USE OF VIABLE COGNITIVE ENHANCER

USE OF VIABLE COGNITIVE ENHANCER LIKE CAFFEINE IN ASSESSING THE COGNITIVE ENHANCEMENT OF A NOVEL NUTRITIONAL COMPOUND, “NEUROMEM”

1. Biological Component

1.1 Evaluation

1.1.1 Strengths and weakness of existing theories

Caffeine and activation theory is one of the major existing literatures on the research on caffeine as a cognitive enhancer. According to Bruce and Spiller (2019), health and behaviour of a person can be moderated by caffeine consumptions on a daily basis. In addition, activation theory of caffeine is majorly induced numerous epidemiological activities of this compound without focussing on the mental health issues and solutions by caffeine. This theory does not support that caffeine is a potential cognitive enhancer as the main focus lies over cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, this theory is not accepted in the modern scenario to use caffeine as potential cognitive enhancer because of the myocardial provision of the report. In an argumentative way Faber et al. (2017), commented that caffeine ingestion is helpful to influence the strengths and power of the brain of a human by making him or her more active during task performance.

Caffeine as a psychomotor is really potential to ensure eccentric strain to human health with greater stimulation of neurotransmitter in a composite manner. It is strength of this theory as it reflects the current approach of caffeine with higher validity. This theory has a minimum viability to analyze how caffeine works on physical moderation of human in a positive way. Two of these literature theories given above are argued by Hisham et al. (2019), caffeine has both the positive and negative impact on the physical and mental health of a person. This theory is greatly accepted by the scholars as doses and copes up amount of caffeine concentration discussed in a proper manner. This theory analyzes the regular risks and facilities of caffeine to the body of a human. The major disadvantage of this theory is that it cannot develop detail information about the adversity of this compound for suitable purposes.

1.1.2 Strengths and weakness of methodologies

Research on caffeine as potential cognitive enhancer has some major faults in the methodologies in order to consider the effect of this complex component in a greater manner. Kumar et al. (2018) have just gone through the existing theories via qualitative methods for assuring the final comment about the caffeine’s effect. This method can help to discuss the literary view but there is no such experimental evidence. It can be quite problematic for the researcher to understand the public view by accomplishing only qualitative research. On the other hand, Martins (2017), has gone through a different survey to patients with mental illness for detecting the intelligent quotient of them.

Survey approach is quite helpful as a research methodology as a number of patients can be accumulated in a short time with the higher determination of result. This method has a potential disadvantage as the current scenario has been considered there without any literature review. However, Pighi et al. (2018), has shown the experiments of Italian medical student to use caffeine as a cognitive enhancer with higher viability. A clear overview of the theory and experimental outcomes of caffeine is produced in this article that is quite helpful for the researchers to get detail about the effect in a proper manner. Henceforth, this methodology with primary quantitative approach and deductive design of research is accepted by the current fellows to follow up throughout.

1.1.3 Strengths and weakness of empirical evidence

The empirical shred of evidence about caffeine is that it delivers an outcome that this compound is actually an energy drink to affect the mental health of human. As discovered by Schmidt et al. (2017), the academic performance of children can develop more than 30% through the consumption of coffee within 150 mg once per day. This probable research is incomplete as only a particular age group from a certain area is selected as the target population. In addition, all the doses are not considered relevantly for the ultimate conclusion of this research under stimulant concentration of drug.

It has been assumed that neonatal therapy by caffeine helps to develop the academic performance of teenagers. It is a thought that cognitive enhancer helps to randomize CAP (Catabolite activator protein) for easy metabolism purpose. As argued by Tkachenko et al. (2018), oral consumption of caffeine is more effective to increases expression of Ki-67 protein but neurotrophic factors are decreased. This empirical research has an advantage to analyze the correct therapy of caffeine to develop mental illness in a correct manner. The major disadvantage of this empirical research is that the specimen is rat instead of human. Hence, this potential limitation of empirical research has connected to the probable effect of caffeine on human mental health after consumptions in a certain dose on a daily basis.

