Dissertation on Utilization of Ergonomics Methods in perspective of textile firms in India
The main aim of this research is “to define and analysis the importance of Ergonomics Method utilization in operational activities of Textile firms.” For this report, the research developed a depth understanding with the help of developing literature review.
This research was conducted with selecting an appropriate research methodology, philosophy, and approaches. The research used mixed the data collection method including the primary and secondary data collection method.
In order to collect the primary data, the researcher selected 50 employees from the operational department of Abimithra Apparels Tiruppur City in Tamil Nadu. Furthermore, the researcher used SPSS software and Ms-Excel to analyze the collected data.
This study has supported to give deep understanding regarding ergonomics method and its importance especially in the context of Abimithra Apparels, which is situated at Tiruppur City in Tamil Nadu.
In this research paper, researcher has given huge consideration to collect the data while focusing towards ethical consideration and also remained focused to identify the importance of ergonomics while recommending the ways to improve the ergonomics practices while eliminating the hurdles.
Various flowcharts and tables are used to give deep understanding of the secondary data. This study is based on quantitative analysis in which survey questionnaire findings are represented through various graphs, charts, tables, etc.
It has supported to understand the research outcome in a glance. While collecting the secondary data, researcher has critically analyzed the viewpoint of various researchers to get detailed understanding regarding the research topic.
The research topic is “to define and analysis the importance of Ergonomics Method utilization in operational activities of Textile firms.” In today’s competitive and developing economy, textile organizations are facing problems in context to a utilization of Ergonomics Method application in their operational activity processes.
In India, competition and opportunities are increasing rapidly which support to businesses for their expansion and development to a large extent. Ergonomics methods are an effective systematic method which develops a system by evaluating and designing the functioning of the operating system and also by concentrating fully on the interaction among system and a human who uses them (Khandan, et al. 2016).
Thus, it is essential for textile firms to adopt ergonomics methods that will help in managing and ensuring that tasks, environment, information and most important functions suit each individual of the operation system.
At the same time, there are some researchers who focused more on ergonomics methods by investigating properly by stating that adoption of ergonomics methods is best suitable for firms or not in India.
According to Hussain and Javed (2016), it can be stated that ergonomics methods are best suitable for designing and improving operation activities and system which helps textile firms in their development and for achieving competitive success.
But on the other hand, some researchers identified some problems which textile firms are facing in their operation activities like communication or interaction gap and capability of human resources & machines and so on. Globally, there are various other textiles firms which are adopting ergonomics methods for improving their operation activities so that can enjoy a competitive advantage in a production process of textile products & services.
In India, also textiles firms are adopting new ergonomics factors for managing and developing their firm’s performances and operation system of the firm (Sain and Meena, 2016). In addition, adopting ergonomics methods in operation activities will support textile firms in managing and improving their human capabilities as well as their system performance effectively.
Use of heavy machineries also creates issue towards safety measurements of the workers.
However, in the current scenario, it is identified that accidental cases are decreasing on a regular basis within the organization due to increase in the trend of using the technological advanced machineries which are designed while focusing towards the safety measurement.
These machineries are creating negative impact towards the health parameters too. There are various issues which can be found related to work-related diseases which are directly or indirectly impacting the workers health and are impacting the organizational performance (Afshari, et al., 2015).
Increased health concern also increases the absenteeism and also creates the situation of employee turnover. At the same time, it impacts the employee performance and create negative environment. However, implementation of lean manufacturing methods remains assistive to decrease the negative concern as well as decreases the risk related issues and enables the firm to improve the production and quality while decreasing the production time.
In this context, this study will support towards identifying the importance of ergonomics methods in the context of textile industry, especially in Abhimithra Apparels. It supports to give concern towards social, psychological, physical and behavioral issues (Cowley, et al., 2016).
At the same time, it supports towards team building, team spirit, environmental perspective, macro-ergonomics, etc. which supports the firm to increase the competitive advantage in the industry.
In the current scenario, organizations have increased the focus towards ergonomics method as it enables towards increasing the focus towards ethical practices, fulfilling CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility), decreasing the company cost, increasing the product quality, enhancing the consideration towards safety measurements, and much more.
Dekker, Hancock and Wilkin (2013)  stated that ergonomics method enables towards adding the value within the organization while reducing various cost. It enables the organization to increase the trend of reusability and recycling which supports towards decreasing the company cost.
