as identify the customer needs and create awareness among the customer. Hence, the social site strategy contributes high efficiency in the business.According to Gupta and Singh (2012), companies use the managerial creativity in multiple areas such as process, product, services and operations etc. it uses in features addition in product, quality include in services and build the sustainability in the operations. Through this manner, it creates value in the organisation.

2.4 Process of Design Thinking

The CEO and president of IDEO of an innovative and design firm, Tim Brown states the process of design thinking begins with gathering new thinking to discover the business and individual requirement. The past solution is studied to generate ideas, this is followed by prototyping phase to make idea tangible and inspire towards action (Gruber et al., 2015). According to Gasparini (2015), the design thinking process is a systematic course of innovation that prioritise empathy of user desires to fully comprehend problem to develop creative and effective solution. Roberts et al. (2016) describes the process of design thinking to start with analytical phase which making enquiries and empathic engagement with user that is influenced by product/service experience which require amendments. This is followed by a synthetic phase which requires working with participants to find alternative ways and review the generated idea to derive desired results till best scenario is identified which fulfils maximum needs and can be accomplished within financial limit set and specified time. Prototyping and testing stages forms the later stages where multiple ideas are converted from intangible to action form on trail basis. The trials are critically evaluated to reach an optimised solution for large scale implementation.

2.5Use and importanceof design thinkingtools

The design thinking has been utilised for effective decision making based of future needs of customers using element of empathy and experimentation to provide innovative solutions. In this context, Gruber et al. (2015) specify that use of design thinking has reduced the dependency on historical data or risky intuitive assumptions.  The DT tools draws from designer toolkit to integrate technologies and individual needs to fulfil requirement for success of the business. Kimbell (2012) state that design thinking is used to transform organisation structure for product development, service innovation and transformation of processes and business strategies. Roberts et al. (2016) mention the use of DT in handling ideas in a manageable way and introducing new ways of thinking to address complex problems. Another relevant feature of DT use is that it can be applied within any industrial sector to encourage creativity, innovation and critical thinking. In support of this, the study of Carlgren et al. (2016), highlight the use of DT in government agencies, healthcare sectors and financial sects apart from technology or design companies. In the context of its relevance,Müller and Thoring (2012)underline the DT as an inspiration for innovation which is demanded in complex business landscape. The author also mention it significance in identifying the core issues by braking into small facets to resolve the problem. Johansson Sköldberg et al. (2013) put forwards the importance of design thinking as an innovation tool in the business and to track the success of business in competitive landscape. Gasparini (2015) suggests that the approach of design thinking is significant as it emphasises on end user as central entity during the designing process. Thus, the solution fits into user needs to create better experience.On the different side, Johansson Sköldberg et al. (2013) found that design thinking relevance in understanding user needs in developing new products/services as it exists with people and eliminate the risk of complete business failure. Mintrom and Luetjens (2016) highlight the use of design thinking process in developing understanding of how users and customers experience product and services to enhance customer value and development of business policies.  It can be understood that the relevance of design thinking is to fulfil the need of creative tools and approaches to address complex problems from human centred view. It also fulfils the need of individual as think like designer to look for desirability, technologically feasible and economically viable options that relates to best scenario in business.

On the other hands, Rocco (2015) also added his point of view by stating that there is a need to develop the skill and knowledge of manager in order to make some important decision related to problem solution. In this situation, design thinking tool is widely used by the manager for making effective and right decision which provides the benefit and .The use of design thinking tools by the manager helps in promoting the growth and innovation. In simple words, Chasanidou, et al. (2015) stated that design thinking used as an innovation approach, which companies and organizations uses for making innovative decisions in order to meet the competition level efficiently and effectively.

In addition, the change in market demands rapidly demands for more innovative thinking and ways that help the manager to attract and target the large numbers of customers towards its innovative products and services. In regards to this, it is also studied that the importance of using the design thinking tools is only understandable by the manager because this thinking tools help the manager in developing their visualization process. The use of visualization process supports the manger in creating a positive impact on the business and its performance.

Moreover, this thinking also supports the manager in promoting the creative thinking in minds of employees also towards their roles and responsibility. However, Jones (2014) also elaborated that only top level manager have this capability to use the design thinking tool effectively and efficiently. The use of this tool helps the designer in translating or designing the ideas by using the mind mapping, prototyping and value chain analysis tools and so on. These each tool have their own benefit and useful for business performance as they also help in developing creativity in the mind towards solution to a problem by abstracting new ideas substantial to potential customers.

2.6 Adoption of design thinking practices/principles in organisation

Brown and Wyatt, (2010) points out that adaptation of design thinking in organisation requires a cultural shift.  Similarly, Gruber et al. (2015) study emphasise cultural transformation for successful application of design thinking principles.  For instance, IBM in adoption of design thinking approach has taken a number of steps to support its concept within the organisation culture. It leads to employee empowerment and dedicated time and space in promoting managerial creativity and supporting innovative ideas. The study finding of Gasparini (2015) reveals that design thinking leads to a cultural change in organisation to human centred working way by empathy with team members and users along with increase interaction towards co-creation of value. Thestudy also underline leadership to develop a DT cultureIt can be noted that adaptation of DT practices for various purpose require linking with empathy, collaboration and innovative thinking. In context of organisation structure, Brown and Wyatt (2010) recognises the need of for restructuring organisation to support innovation and creativity as innovation and creativity is impacted by the organisational structure and hierarchy system.Gruber et al. (2015) identified flatter organisations type of structure presents a viable option for the organisation to deploy DT approach across the organisation.  According to Bjögvinsson et al. (2012), the flatter organisation emphasises on communication along with collaboration and presents a challenge to the traditional models of organisation management. It can be noted that flatter organisation adapts to emerging set of technologies to for easy collaboration and continuous flow of information. This type of structure also support employ contribution in innovation practices. Thus, it can be said that flatter organisation structure are practically feasible for organisation to incorporate design thinking methodology.