1.2 Rationale

Caffeine is a cognitive enhancer that boosts up long-term memory of a person to input many health benefits to the human. As commented by van Son et al. (2018), removal of headache is a potentially positive outcome of caffeine consumption for controlling mood swings in a greater manner. A nutraceutical company has decided to introduce caffeine as dietary compound to the market as this extracted material acts as a potential cognitive enhancer. It has been seen recently that the majority of people are suffered in brain-related issues. Therefore, it is vital to modify the memory level of them in a safe manner to boost up the energy level of those persons by activating mental health.

The main issue related to production of nutritive drug with the help of a biological psychologist is to slow down of performance of the people in a negative manner. In addition, this issue has a greater impact currently in the field of neuroscience because of the larger amount of affectivity to healthy adults. As per the view of Tkachenko et al. (2018), the development of mental health is required to control all emotional and psychological issues of a person for social well-being. It will not be possible for a person with mental weakness to handle individual and social stress throughout adulthood.

Mental state assessment and stability is important for each and every stage of life to take decisions in a proper manner. As assessed by Angelats et al. (2017), a person cannot show its true potential with a mental weakness and surrounding community can be affected by a particular one. This provision of new element to the market is required as soon as possible as the persons are suffered by headache, depression, schizophrenia or addictive behaviour due to environmental change and work pressure on a daily scale. In the market, the deliverance of a new dietary compound is required as much of the people are not interested in plan medication, psychotherapy to support effective treatment consequently.

A nutritional product can be consumed easily under any situation; therefore, the higher authority of the company has considered caffeine, a regular material to use as a cognitive enhancer. It is quite helpful to use caffeine on a daily basis for nootropic application by blocking adenosine receptors of the brain (Bach and Ransone, 2018). There is a procurement that caffeine can able to enhance alertness, attention and the perception of fatigue can also be reduced through the consumption of caffeine in a moderate quantity.

1.3 Mechanism of action

Antagonism of methylxanthine is the main mechanism of action of caffeine in order to moderate the function of the brain to the body. Adenosine signalling of the brain has mimicked through caffeine in order to increase energy metabolism and decrease the blood flow to the brain. As per the view of Martins (2017), brain hyperfusion has increased by caffeine through releasing of calcium molecule by blocking the neurotransmitters like adenosine and GABA. A1 (Wake stimulating neurone) and A2A (Sleep-Promoting neurone) adenosine receptors are charged by ATP (Adenosine Tri Phosphate) after consumption of caffeine. Therefore, substitution due to structural similarity is the main chemical mechanism by which caffeine is working on heart, brain, kidney and other body parts for ensuring energy in high amount.

Figure 1: Mechanism of action by Caffeine

(Source: Martins, 2017)

Relative rates of ATP breakdown and synthesis is the main mechanism to sustain the course of action by caffeine in a suitable manner. Initially, it was thought that caffeine inhibits the enzyme phosphodiesterase by evoking intercellular calcium release to make a person energetic. In addition, this mechanism of action was solely dependent on physical activity other than chemical subsidy. As founded by Neri et al. (2019), the activity of caffeine is mainly started to bind with A1 and A2A G-protein receptor in a high dose. This uneven bonding results to release of calcium ion from sarcoplasmic reticulum that gradually increases the nitric oxide level. In addition, caffeine is a good choice to activate the action of endothelial nitric oxide syntheses. Therefore, it is easy for caffeine to change the neuromuscular function with a high degree of contractile force to skeletal muscle for ergonomic viability of the material.