In like manner, it enables the firm to fulfill its legal and political responsibility and supports the firm to create positive brand image in the market. Due to this reason, organizations become able to create long-term sustainability in the industry.
At present, due to increase in competition, employees give focus towards various parameters and prefer to buy products from the firm which are focused towards fulfilling the social as well as corporate responsibility. In this context, ergonomics method remains highly assistive towards assisting the firm to fulfill its responsibility (Fonseca, et al., 2016).
The major reason behind taking this research topic for the study purpose is that it will enable towards giving deep understanding regarding the importance of lean manufacturing in textile industry especially in the context of Abhimithra Apparels. Gravetter and Forzano (2011)
stated that there are various organizations which are focused towards lean manufacturing method which has enabled the organization towards reducing the company cost while giving concern towards waste management and supports towards improving the overall customer value.
It enables the firm towards the steady growth and supports towards the upliftment of the firm in the industry. In the context of textile industry, competition is increasing day by day which has increased the concern towards employees, customers, financers and other stakeholders of the firm.
Additionally, it is identified that due to the use f hazardous machineries and harmful chemicals in textile industry, various harmful diseases and hazardous circumstances take place which creates the situation of insecurity towards the employees.
Moreover, some machinery have the structure which slowly and gradually creates the scenario of impairment and creates serious diseases gradually in the employees (Holden, et al., 2015). Due to this reason, there are lots of employees in India in the textile industry which face the issues of musculoskeletal problems which takes place through insufficient awareness.
However, at present employers have increased concern towards employee perspective as employee health problems create negative impact towards organizational performance. So, it is essential to increase the concern towards this parameter as it will support towards making the employees healthy.
Moreover, it enables towards increasing the employee satisfaction while decreasing the chances of absenteeism and employee turnover rate. In like manner, it supports towards creating positive and healthy working environment which enables towards increasing the productivity while improving the organizational performance (Jeyaraj, et al., 2012).
So, in this context, this study will support to identify the ergonomics methods used by Abhimithra Apparels while recommending the ways to improve the application of ergonomics methods within the organization in an effective manner.
The aim of this research is to identify the need and importance of Ergonomics method which supports a textile organization for managing and controlling its operation activities in order to increase utilization of resources in more effective and efficient manner. To attain this research aim, a researcher is required to accomplish following objectives in this research study.
- To identify different ergonomics methods which support textile firm for managing its operation activities
- To evaluate the impact of ergonomics method on operation activities of textile firms.
- To provide recommendations to overcome the problems and enhance the significance of ergonomics methods in operation activities
This research study defines different ergonomic methods which are helpful and effective for textile firms for enhancing and managing their operation activities. Ergonomics methods is a scientific method which is concern more about understanding interaction relation among human and elements of a system.
In simple words, ergonomics methods are designed in such a manner that it optimizes human well-being & overall operation system performance within an organization (Fonseca, et al. 2016).
The research study on the following topic will provide help for academic purpose and also enables the researcher in achieving a professional degree in management field after successfully completing the research. Further, this research study will assist in identifying and understanding the importance of ergonomics method towards operation activities which are significantly carried on by textile firms.
In this globally competitive market, an increase in textile goods demands also increases production level in a firm which leads to increase in challenges and objective for every textile firms.
This research is useful for developing and enhancing academic concepts and knowledge which reflect a proper understanding of ergonomics methods and also define the contribution of ergonomics method in improvement and management of operation activities.
Ergonomics Methods is found as major aspects for textile firms as it delivers a practical and authoritative account of methods which includes all human capabilities, limitations, environmental factors, human-machine interactions and many other factors that helps in managing operation activities as well as helps in attaining organizational goals and objectives (Maia, et al. 2013).
At the same time, this research justifies this topic by outlining the major organization point of views through which study helps in identifying factors that textile firms are considering in managing their operation activities.
Simply, this research study helps the researcher in their further study as well as also helps in defining the researcher ability in terms of defining and analyzing different potential perspective in this following research topic.
In the context of textile industry, it is identified that the productivity of the firm depends on the efficient use of human resource. For the purpose of effective operations management, it is essential to use the solutions which support towards the extension of human resources. It enables towards increasing the productivity at first sight.
However, in the contrary, it is identified that inadequate application of ergonomic working conditions can negatively impact the employee health as in the garment industry task is related to the repetitive motions (Lehto and Landry, 2012).