While studying, it is identified that every organization needs to adopt some designing thinking practices or principles efficiently and effectively. There are different designing thinking principles which are used by the organization in order to strengthen the company culture by using the engineering centric approach and turning it to user centric and sustainable culture (Jones, 2014). The adoption of design thinking practices in an organization also helps in adopting a new approach which encourages innovation, cross-discipline at the workplace. The design thinking principles also help in developing a comfortable environment as well as help team member to identify the challenges which are faced with the new ideas which are adopted for solving the problem.

Moreover, there are some essential principles related to design thinking for any organization such as action orientation, human centric, promote empathy, and reduce risks and so on. The design thinking principle helps in reducing the risk which is faced while developing a new product or services. In the research study of Dunn and Ankersen (2016) it is clearly identified that while designing an organization, there is a need to identify the elements of developed ecosystem such as technology, market, customers and competitors and so on. The adoption of design thinking principles also support the manager of an organization to mitigate and solve the problem which are unpredictable.

Yoshikawa (2016) also explained that using the design thinking principle also supports or helps in obtaining the innovative insights and also taking risks. The impact of design thinking required to be balanced and such design thinking practices also help n integrating with other strategies and skills. While adopting the design thinking practice, it is necessary to evaluate the organization performance ad process which is adopted by the manager in order to create or develop multi-discipline. The principles of design thinking also help in developing creativity to enterprise to a next level so that organization can perform all its business practices in an efficient manner.

At the same time, Rocco (2015) also elaborated that designing thinking practices adopted by the organization help in nurturing the corporate culture i.e., by promoting the innovative and creativity and also by encouraging the employees to step forward in decision making. This leads to development of open culture or atmosphere in an organization where team members are free to discuss their point and get engage & committed emotionally with each other. Thus, it can also be stated easily that using or adopting a designing thinking practices/principles also provides a emerging opportunities to an organization as it encourages the employees of team to discover and generate a tangible or reliable outcome.

2.7 Design thinking in adoption by different companies in different sectors

Many medium to large organisation have adopted the design thinking methodology to generate new ideas and resolutions to complex problems. This human centred approach has transformed the business strategy, working style, culture to provide solutions to evolve with better product/services leading to growth of their business.  Kimbell (2012) viewed that large organisations have realised the purpose and relevance of DT to unlock creativity in mangers to push the bottom line to accomplish business outcomes.  Bjögvinsson et al. (2012) studied that to adapt the design thinking approaches many large technology organisations are investing in innovation labs while mid-sized organisations are working with design firms to take their guidance in implementation of practices of design thinking. For instance, IBM has been implementing design thinking practice by establishment of an in-house innovation lab and assisting other companies as well to tackle complex problems by developing human centred solutions. The members of the organisation collaborate to generate brainstorming ideas and make use of post-it notes on whiteboard. JohanssonSköldberg et al. (2013) highlight the adoption of DT in different sectors of financial services, insurance, healthcare and education for the purpose of attracting customers, budgeting and investment decisions.The author also emphasise the use of the design thinking is used in the project management to ensure the success of the project by developing understanding of the purpose and benefits that creative solution bring to users. For instance, the insurance company, mass mutual in collaboration with design firm, IDEO developed a solution to resolve the problem to attract individual under 40 to buy insurance policies (Liedtka, 2015).

The concept, approaches and principles of design thinking is being employed many business and industrial sector in the Middle east and European countries. According to Heintz (2006), Middle Eastern countries have been putting effort to establish a design culture. In educational sector, the design system has been adapted to make the learners aware of the design thinking tools and encourage developing different way of thinking and working though design education. This has led to changes in the educational methods to develop a design community. Similarly, Kimbell (2012) states that in Middle East countries like Syria and Jordan, the design thinking is being utilised to expand economic opportunities in the communities and global private sector.

2.8 Future of design thinking in business and perceived managerial creativity

The design thinking has emerged as a problem solving methodology and increased the opportunities for managerial creativity and innovation practices which are essential for business to survive in changing business landscape with increasing competition. In this context, Bjögvinsson et al. (2012) viewed design thinking as a necessary approach to survive competition by small, medium and even start-up companies.  Differently,Kolko (2015) argues that design thinking will increase its acceptance and adaptation by business to enhance the desirability of products and improve product usability.  Similarly, JohanssonSköldberg et al. (2013) points that design thinking will help in simplification and modernisation of the software products in the field of information technology.  It can viewed that DT in coming years will be adaptable that would enable the companies to provide better customer experience at every contact point.

Sköldberg et al. (2013) also put forward that the future of design thinking can be viewed as translation of designer way of thinking transformed to a more widely accepted version in the organisation management. The author also pointed that design thinking will be frequently equated to managerial creativity as an effort to boost the creativity of the managers. The design thinking will be grown which will be kept in closer association with the ideas and processes supported by business managers and consultants.

The future of design thinking helps the business and its manager to think analytically and strategically in order to achieve future growth and development and goals and objectives (Voyles, 2016).