The caffeine, a cognitive enhancer, alternates the position of essential amino acid as a neurotransmitter for inhibiting the release of glutamate. According to Pighi et al. (2018), in vascular muscle cells accumulation of cAMP and vasodilatation has a potential effect to put benefit for smooth muscle development. Ryanodine receptor activity has enhanced by caffeine to produce more eNOS in addition to calmodulin. This calcium-induced calcium release is a potential variability by caffeine consumption lower down the threshold level of calcium ion by increasing its amount (Schmidt et al. 2017). The main mechanism of caffeine in the endothelial system underlies the increment of autocrine activity of the potent arterial vasodilator effect in a great response. Results of in vitro studies in the presence or absence of caffeine has shown a broader level of diversity in case of vasocoordinators to interact through oxygen scavenging (Tkachenko et al. 2018).

Figure 2: Mechanism of action of caffeine in the endothelial cells

(Source: Tkachenko et al. 2018)

The mechanism of action of caffeine to the smooth muscle cells is slightly different from the action to the other body parts. Caffeine lowers down the internal calcium level and as a result, external calcium ions are entered by L-channels in an independent manner as no blockers are present in this case (hindwai.com, 2010). This non-selective cation channel enhancement by caffeine prolongs at a certain period of time for which the accuracy level of a children can develop with proper physical structure. In addition, the contractile apparatus of the muscle such as actin-myosin joint becomes more flexible to grow up the performance of each and every individual on a certain period of time.

Caffeine inhibits the inositol triphosphate (IP3) complex at any concentration that in turn helps to release the calcium ions in an increased manner. As argued by Wilhelmus et al. (2017), antagonization of the IP3 pathway by ATP molecule enhances the voltage of the body to make a person more energetic. Generally, in the case of vascular smooth muscle, the heme group binds to it that it turns to regulate the blood pressure level of the human body (hindwai.com, 2010). In addition, caffeine also takes part in competitive inhibition to 3’-5’ cGMP phosphodiesterase that diminishes PKCs and cGMP in a negative manner. As a result, restlessness can be incorporated on the human body with a developed reliability on a daily basis. Moreover, the mechanism of action of caffeine is solely bound to ATP attachment and procurement of antagonism for treating mental illness in a proper manner.

1.4 Psychological effect

Caffeine is a good enhancer to the mental state of human that put several psychological effects on the brain and body. As commented by Angelats et al. (2017), only 100 mg intake of caffeine can act as a nervous stimulant and a person can feel more energetic by its action. In addition, caffeine makes a person attentive with a greater alert and both mental and physical affectivity of a human feel greater productive. It actually works to block the neurotransmitter receptors for making the brain excited under stress conditions.  Basically, this divergent drug has a course of action depending on its concentration and chemical action on a wide scale to all human being. Determination of intelligence quotient is another effective outcome of caffeine to mental health as it enhances the intelligence of a person at about 60% in a viable manner (Hisham et al. 2019).

Figure 3: Psychological effect of Caffeine

(Source: Angelats et al. 2017)

The main psychological effect of caffeine underlies in the Central Nervous System (CNS) with high dose consumption on a daily basis. As pointed out by Bach and Ransone (2018), caffeine helps to increase mental performances to the adults but is really detrimental to the children. Attention, concentration and alternation of a person can be developed via an accurate consumption of caffeine in a regular manner. 400 mg dose of caffeine on a daily scale is considered as safe to human mental health to trigger the sensitivity of a person in a greater manner. Moreover, hedonic tone (the degree of pleasantness and unpleasantness under particular circumstances) improvement is a positive effect of caffeine to regulate the brainstorm of human with better reliability.

Coffee consumption is consistently associated to put lower risk at the time of depression and cognitive disorders. As discussed by Bruce and Spiller (2019), extraction of coffee is really effective for Alzheimer’s patients to develop the mood of them. In addition, this cognitive enhancer moderates the routine performance of a person. Therefore, minimum risk at the time of obsessive-compulsive disorder is a positive sign to moderate a person in with greater viability. As per the view of mental clinicians, consumption of 300 mg of this well-known anxiety producer minimizes the panic disorder to the people in a proper way to make them sensitive magnificently.