It creates monotonous body postures during these motions and negatively affects the workers. Musculoskeletal disorders are one of the common health issues which adversely impact the efficiency of the employees as well as impact the organizational performance too.
Due to increase in utilization of levels of workers, various health problems can occur in the long-run as well as short-run period. So, it is essential to increase the concern towards ergonomic conditions as these problems increases the medical expenses, absenteeism, employee turnover, negative working environment, etc.
Moreover, during the health issues, employers have to pay the employees on a continuous basis due to occupational health regulations which increases the company cost (Meena, Dangayach and Bhardwaj, 2015).
Employers must consider the ergonomics method as it supports towards giving consider to adequate safety measurement conditions while employing safe, secure and advanced machineries. However, it is identified that the garment industry is usually safer working place as compared to other industries.
In this industry, major risk does not arise due to direct dangerous hazards, but there are various hidden in indirect hazards that affect the employees over time due to repetitive jobs. It is identified that the problems initially begins with minor pains which slowly and gradually turn into incapacitating disorders which affect the daily life standards of the workers. .
This study has also supported towards understanding the importance of giving consideration towards environment (Nunes, Matias and Catalão, 2015).
Systematic ergonomics method supports to improve the company performance while decreasing the risk factors which will support towards preventing the workers from various kinds of health issues.
So, the reason behind undertaking this study is that ergonomics aims to prevent these types of problems by controlling the risk factors such as vibration, working environment, repetition, posture, etc. which occur the disorder (Gmelin andSeuring, 2014).
In this context, this study will support to get deep understanding regarding the ergonomics method which is utilized by Abhimithra Apparels. In this study, various factors related to ergonomics methods are consider which supports towards increasing the firm productivity, decreasing the company cost, decreasing the risk factor, increasing the employee performance, increasing customer satisfaction, etc. (Haberl, 2015).
This study will support to understand the methods utilized by Abhimithra Apparels while discussing the shortfalls. Additionally, it will support towards recommending the ways to improve the ergonomics implication within the organization
Chapter 1: Introduction
The first chapter of this research has supported towards introducing from the research topic. It has assisted towards acknowledge about research background, aims, objectives and justification and has supported towards giving a brief introduction to the research.
Chapter 2: Analytical Part
In this chapter, researcher has discussed Abhimithra Apparels company background. At the same time, company SWOT analysis, PESTLE analysis, BCG Matrix and product life cycle is discussed in this chapter which has supported towards getting the deep understanding regarding the company.
Chapter 3: Literature Review
In this chapter, researcher has discussed the research topic on the basis of various existing theories, concept & framework which are related to the research topic. It has supported towards critically analyze the research topic on the basis of the findings of the past researchers and has supported towards referencing their studies through various articles, books, novels, blogs, etc. which has supported to understand the research topic from various point of view.
Chapter 4: Research Methodology
In this chapter, research methods which are used for the collection of the data are discussed. For the collection of the primary data, survey questionnaire method is used by the researcher which has supported towards the collection of the firsthand data. Moreover, the sample size of 50 employees of Abhimithra
Apparels has taken as a sample size which has supported to understand the perception, idea, view & suggestions of the respondents Moreover, data is collected in a structural manner while focusing towards ethical parameter.
Chapter 5: – Data Analysis
In this chapter of the research, data is analyzed on the basis of quantitative approach. Moreover, primary data findings are correlated with the secondary outcome to get the relevant research outcomes. Various tables, charts and figures are used by the researcher which has supported towards understanding the research outcomes in a glance.
Chapter 6: Conclusion & Summary
This chapter has enabled the researcher to conclude the whole research in an effective manner while summarizing the research outcome effectively. This chapter has supported towards achieving the research objectives in an effective manner. At the same time, there are various recommendations which are given by the researcher which will support Abhimithra Apparels and other textile firms of India to improve its performance by applying ergonomics method in an effective manner.
Afshari, et al. (2015) stated that textile industry is one of the traditional and well-developed industries of Tamil Nadu. It is identified that Tamil Nadu has a strong production base regarding the textile industry and about 1/3 rd of Textiles production takes place in this country. Moreover, 37.5 per cent is the net value addition in Textile industry in the context of Tamil Nadu which is the highest percentage in India.