Chapter 3: Research methodology

 3.1 Introduction

The main objective of conducting the research is to increase the knowledge regarding to the design thinking and managerial creativity. In addition to this, the research focuses on the business strategies that can be developed by effective design thinking and different creativity of the management. So, this part develops the understanding and knowledge about the research topic by the use of effective techniques and methods of the research. The techniques that are using in this part are extremely useful to provide the effective solutions of the research issues. Additionally, the research methods and approaches are also helpful to make reliable the research outcome. In order to present valid and sensible outcomes of the research, the researcher uses different approaches for setting the parameters. The use of data collection and data analyses methods in this research are very useful to collect the appropriate information at low cost as well as in provided time period.

3.2 Research philosophy

This part of the research defines the different sources and nature of the knowledge for conducting the research effectively. The research philosophy develops the knowledge in the mind of the researcher that how the data or information should be collected for the effective outcome of the researches aim (Blumberg et al., 2014). A researcher can use three types of the research philosophy in their research to conduct the research effectively such as realism, positivism, and interpretivism philosophies. The philosophy is selected by the researcher according to the nature of the research objective where it should complete the research with effectiveness.

For this research, the interpretivism philosophy is appropriate for obtaining the knowledge regarding the research topic. It is because the interpretivism philosophy is naturalistic approach for collecting data for the research. This philosophy integrates the interest of people into the study. The researcher uses several logics and reasons to develop the knowledge concerning with the research topic. In this research, the researcher collects the subjective information about the design thinking that it is viable strategy of business or not and different impact of managerial creativity into the companies of Middle East and Europe. By the use of interpretivism philosophy, the researcher clears the different concepts regarding to the research and helps the research to provide successful outcome.

3.3 Research Approach

The research approaches are used by the researcher to provide a proper justification to the research study by gathering the appropriate data and information in the research. It can be analysed that a researcher can use two types of research approach during conducting the research such as inductive research approach and deductive research approach (Crowther& Lancaster, 2012). The deductive approach needs the hypothetical data by the use of theories, concepts and formulas in the research. But, in concern to the inductive approach, different facts and figures are identified by the researcher through observation. In this approach, the collected data and information are used by the researcher to design the theory.

In concern to this research, the inductive approach is more suitable as comparison to deductive approach. It is because the interpretation of the data is included in this research that is useful to provide the final results of the research. The researcher not included theories and hypothesis to conduct this research so this research is based on the inductive approach. In the initial stage of the research, the researcher can alter some parts for reducing the errors by the use of this approach. The inductive approach is also used for qualitative research to provide the effective outcome.

3.4 Research Strategy

The research strategy is selected by the researcher to examine the data for providing successful outcome of the research. There are different methods of the research strategy such as interview,case studies, experiments, survey, etc. In a research, the research strategy is selected according to the size, nature, issues and objectives of the research (Hammersley&Traianou, 2012). In order to provide effective results, the researcher prepares the research strategy according to the need of the research objectives.

In this research, the researcher selected the interview as research strategy to collect the qualitative information as well as the survey through questionnaire is also used as research strategy to collect the quantitative data regarding to the research topic. In order to collect the appropriate information, the effective research strategy is selected by the researcher in this study. All the subjective information is collected by the interview technique in this research where different questions asked to the participants. On the other side, the survey technique collects the different quantitative information about the research topic. Both the survey through questionnaire and interview collects the data and information of the research where the effective use of design thinking and impact of managerial creativity in the business strategy analyse.

3.5 Research Method

The systematic data can be collected by the use of suitable research method in a research study. The suitable, appropriate and important information can be collected by the researcher about the research topic and issue after the selection of the relevant research method (Mackey &Gass, 2015). Primarily, the researcher can select two types of research method in a research like qualitative research method and quantitative research method. In order to collect the data from different respondent, the research methods help to provide proper information. In addition, by the use of research method, the researcher prepares the questionnaire in order to obtain answer the questions.

In concern to this research, the researcher has chosen both qualitative and quantitative research methods in order to conduct the research effectively. In addition to this, the uses of both research methods are helpful to collect imperative information about the research issues. In order to analyse the statistical data, the quantitative research method is preferred by the researcher. The survey through questionnaire method is selected by the researcher to collect the quantitative data. On the other hand, the qualitative information also collected through the use of interview where the questions are asked to the diffident respondent by the researcher. In this, the questions are asked related with the design thinking and managerial certainty and its impact on the business strategies.

3.6 Time Horizon

The researcher also tries to complete the research between the estimated time periods by defining the time horizon. The researcher also attempts to provide effective results of the research in the given period of time by the use of effective time horizon (Flick, 2015). There are two kinds of time horizon that can be used by the researcher to accomplish the research results that are longitudinal and cross-sectional time horizon. The researcher selects the time horizon according to the need of the research. If the researcher collects the data or information as of different point of time then longitudinal time horizon is selected for conducting the research effectively. Whereas, the researcher collects the data from single point time then cross-sectional time horizon is chosen to conduct the research.

In concern to this research, the cross-sectional time horizon has selected by the researcher to collect the data. It is because the researcher needs to collect the data from single point of time by the use of interview and survey. But at the time of using cross-sectional time horizon, the researcher needs to face lots of responsibilities to provide the final outcome of the research in effective manner. In this method, it is analysed that the researcher can overcome the issues of data manipulation because the data are collected only single time and also provides the efficiency. In addition to this, the researcher need less time and cost for conducting the research because the research collects the data and information only single time.