Figure 4: Enhancement of memory performance by Caffeine

(Source: Bruce and Spiller, 2019)

 

Caffeine has some adverse effect on mental health too because of minimum susceptibility in a higher dose. As mentioned by Faber et al. (2017), large doses of caffeine has put a potential mental disorder named caffeinism if person intakes 650 mg coffee per day. This symptom has a lot of adversity to human health as the aggressiveness and psychotic behaviour of a person emerge in a greater amount leading anxiety neurosis. The appearance of confusion state to a person can disturb the normal mental state in a vulnerable manner with insomnia or heavy sleep in an indistinguishable manner.

 

The dependences of a person can increase in a higher amount by in taking 150 mg to 200 mg of coffee powder in a daily manner. This drastic change in the mental state of human by caffeine is seriously detrimental to human with a drastic change and greater exposure. Knowledge gained from the theory that few common lethargic effects such as headache, fatigue, apathy, and even anxiety can be expressed by consuming coffee weekly in deprive doses. Caffeine has a mood-boosting effect that plays a critical role to protest against depression by improving the working memory (Kumar et al. 2018). Henceforth, a decreased amount of fatigue is a positive sign to control metabolic rate with mental stability for proper controlling of the state of mind dynamically.

2. Cognitive Component

2.1 Critical consideration of spatial working memory

The spatial working memory is a scientific term to consider the capacity of a person for remembering any information in a temporary manner. As discussed by Bollmann et al. (2017), this temporary form of memory storing is highly related to psychological practice in order to accomplish the complex task by a person in greater viability to keep all data in the mind. This kind of discrimination paradigm involves recalling any shape, place, movements and more to understand the mental state of a person. The hippocampus and surrounding medial temporal lobes of the brain are responsible for modulating the spatial working memory on a daily basis.

A slight misarrangement of these parts can lead to erasing of memory in a periodic manner for forming a reliable environment for a person (Baddeley, 2017). The major three components of spatial working memory are central executives that act to supervise the nervous system. Other components are phonological loop and visuospatial sketchpad that control the flow of the slave system in a proper manner. It has been found in research work that spatial working memory is a major component to maintain the motion of a person to count the ability of body orientation. Involvement of motor neurone for maintaining spatial perception can connect the personality and memory of a person through visual moderation in a complicated rule in an intensive manner.

 

Psychologists play a critical role top moderates the spatial working memory of a person in a positive way for suitable affectivity of the brain. As per the view of Nguyen et al. (2019), psychologists measure the working memory by conducting an interview session to the patients. In this session, they are asking the particular person about the terms and items that they have remembered. More positive result can be acquired by counting the word or words that are repeated more. However, it is quite different from a standard intelligence test as brain voltage channel is solely involved in this practice (Lee et al. 2017). WAIS (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale) is used to measure the cognitive ability of a compound to an adult human body to assure verbal and non-verbal items as performance scale.

The average capacity of a human has calculated as 7 +/- 2 to measure sensory memory in a large version. As mentioned by Wong et al. (2018), psychologists introduce different tasks to patients with poor working memory to make a pattern such as n-back or more to train children for the development of ability. The psychologists help the patients by increasing the span of cognitive task to them in order to incorporate proper learning, reasoning and comprehensive action. This kind of activity by psychologists can help a patient to improve the memory in different subjects with greater concentration on a daily basis. This work from the psychologists is termed as gold standard function that may reduce different capacity issues. Moreover, all the ideologies of psychologists develop the mental effect for an extended time period to monitor the cognitive effect of a chemical or biological material to the human body properly.