Majorly, the Textile mills are located at Coimbatore, Tirupur, Salem, Palladam, Karur and Erode. There is around 3,50,000 power looms in Tamil Nadu which manufacture cotton fabrics. The Erode district in Tamil Nadu is popular for textile products marketing in the context of handloom, powerloom and readymade garments.
Abimithra Apparels was established in the year of 2004 (ABI, n.a). This textile firm is dealing in Tamil Nadu at Tiruppur City. This textile firm is supplying its garments to various parts at a global platform. Abimithra Apparels is deemed as one of the distinguished manufacturers as well as exporters and suppliers in India.
This firm is dealing in wide variety of clothing with premium quality. The target customers of the firm are for men, women and children too. The range offered by the firm is beautifully designed and offers comfortable fit. This company is driven by focusing towards the commitment to quality while strictly adherence to the perfection.
Per month firm produces 60,000/ garments and the company has intelligent and skilled workforce members who are dedicated to meet the consumer demand to increase the customer satisfaction (ABI, n.a.).
This company’s production unit is equipped with all the latest machines and its products pass through strict quality control test before reaching at the market and in the consumer hands. For making the garments, company uses the finest grade of raw material and this firm is focused towards current market needs and latest trend.
Abimithra Apparels gives huge concern towards quality parameters and uses various methods of ergonomics to increase the quality, production and profitability (Afshari, et al., 2015).
Application of ergonomics method enables the firm to increase the focus towards safety measurement and increase production while focusing towards environmental parameter. At the same time, it enables the firm to increase focus towards employee physical, physiological and behavioral aspects as well as it supports the firm towards increasing the team spirit.
SWOT analysis supports to evaluate the internal strengths and weaknesses of the firm while evaluating the external opportunities and threats which company has to face while dealing in the industry (Shahabi, et al. 2014). SWOT analysis of Abhimithra Apparels has supported to give deep understanding regarding the company strength, weakness, opportunity and threat.
· Using the finest grade of raw material
· Using ergonomics methods
· Intelligent and skilled workforce (Shahabi, et al. 2014)
· Technologically advanced equipment
· High power cost
· Less focused towards training
· Lower average consumption in the context of domestic market
· Low investment in research and development
· Low labour cost
· Increase in population is also increasing clothing demand
· Consumer focus is increasing towards quality (Haberl, 2015)
· Increase utilization of technological advanced system
· Increased competition
· Ever changing consumer demand
· Price sensitivity of the consumers
· Increase in negotiation trend in Indian market
Giving consideration towards political aspect is necessary as it enables the firm to gain success, good reputation and trust of the stakeholders (Nunes, Matias, and Catalão, 2015). Political analysis supports to follow the policies and regulations related to the government which is designed for the particular industry in a particular company.
There are various government policies which textile firms in India needs to focused such as tax policy, employment laws, political stability, environmental regulations, trade and tariff restrictions, etc. to survive in the textile industry in India.
Moreover, changing in the government policies can increase the challenge for the firm. Igliński, et al. (2016) identified that in India, there are various government initiatives have taken place for the upliftment of the textile industry such as the government has announced the subsidy of US$ 533.87 million in the context of textile industry under Technology Up-gradation Fund scheme (TUFs) (Nunes, Matias and Catalão, 2015).
Moreover, government has extended the capital subsidy by 10% and interest subsidy by 5% on the installation of machineries and also for the processing of the machinery under the TUFS.
India is economic stable country and country is showing economic growth at a continuous basis. At the same time, per capita income is also increase which has supported towards influencing the buying behavior of the Indian consumer. Moreover, due to increase in liberalization and literacy level, consumers are more focused towards buying quality products.
At the same time, number of consumers is increasing in the industry due to increase in the population. However, due to increase in competition level, consumers are focused towards purchasing the garments at lower prices with high quality.
Chandanshive, et al. (2016) identified that change in inflation rates, exchange rates and interest rates can create the situation for the textile firms. Increasing inflation rate increases the production high which negatively affects the buying behavior and the profit margin of the industry.
Rane, et al. (2015)  stated that society and culture plays vital role in the context of business so it is necessary to give focus towards this parameter. Socio-culture has high influence on consumer buying behavior. India ranks second in the context of population and its total population is around 1,342,512,706 which show an opportunity for the firm.