3.7 Data collection methods

It is important part of the research methodology to collect the required data and information to accomplish the research objectives. Generally, researchers use primary and secondary data collection methods to collect the needed data. Primary data collection method is used to collect fresh data that has not been collected previously. At the same time, secondary data collection method is useful to collect the secondary data that has been collected previously by the past researchers for their own purposes. Primary data is collected through survey, focus study, interview, and observation, whereas secondary data is collected through books, articles, reports and online materials available.  Primary method of data collection provides more relevant and valid data but it takes time to collect the required data. On the other hand, secondary data collection method is helpful to collect the data in least time, but it may reduce relevancy and validity of the data.

In concern of this study, both interview and survey through questionnaire are used to collect primary data. For this, a face to face interview with 5 professionals from different Middle Eastern and European Companies that adapted design thinking is conducted to determine their experience and exposure on design thinking and managerial creativity. At the same time, a survey through questionnaire is also conducted with professionals with previous experience and exposure on design thinking and managerial creativity. Both survey and interview are conducted with the professionals from specific companies to collect the required dat. At the same time, 5 surveys are also conducted to MBA students, to know their awareness on the topic, their perception, and if they would think of implementing it if needed in the future. Interview method is helpful to collect qualitative information while survey method enabled to collect quantitative data.

In order to provide the accuracy and relevancy in the collected data, the researcher uses the data analysis techniques in the research. All the collected data from different sources should be evaluated in a research for accomplishment of the research objectives in a successful manner (Wilson, 2010). Additionally, the research objectives can effectively and efficiently achieved by the use of appropriate data analysis technique. For this, the researcher can use various techniques for analysing the data in effective manner and provide the research outcomes like content analysis,factor analysis, statistical analysis, conversational analysis and disclosure analysis, and etc.

In this research, the statistical analysis method used to find the proper finding of the research. The format of tables and graphs are important to understand about the research. Theresearchers used the Microsoft Excel Software for analysing the collected data.In this research study, the graphical representation of collected data helped the researcher. The researcher focused on the graphical representation to maintain the accuracy in this research. In this research, the researcher presented it in an accurate manner. The reliable data are necessary to increases the reliability of the research study. This research considers the proper presentation of the collected data in the different formats that provides better outcomes.In this research study, the researcher used the Microsoft Excel software, because it is helped to solve the research problems in an effective manner.

The researcher used the data analysis techniquefor achieving the research objectives. In this research, the data analysis techniqueis important to get better outcomes of the research and it is helpful to understand the research problems. The researcher used the content analysis method, because it provides the relevant data to the research. This method is used to get the quality and better outcomes in this research. As per the research, the researcher can get the reliable data that would be better for the research results in an accurate manner. Finally, the statistical analysis method is helped the researcher to understand the finding of the research.

3.9 Sampling

In this research, the questionnaire survey, interview and random probability sampling method are used to select the participant randomly. These methods are enabled to get the views of MBA students in this research. For the interview method, random probability sampling method is selected to identify the target participants as per the research problems. In this research, 5 surveys are also conducted to MBA students during the interview method for knowing their views.The interview method of sampling is helpful to collect the qualitative information that is important to the research study (Tewksbury, 2009).For this research, questionnaire survey is conducted to different companies of Middle East and Europe for analysing their use of design thinking in business strategy and impact of managerial creativity.For this 4 employees of these companies are taken in the interview where 2 HR and 2 line managers are selected.

3.10 Ethical Issues

In the research, the researcher provides the reliable and correct data to the research that covers the ethical issues. The reliability of collected data will not affect the ethics in this research. The researcher has considered on the ethics during the collected secondary data. In this research, the researcher has analysed the plagiarism, patent and copyright to remove the ethical issues. As per the research, these contents are helpful to cover the ethical problems in an accurate manner (Wegner, 2010). In this research, the researcher has applied the referencing and in-texting to remove the research problems that is based on the collected data. The researcher focused on the collected data that are getting through the different studies. The researcher gives the thanks to authors, because the sources are collected through the different studies that are supportive in this research. The researcher has focused on the use of design thinking for business strategy and impact of managerial creativity that are based on the different Middle Eastern and European companies. In this research, the researcher has used the business strategy to remove the ethical issues. Finally, it can be analysed that the researcher should eliminate the ethical violation, because if it will not takeover than it can affect the plagiarism, copyright and patent in this research study.

3.11 Summary

The provided research methodology is developed on the research topic. Additionally, this methodology is also providing proper justification of the selected method or technique. For conducting this research, the researcher has collected the data from both primary and secondary methods. In addition, the qualitative and quantitative data are collected by conducting surveys and interview. In this study, the researcher has selected interpretivism philosophy to acquire the knowledge about the research topic because there is a need for logic and reasons to develop knowledge. At the same time, the researcher also conducted the research in cross-sectional time horizon. It is because the research data can easily be collected by a single point of time. Furthermore, all the methods are providing right direction to the research to achieve the objectives.

Chapter 4: Data analysis and Discussion

4.1 Introduction

This is significant chapter of this research study that allows the researcher to analyse the data and interpret this in the effective manner. Under this chapter, the researcher takes the help of the adequate analysis techniques. This chapter is helpful to achieve the effective results in the context of the research objective. This chapter includes two main tasks that are analysis and discussion. In the analysis, the researcher analysed the collected data by the help of the MS Excel. It represented the data and information in the tabulation and the graphical manner.  On the other hand, in the context of the discussion, the researcher interpreted the analysed data.