2.2 Different approaches to spatial working memory

Spatial working memory mainly refers to as the capacity of one’s memory in order to store different pieces of information for a temporary basis and also to process the information accurately. As per Bollmann et al, (2017), this helps to work in any difficult or complicated and also to perform any complicated work very smoothly with the help of storing information. There are different approaches in order to understand the impact of spatial working memory that mainly includes the four components which are as follows-

  • Phonological loop: The phonological loop is another important approach of spatial working memory that used to handle all the auditory and the verbal information which also includes the language and the music. According to Van der Stigchel and Hollingworth, (2018), the main function of this system includes the holding of the sound that we used to hear from the outer source with the help of the phonological store. After this, this process helps to articulate the stored information and allowed us to repeat the word.
  • Visuospatial sketchpad: This model involves the online retention of any kind of object and also spatial information. It can be observed that the term “sketchpad” mainly refers to the image of the visuospatial system in an active state. This model was proposed by Alan Baddeley and Graham Hitch in the year of 1974. From the point of view of Credé and Fabrikant, (2017), this process mainly evaluates the normal mental facility of any person in order to assess the virtual environment of the patient. This process helps to understand the physical simulation, visualization, calculation as well as the optical memory call. It is one of the components of working memory that used to handle the visual and spatial information.
  • Central executive: It is another important approach to spatial working memory that mainly focuses on the target information. It also helps to make a connection with the working memory and the long term memory to work together. As per Baddeley, (2017), it is considered as the supervisory system that is responsible to control the cognitive process while assessing the spatial working memory. This process helps to update the newly added information and also to replace the old information. This process also helps to monitor the operation of both the phonological loop and the visuospatial sketchpad and also makes coordination between them. It also helps to relate this component with the long term memory and however, there is very little knowledge about the central executive system in terms of psychology.

2.3 Critical consideration of Computerized Corsi Blocks task

The Corsi block tapping test is one of the psychological tests that is generally done in order to assess the visuospatial short term memory working power. In this process, the researchers used nine separated blocks which are almost identical to each other. The researchers used to make the patient observe these blocks and then used to create impersonation to assess the short term working of the memory. As per Strong and Alvarez, (2019), at the initial part of the process, the researchers used only two blocks that are identical to each other. As time pass on researchers starts to incorporate more identical boxes in this process in order to understand the exact problem of the sufferer. These numbers of boxes are counted for the psychological analysis and also to assessing the patient. This number is generally known as the Corsi span and it can be observed that the Corsi span number for the normal human being is generally between 5 to 6 (Baddeley, 2017).

It can be observed that in the human body the brain is mainly responsible to store any kind of information and also to process in the proper manner. The result obtained from the Corsi block tapping test reveals that as the number of identical blocks starts to increase, the activity of a healthy brain remains the same. However as per Resing et al, (2017), if there some problems arise in the brain due to the increase in the number of blocks, the result will encode difficulty and also the inactivation of the brain.

The main process of the Corsi block tapping system requires identical boxes that need to arrange in the proper manner. The subject or the patient needs to observe the sequence of all these boxes and need to repeat the boxes in the correct sequence as it was earlier. According to Thackeray, (2017), the task generally starts with less number of boxes and continues to a higher number. It also helps to evaluate the spatial as well as the nonverbal memory capacity of the human brain. As a result of this, it helps to understand the correct sequence and also to assess the longest sequence that was remembered by the brain. This process is used in different diagnostic sectors like to assess the memory loss, damaged the brain due to severe shock or accidents.

Along with this, the backward Corsi Block tapping method is also performed in order to get a better result. In this method, the patients are first asked to observe the sequence properly. After this, they are asked to repeat the entire sequence in backward without mimicking the pattern done by the researchers. As per Kerrigan et al, (2017), thus it helps to assess the activity of the ventrolateral prefrontal part of the cortex of the human brain and also to evaluate the memory capacity of the sufferer.