However, Indian consumer buying behavior is highly unpredictable and their buying behavior gets influenced through peers influence. Moreover, in India, there are different tradition, religion and culture people and their buying behavior in the context of clothing is also highly diverse which can create the situation of challenge for the firm.
So, it is essential for textile industry to understand the cultural influence to understand the buying behavior of Indian consumers to survive in the Indian market. Change in the lifestyle creates new opportunity for the textile industry to offer innovative and creative products to fulfill the customers demand while increasing the customer satisfaction (Bedekar, et al., 2014) .
Indian textile firms are focused towards technological analysis however; Indian textile industry is not highly technological advanced. So, there is an opportunity for Indian textile industry to use enhanced technology as it will enable the firm to increase the quality as well as productivity of the firm.
Chandanshive, et al. (2016) depicted that technological advancement remains assistive for the firm to increase efficiency as well as effectiveness and competitiveness within the industry.
It enables the firm to combine innovative applications of modern technology while focusing towards strategy oriented approaches which enables the firm to create effective planning to create competitive advantage in the industry. So, it is essential for the textile firms in India to give high consideration towards the technological advancement aspects.
In this context, firm needs to increase concern towards distribution and communication channels, automation, rate of technological change, barriers to entry and many other parameters too which will enable the firm to increase the competitive advantage.
In the context of India, it is identified that technological advancement has taken place in all the sectors of the country especially in the textile industry (Maddumapatabandi, De Silva and De Silva, 2014).
While dealing in the Indian market, textile firms need to focus towards various legal parameters to survive in the market such as maximum working hours, minimum wages, etc. Changes in legal parameters create challenge for the textile industry (Rane, et al., 2015).
Textile industry gives huge negative impact towards the environment. However, at present firms have increased concern towards the environmental perspective by utilizing the concern towards ergonomics methods. It has supported the firm towards waste management, recycling, reusability, using quality material, handling the chemical wastage in an adequate manner, etc.
Moreover, companies have increased concern towards safety measurements too which has enabled the textile industries to create positive brand image as well as supported towards improving the organizational performance.
In this context, Bedekar, et al. (2014) depicted that at present Indian consumers give high concern towards environmental perspective and prefers to buy eco-friendly products, so fulfilling CSR (corporate social responsibility) enables the textile firms to increase the positive word of mouth.
The Boston Consulting group’s (BCG) product portfolio matrix supports to design the long-term strategic planning which enables towards considering the business growth while focusing the opportunities of the firm products by reviewing the portfolio of products.
It supports to give the understanding regarding where to invest which supports towards getting the understanding regarding there is a need of discontinue or developing the products (Rane, et al., 2015) .
(High market growth rate and high relative market share)
T-shirts, trousers, shorts, women apparels, children’s wear
(High market growth rate and low relative market share)
(Low market growth rate and high relative market share)
pullovers, bermudas, shirts
(Low market growth rate and low relative market share)
Pyjamas and night wear
Gmelin and Seuring (2014) stated that there are basically four stages of product life cycle, they are – introduction, growth, maturity and decline. A product goes through different stages and after reaching to these all stages, product goes out from the market. However, not all products reach to the final stage andsome remains continue to grow or show rise and fall on a continuous basis.
Product Life Cycle
(Source: Smith, et al., 2013)
Introduction stage – In this stage, researching, developing and launching of the product takes place.
Growth – In this stage, sales of the product increases at the fastest rate.
Maturity stage– In this stage, the sales of the product remains at their highest; however the rate of the growth slows down due to the entrance of new competitors in the market or due to saturation.
Decline stage – This is the final stage of the product life cycle, in which sales begin to fall.
In the context of Abhimitra Apparels, company products are at growth stage, where product sales are increasing on a regular basis and company is continuously focused towards improving the products or services according to the consumer need.
At the same time, company is using ergonomics methods for the purpose of improving the product quality and production (Smith, et al., 2013). Focus towards these enabling the firm towards creating competitive advantage in the industry while increasing the company sales.
This chapter briefly provides a review of different researchers on an importance of ergonomics method for textile firms in India. This literature review chapter helps in defining and collecting a large quantity of data that help in identifying and understanding research problem which is faced by textile firms in India.
In this research study, data is collected from one source, i.e., secondary data which include articles, the internet, journals, books, etc. This secondary data source collection helps in deeply analyzing the data so that required understanding and information can be collected about the research topic.