It the researcher survey, by the help of the questionnaire, the researcher first known the gender of the participants that was asked as the demographic question. In the context of this, the below table represents the findings:

Table 1: Gender

Gender?
Male Female
30 20

 On the basis of the above table, it can be determined that 50 people were participated in the survey and both gender as male and female where participated. In this, it is found that male participants were in the majority because there were 30 (60%) male out of the 50 participants and 20 (40%) female out of the 50 participants. Furthermore, in the context of the age of the participants, the below data is generated:

Table 2: Age

Age?
20-22 years 23-25 years 25-27 years Above 27 years
22 12 10 6

 On the basis of the above table and graph, it is interpreted that 50 MBA students were participated in this that were from young age. In this, it is found that 22 participants were aged between the 22 to 22 years. 12 participants were aged the 23-25 years and 10 participants were aged 25-27 years old and remaining 6 were aged above 27 years. After this, the researcher was asked from the participants that whether design thinking constitutes the exploration and development of creative strategies in the designing domains utilized by designers. In the regard of this question, the researcher generated the below response:

Table 3: Design Thinking Constitutes the Exploration and Development

Do you thing that design thinking constitutes the exploration and development of creative strategies in the designing domains utilized by designers?
Strongly agree Agree Natural Disagree Strongly Disagree
19 10 1 10 10

The above table and graph depict that most of the participants as 29 out of 50 were provided the positive responses regarding to this question. From this, it can be interpreted that design thinking helps the employees and organisation to develop and implement the creative strategies in the organisation. However, the main objective of the design thinking is to make effective utilisation of the organisational resources.

Furthermore, it was asked by the researcher from the participants of the survey that whether the design thinking is more solution focused as its actions guides towards future the organization. In this contrast the following responses are obtained:

Table 4

In your views the whether the design thinking more solution focused as its actions guides towards future the organization?
Strongly agree Agree Natural Disagree Strongly Disagree
17 12 3 7 11

The above table and graph determine that 17 participants were strongly agreed and 12 were agreed on the statement as design thinking more solution focused as its actions guides towards future the organization. They believe that in an organisation, design thinking provides the solution of the problem and makes able the company to be prepared for the bright future of the company. It provides the guidelines to the organisation and depict that what action should be happened of the organisation for the future growth.

Moreover, in the same way, it is also asked by the participants that whether you think design thinking framework integrates with classic creative problem-solving with art and design methodologies. In concern of this, the researcher obtained that below answer form the participants:

Table 5: Design Thinking Framework Integrates

Do you think that design thinking framework integrates with classic creative problem-solving with art and design methodologies?
Strongly agree Agree Natural Disagree Strongly Disagree
12 17 2 9 10

 On the behalf of the above results, it can be determined that 29 participants out of the 50 were agreed and strongly agreed that design thinking framework integrates with classic creative problem-solving with art and design methodologies. These participants think that design thinking is the collaboration of the creative thinking and problem solving skills of the employees that applies with the art of the design methodology. At the same time, the design thinking framework is also useful in the organisation to solve the complex problem.

By the help of the next question, the researcher was asked by the participants that whether design thinking describes as a methodology which is related to creativity during the procedure of designing. In the regard of this, the view of the participants is below:

Table 6: Design Thinking Describes as a Methodology

Are you agreed that design thinking describes as a methodology which is related to creativity during the procedure of designing?
Strongly agree Agree Natural Disagree Strongly Disagree
15 16 4 7 8

On the behalf of the above table, it can be determined that 31 (62%) participants were agreed that design thinking determines the methodology that is associated with the creativity during the procedure of designing. In the company, the design thinking allows the organisation to adopt the innovative ways to solve the problem. Problems are general at the workplace due to this company have to face various kind of issues related to cost. Hence, they think that design thinking is an effective way to produce the designing of the organisational culture.

Moreover, it is also asked by the participants that whether individual factors, risk preferences and capabilities affect the managerial creativity. In the contrast of this, the below answer was generated:

Table 7: Preferences and Capabilities

Whether individual factors, risk preferences and capabilities affect the managerial creativity?
Strongly agree Agree Natural Disagree Strongly Disagree
15 18 3 9 5

The above table and graph determine that mostly participants believe that individual factors, risk preferences and capabilities affect the managerial creativity of the company. It is because 33 participants responded positively for this. These participants have belief that individual factor, risk preferences and capabilities are significant factors those affect managerial creativity at the workplace. These factors and risk preferences and capabilities affect the gives the opportunity to the company identify and view problem from a different perspective.

In same way, it is found that it was asked from the participants that weather managerial creativity is the solution of various problems such as managing physical human, financial resources in the organization. In the context of this, following responses are generated:

Table 8: Solution of Various Problems

Managerial creativity is the solution of various problems such as managing physical human, financial resources in the organization?
Strongly agree Agree Natural Disagree Strongly Disagree
8 20 3 14 5

 Table 9: Exploration and Development of Creative Strategies

The above table defines that a majority (56%) of the participants are agreed and strongly agreed thatmanagerial creativity is the solution of various problems such as managing physical human, financial resources in the organization in the business or a firm. At the same time, the managerial creativity also enables the organisation meet the organisational goal and objective. It improves the internal process of the organisation that directly increase the overall performance and strength of the company to achieve the financial and non-financial objective.

In the prepared questionnaire, the researcher also included a question whether participants thinks design thinking constitutes the exploration and development of creative strategies in the designing domains utilized by designers. In the regard of this, the below responses are generated:

Do you thing that design thinking constitutes the exploration and development of creative strategies in the designing domains utilized by designers?
Strongly agree Agree Natural Disagree Strongly Disagree
11 19 1 9 10

On the basis of the above graph and table, it can be determined that design thinking constitutes the exploration and development of creative strategies in the designing domains utilized by designers. It is because 30 (Approx 60%) participants out of the 50, were agreed and strongly agreed that design thinking leads to the exploration and development of creative strategies at the workplace.