2.4 Cognitive approaches to Corsi Task Decomposition

Working memory is somewhat different from spatial working memory because in the case of working memory the brain used to control and also to regulate the different information. On the other hand, as per Wong et al, (2018), in the case of spatial memory, the brain used to face some difficulties in processing the information and also to apply it properly.  In the language of psychology, the cognitive approach is one of the modern approaches that focus on human behaviour and also the way a person used to think. According to psychology, human behaviour is the result of several external factors or stimuli. It can be observed that the stimuli from the outsource used to create a response in the human body and the behaviour is the outcome of that response

There are several cognitive approaches of the Corsi task, like forward, backward and supraspan-forward with e-Corsi task and also the different tablet versions of the e-Corsi task. It can be observed that e-Corsi has several advantages as compared to the traditional e-Corsi test due to the simple installation, set up process and many more. According to many clinicians and also by the different researchers, there is a need for implementation of a standardized and automated system in order to compute the cognitive abilities. From the point view of Lee et al, (2017), it can be stated that there is a need for new modern technology in the system that will help to reduce the use of pencil and paper and will mainly provide the pure test result. As a result of this, the e-Corsi test and also the tablet version of the e-Corsi test are the other important cognitive approaches of the Corsi Block Tapping test.

Tablet versions of the Corsi Blocking test have several advantages as compared to the traditional processes. It can be observed that this process is very light and handy. Along with this, the cost of the process is very low and also user-friendly very much. As per Nguyen et al, (2019), in spite of this, this process also provides the chance to collect the data automatically and thus it helps to reduce the human error in the data collection procedure. This process also allows the collection of data from various sources like reaction time that also help to understand the exact condition of the patient.

Just like the tablet version of the Corsi Block tapping test, another method is the e-Corsi tapping test that involves the computational system in the clinical process in order to make the test more accurate. It can be observed that the process has the simplest method of installation, thus it is quite user-friendly and does not need any kind of human energy to start the program. Along with this, the process also includes the automatic measurement of the span and the reaction times that help to evaluate the clinical process precisely. On the contrary, it can be observed that from the view of Lyu et al, (2017), the traditional method of the Corsi Block Tapping test has several errors that may affect the treatment of the patient. Therefore, all these different cognitive approaches to this process will help to bring down the uniformity and purity in the result so that the clinicians can analyze the data correctly.

2.5 Performance criteria for other COMPASS tasks

The Corsi Block Tapping test is one of the most effective tests that is performed in order to assess the spatial working memory made the difficulties regarding this memory. This test not only helps the clinicians and the researchers to understand the difficulties of the patient but also helps to understand the thinking process. Along with this, this process also helps to understand how long the process used to be stored in the brain of humans and also how the brain used to process all the information properly. According to Kerrigan et al, (2017), there several other processes that also used to evaluate the spatial working memory capabilities in human, which are described below-

  • Visual pattern span: This process is very much similar to the Corsi Block tapping test but this process provides more pure results in order to assess the spatial wort5king memory of the patient as compared to the Corsi test. According to Thackeray, (2017), in this method series of the different matrix blocks that are similar in size, are presented in front of the patient.

Among all these blocks some of them are colored whereas the rest are not colored that is those blocks are kept blank. The researchers used to arrange the matrix in such manner so that it becomes difficult for the patient to verbally code it and thus they are forced to use their spatial working memory to memorize the pattern. As per Van der Stigchel and Hollingworth, (2018), all the matrix patterns are increased in size as well as in complexity at the rate of two and thus the ability of the patient to memorize the pattern is clinically evaluated. It was generally found that the patient’s ability generally breaks down at cell number sixteen.

  • Pathway span task: This method is generally performed in order to assess the spatial working memory of the children. According to Resing et al, (2017), in this process, the researchers used to provide a blank matrix with a little man inside it. Then they used to provide different directional instructions, like forwarding, backward and many more in order to move the little man. After this, the patient is generally asked to place the little man as they have visualized in the finish.
  • Dynamic mazes: This method is also performed in order to evaluate the spatial ability of the children. In this process the researcher or the experimenter used to prove a drawing of maze with a little man inside of it. Then the researcher used to trace the path from the opening towards the man with the help of his finger. After this, as per Strong and Alvarez, (2019), the patient is expected to demonstrate the path in the same manner and based on the patient’s demonstration the ability of his spatial memory was analyzed. It can be observed that as the level starts to increase the difficulty levels also start to enhance that helps to identify the ability of the children to store the information.

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