In the survey, by help of the next question, the researcher was tried to know the views of the participants on the advantage of managerial creativity at the workplace. In this, it was asked that whether managerial creativity helps in achieving the growth and success in terms of discipline, even vision and integrity. The below table and graph determine the responses of the participants:

Table 10: Managerial creativity helps in achieving the growth and success

Provider your views whether managerial creativity helps in achieving the growth and success in terms of discipline, even vision and integrity?
Strongly agree Agree Natural Disagree Strongly Disagree
14 18 12 4

 At above graph shows that 14 participants were strongly agreed and 18 were agreed that managerial creativity is helpful to achieve the growth and success in terms of discipline, even vision and integrity. The success of the organisation can be evaluated on the basis of the discipline; even vision and integrity where managerial creativity is play an important role.

In the context of the next question, the researcher was asked by the participants that whether that creativity management is effective term that helps in arranging, controlling and directing the creative thinking usage. In the concern of this, the following table summarises the responses of the participants.

Table 11: Arranging, Controlling and Directing

Do you thing that creativity management is effective term that help in arranging, controlling and directing the creative thinking usage?
Strongly agree Agree Natural Disagree Strongly Disagree
19 8 2 8 13

 On the behalf of the above table and graph, it can be determined that most of the participants 54% provided the positive views regarding the effectiveness of creativity management to arrange, control and direct the creative thinking.Additionally, these participants also think that creativity thinking represents the innovative skills of the management in the workplace that focus on the managing the different task at the work place.

From the above graph and table it is identified that 38% participants were strongly agreed and 16% were agreed that the managerial creativity is useful to arrange, control and direct the designing thinking. At the same time, the participants also consider that the managerial thinking offers the innovative skills of the management in the organisation to managing the different tasks of company. On the other hand, there are 26% participants are strongly disagree as well as 16% participants things that the creativity management not has effective term for arranging, controlling and directing the creative thinking usage.

Furthermore, it is also asked by the researcher that the participant things that managerial creativity is useful for the managers for introducing different innovative ways.

Table 12: Managerial Creativity is Helpful for the Managers

Do you thing that managerial creativity is helpful for the managers to introduce various innovative ways?
Strongly agree Agree Natural Disagree Strongly Disagree
10 22 1 13 4

 On the basis of the above graph and table, it can be determined that the managerial creativity helps the managers to offer different innovative ways. For this, 64% participants agree on this think that the managerial creativity is much useful for the organisational managers to improve their innovative and creative ideas. But at the same time, 34% participants are not agree on this think because the managers have other options to introduce various innovative ways as well as some managers have internal quality to provide innovative ideas to the company they need not to improve their skills.

In the study, it is identified that the next question is showing that the activities in social media marketing is the common way to improve creative thinking of the managers. In this, the researcher asked the question to the participant that are they agree on this statement that the social media marketing activities are helpful or a common way for managerial creativity. In the context of this, following responses are generated:

Table 13: That Social Media Marketing Activities Is A Common Way

Are you agreed that social media marketing activities is a common way that is used by the companies to identify the customer needs and create awareness among the customer?
Strongly agree Agree Natural Disagree Strongly Disagree
21 11 1 10 7

 From the above table and graph, it is identified that21 participants are strongly agree and 11 participants are agree that the social media marketing activityfor the companies is best way to identify the customer needs and to create the awareness about the products of the company. Only 18% participants are not agreeing on this statement because other ways can also be used by the organisation to create awareness and fill the needs of customers.

In same manner, it is also identified by asking another question that weather the managerial creativity is useful to improve the performance of employees and the performance of organization as well as their efficiency. In the context of this, following responses are generated:

Table 14: The Organizational Performance and Efficiency

Are you agreed that managerial creativity is helpful to improve the employees as well as the organizational performance and efficiency?
Strongly agree Agree Natural Disagree Strongly Disagree
15 17 2 8 8

 On the basis of above table and graph, it is identified that 15 participants are strongly agree as well as 17 participants are agree that the managerial creativity is helpful for improving the employees performance with organisation’s performance. It is identified that 64% participants are agreed on statement with 32% are not agree. The reason behind this disagreement is that performance of employees and organisation can also be improvised by different techniques and methods like training.

In like a manner, it can also be defined by questioningwith the participants that the design thinking is the systematic course of innovation or not as well as it starts with the analytical phase or not. In context to this question, the following responses are generated from the participants:

Table 15: Systematic Course of Innovation

In your views whether design thinking process is a systematic course of innovation and start with analytical phase?
Strongly agree Agree Natural Disagree Strongly Disagree
12 18 1 11 8

 From the above graph and table, it can be interpreted that the most of the participants are in the fever that the design thinking process is a systematic course for developing the innovativeideas and start analytical phase. In this 30 participant out of 50 are agreed on this statement and other participants are not thinking as well this statement. So, it can be said that the design thinking is a systematic course of innovation that is use by management to gain innovative thinking for improve the performance.

Furthermore, it was asked by the researcher from the sure very of different participants that whether the design thinking has reduced the dependency on historical data or risky intuitive assumptions for the success of the business. In this contrast the following responses are obtained from participants:

 Table 16: Dependency on Historical Data

Do you think that design thinking has reduced the dependency on historical data or risky intuitive assumptions?
Strongly agree Agree Natural Disagree Strongly Disagree
11 16 3 13 7

On the basis of above graph and table, it is interpreted that approximately 54% participants are agreed that design thinking is used by the management to reduce the dependency on historical data or risky assumptions Additionally, 6% participant reflected natural and remaining 40% are not agreed on this statement because the researcher needs the historical data to collecting the quantitative data from the past research.

In addition to this, the researcher has asked another question to meet the competition level in effective and efficient manner by the use of design thinking as innovative approach in the management. In which, the participant provided following responses:

Table 17: The Innovative Approach

Are you agreed that design thinking is used as the innovative approach to meet the competition level efficiently and effectively?
Strongly agree Agree Natural Disagree Strongly Disagree
15 16 2 9 8

 The above graph and table identified that that design thinking is used by the management as innovative approach for effectively and efficiently meet with the competition level. In which, 15 participants are strongly agreed and 16 participants are agreed on this statement and there are only 17 participants who are not agreed so this statement is shows that design thinking is an innovative approach of the business.

In addition to this, it is asked by the researcher from the survey of different participants that whether the flatter organizations type of structure presents a viable option for the organization to deploy design thinking approach across the organization. In contrast of this, following responses are obtained from participants:

Table 18: Viable Option for the Organization

Whether the flatter organizations type of structure presents a viable option for the organization to deploy design thinking approach across the organization?
Strongly agree Agree Natural Disagree Strongly Disagree
18 10 2 11 9

 From the above table and graph, it is identified that a viable option for the organization are provided by the design thinking for the flatter organizations type of structure. For this, the majority of the participants (56%) are agreed but 40% participants are not agreed on this statement and remaining’s are natural.

Moreover, the researcher also asked about the principle of design thinking in the next question to the same participants to identify the starting and ending stage of the design thinking. The below table and graph determine the responses of the participants:

Table 19: The Principle of Design Thinking

In your opinion whether the principle of design thinking starts with the market research and ends with innovative design?
Strongly agree Agree Natural Disagree Strongly Disagree
12 19 2 7 10

 The above table and graph identified that there are 62% participants are agreed and only 34% participants are disagreed that the principle of design thinking starts with the market research and ends with innovative design. In which, the researcher asked to the total 50 participants where 2 participants has natural response on the principle of design thinking.

As well as, the researcher also want to understand that the design thinking is helpful to increase the acceptance level with adaptation for enhancing the desirability of products and improving the product use. The below table showing the responses of the participants:

Table 20: Acceptance and Adaptation by Business

Do you think that design thinking will increase its acceptance and adaptation by business to enhance the desirability of products and improve product usability?
Strongly agree Agree Natural Disagree Strongly Disagree
22 7 1 10 10

 From the above table and graph, it is recognized that the majority of participants are agreed that the acceptance and adaptation of the design thinking is improved by business. In which 22 participants are strongly agreed and 7 participants are agreed on this acceptance and adaptation by business. But at the same time, 10 participants are strongly disagreed and 10 participants are disagreed on this statement.

 Interview

An interview was taken in developing the thought about the design thinking and managerial activities of the company. For conducting this interview, different kinds of questions were asked to the four managers (2 HR manager and 2 line managers) of a different organization. In this, the question was asked of the managers, what do you understand by the designing thinking and what do you understand by a framework of design thinking? In the response to this, one HR manager has provided his view that the design thinking constitutes the development and exploration of innovative strategies in the designing domains utilized by designers. Whereas, first line manager stated that the design thinking is a tool, technique and approach to solve the different kind of complex problem by braining designers. In addition to this, the second HR manager provided their view on the design thinking framework that the design thinking is a process which is oriented by the human. In this process, the manager focuses on the collaboration, business analysis, observation and learning for effective design thinking. On the other hand, the second line manager defined that the design thinking methodology is essential for developing innovative solutions to the difficult issues by the cooperation of values and interest of human in design.

In addition to this, the second question was asked to the managers that ‘In your views how Managerial creativity provides the competitive advantage to the company and what is its benefit?’ In the response to this, the first HR manager described that the managerial creativity has dynamic nature that is affected by individual factor, capabilities and risk performances. According to him, the managerial creativity is inspired by the behaviour for crafting the creativity on a different level. In the contrast to the second HR manager, the managerial creativity plays an essential role in the competition where the general intelligence, personality and cogitative ability of individuals can be used. The competitive advantages are very useful to develop the market value of the company and constant in the competition.

At the same time, third questioned defined about “how you think that creativity management is an effective term that helps in arranging, controlling and directing the creative thinking usage?” In the response to this question, first line manager stated that the creativity management provides effective tools and techniques in the strategies to effectively manage the performance of the employees. Whereas, the second line manager answered that the creativity management included the effective or innovative ideas of the manager to solve the difficulties in the operation. The use of creative thinking clearly defines the goals and targets to the employees and also develops the plan for arranging, controlling and directing the team members.

In this interview, the first line manager replied the fourth question that was “What is the impact of the managerial creativity?” The first line manager said that the managerial creativity has a positive impact in the workplace because it is helpful to reduce the gap in the management. The line manager can use the creative strategy to develop the performance of the organization in the competitive market. Creative manager develops the effective plan or strategy to retain the target audiences or customers. The second line manager replied that managerial creativity depends on their skills and experiences that can create a good performance in the workplace in the organization. A line manager makes an effective strategy to resolve the conflict problems as per their knowledge that occurs in the organization. Therefore, the line manager can make the effective position of the organization at the global level due to fulfilling the needs or requirements of the customers. A line manager creates new innovative ideas to reduce the gap between employees and organizations.

In the same concern of this, one person also replied that in the current business environment, the impact of the managerial creativity can be analyzed in the different manner. In this, it is found that companies seek the positive impact of the managerial creativity. Generally, the impact of the managerial creativity can be seen on the performance of the company. It is because the managerial creativity provides the innovative ideas to the organization that are helpful in order to determine the effective ways for doing work. It helps the employees of the organization to reduce effort and decrease the cost of the company. But, at the same time, by the help of the managerial creativity companies are finding the new ways of the doing work that help to increase the productivity. This practice helps the company in multiple ways such as identify the customer needs and create awareness among the customer. Companies use the managerial creativity in multiple areas such as process, product, services and operations etc. These kinds of the activities are helpful for the organization to improve the overall performance.

In the interview, the researcher was asked by the interviewee that what are the main use and important of the design thinking tools. In the concern of this, one person responded that the main use of design thinking is to minimize the dependency on historical data or risky intuitive assumptions. On the other hand, another person replied that mainly the design thinking is used to transform organisation structure for product development, service innovation and transformation of processes and business strategies. In the same concern of this, another major use of the design thinking is that it can be used in the industrial areas to increase the performance of the company in the context of the creativity and innovation. In the context of same question, one manager replied that design thinking is used to understand the concept of the customer experience with the organization.

Furthermore, how you will determine the concept of adoption of design thinking practices and principles in organization. In the reference of this question, one line manager replied that adaptation of design thinking in the company should need a cultural shift.

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Survey Questionnaire

  1. Gender
  • Male
  • Female
  1. Age
  • 20-22 years
  • 23-25 years
  • 25-27 years
  • Above 27 years
  1. Do you thing that design thinking constitutes the exploration and development of creative strategies in the designing domains utilized by designers?
  • Strongly agree
  • Agree
  • Natural
  • Disagree
  • Strongly Disagree
  1. In your views the whether the design thinking more solution focused as its actions guides towards future the organization?
  • Strongly agree
  • Agree
  • Natural
  • Disagree
  • Strongly Disagree
  1. Do you think that design thinking framework integrates with classic creative problem-solving with art and design methodologies?
  • Strongly agree
  • Agree
  • Natural
  • Disagree
  • Strongly Disagree
  1. Are you agreed that design thinking describes as a methodology which is related to creativity during the procedure of designing?
  • Strongly agree
  • Agree
  • Natural
  • Disagree
  • Strongly Disagree
  1. Whether individual factors, risk preferences and capabilities affect the managerial creativity?
  • Strongly agree
  • Agree
  • Natural
  • Disagree
  • Strongly Disagree
  1. Is managerial creativity is the solution of various problems such as managing physical human, financial resources in the organization?
  • Strongly agree
  • Agree
  • Natural
  • Disagree
  • Strongly Disagree
  1. Provider your views whether managerial creativity helps in achieving the growth and success in terms of discipline, even vision and integrity?
  • Strongly agree
  • Agree
  • Natural
  • Disagree
  • Strongly Disagree
  1. Do you thing that creativity management is effective term that help in arranging, controlling and directing the creative thinking usage?
  • Strongly agree
  • Agree
  • Natural
  • Disagree
  • Strongly Disagree
  1. Do you thing that managerial creativity is helpful for the managers to introduce various innovative ways?
  • Strongly agree
  • Agree
  • Natural
  • Disagree
  • Strongly Disagree
  1. Are you agreed that social media marketing activities is a common way that is used by the companies to identify the customer needs and create awareness among the customer?
  • Strongly agree
  • Agree
  • Natural
  • Disagree
  • Strongly Disagree
  1. Are you agreed that managerial creativity is helpful to improve the employees as well as the organizational performance and efficiency?
  • Strongly agree
  • Agree
  • Natural
  • Disagree
  • Strongly Disagree
  1. In your views whether design thinking process is a systematic course of innovation and start with analytical phase?
  • Strongly agree
  • Agree
  • Natural
  • Disagree
  • Strongly Disagree
  1. Do you think that design thinking has reduced the dependency on historical data or risky intuitive assumptions?
  • Strongly agree
  • Agree
  • Natural
  • Disagree
  • Strongly Disagree
  1. Are you agreed that design thinking is used as the innovative approach to meet the competition level efficiently and effectively?
  • Strongly agree
  • Agree
  • Natural
  • Disagree
  • Strongly Disagree
  1. Whether the flatter organizations type of structure presents a viable option for the organization to deploy design thinking approach across the organization?
  • Strongly agree
  • Agree
  • Natural
  • Disagree
  • Strongly Disagree
  1. In your opinion whether the principle of design thinking starts with the market research and ends with innovative design?
  • Strongly agree
  • Agree
  • Natural
  • Disagree
  • Strongly Disagree
  1. Do you think that design thinking will increase its acceptance and adaptation by business to enhance the desirability of products and improve product usability?
  • Strongly agree
  • Agree
  • Natural
  • Disagree
  • Strongly Disagree

Interview Questionnaire

Interview

  • What do you understand by the designing thinking and what do you understand by framework of design thinking
  • In your views how Managerial creativity provides the competitiveadvantage to the company and what is its benefit?
  • How you think that creativity management is effective term that helps in arranging, controlling and directing the creative thinking usage?
  • What is impact of the Managerial creativity?
  • What is the use and importance of the design thinking?
  • How will you determine the concept of adoption of design thinking practices and principles in organization?

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