In this chapter, various researchers view are identified and studied which help an existing researcher to add on its input in the same field so that future researcher can use that for their literature review.
In addition, this research study will help in developing knowledge through different theories and concepts that will assist a researcher in defining the importance of ergonomics method and problems that are faced by textile firms in India in managing and improving their operation activities.
According to Lehto and Landry (2012), ergonomics is defined as a systematic discipline which is concerned towards human factors by considering interactions among humans and operating system performances with each other.
Ergonomics is evolving similar to business production activities which are carried by following data and principles and methods in operating activity to design system so that optimum utilization of production and human well-being can be develop and improved through their performances in the production system.
At the same time, Tortorella, et al. (2016) lean manufacturing is seeking towards optimization of production by reducing the wastage and efficiently manages the tasks. But, at some point of time, lean manufacturing reaches to a level or area where it find ergonomics area where various tools are used to diagnose the problems and provide with effective solutions and improvements by following similar systematic process.
Similarly, Falck and Rosenqvist (2012) stated that ergonomics goal is to understand and diagnose the problems which affects or hinders the communication and interaction process among the workers and working system.
Ergonomics and its Steps
(Source: Holden, et al., 2015)
Salvendy and Karwowski (2016) also defined that ergonomics is the study of labor towards man adaption by designing an effective operating system and environment which improve the work-man relationship and productivity. In support of this, Zink (2014) explained that ergonomics has two fundamental objectives such as first, generate more knowledge and understanding about the working environment and workers towards the work.
Second, develop and design new tools, methods and principles that guide managers to take up action to improve and develop relationship man-work relationship. Khan, et al. (2012) also argued that adopting ergonomics methods and tools in working premises will affect other functional areas and increase the conflict and also increase the extra cost towards development or designing of new organization operating system.
(Source: Battini, Persona and Sgarbossa, 2014)
In other words, Broberg, et al. (2011) further that ergonomic is a effective method for organization which design their new operating system in order to develop effective connectivity elements that combines workers with the working environment in respect of workspace, task, physical appearance and so on.
This statement is also supported by Dekker, et al. (2013) and they stated that ergonomics is branch of science that focuses and concern fully towards getting success by improving work-man relationships with each other.
But at the same time, Carayon (2011) illustrated that using this ergonomic method in industrial production is difficult as it will take time to make workers adjustable and convince them to adopt new method in their working environment.
This change in existing working environment creates negative impact on workers as they are forced to adopt these changes in their working style and system as well as there is requirement to proper training program to staff and workers to get them familiar with this method. This is a limitation of ergonomics method as it increases financial cost and extra activity for the industry which they necessary required to adopt.
On the other hand, Battini, Persona and Sgarbossa (2014) depicted that due to increase in industrialization, utilization of hazardous material is increasing on a regular basis which are directly or indirectly creating negative impact towards the surrounding as well as environment. Due to which, globalization, climatic issues, etc. are taking place.
At the same time, liberalization and literacy level has increased the consumer consideration towards the environment so there is a need of focusing towards this parameter as it will enable the firm to increase competitive advantage in the industry.
(Source: Robertson, et al., 2015)
On the other hand, Wilson (2014)exhibit that adopting ergonomics methods in industrial production reduces the number of accidental and injuries cases and this makes ergonomics a critical driving factor in industries.
In concern to this statement, Karwowski (2012) elaborated that to implement ergonomics methods in industry, there is proper process which is used so that optimum human well being and overall system performance can be developed and achieved.
Martin, et al. (2013) also clarified that principles of ergonomics are helpful and useful for achieving a potential work-man relation by preventing and protecting working environment in terms of operator fatigue or work-related stress.
Importance of Ergonomics Method
(Source: Mallam, Lundh and MacKinnon, 2015)
Ergonomics method supports to consider range of generic issues such as task design, worker interface, equipment interface, etc. At the same time, it enables towards increasing the individual variation by motivating and encouraging them, providing proper training, focusing towards legal requirements, etc.
Ergonomics enable towards assessing the upper regions of the body such as back, neck, shoulder, wrists, etc. It supports towards offering the overview regarding the range of methods which enable the firm towards the development of the employees while considering the respective merits and demerits of the machineries to assess the instrument as well as the working environment (Meena, Dangayach and Bhardwaj, 2015).
Moreover, it supports towards giving concern to safety and health parameters which supports towards the prevention and reduction of the risk. Ergonomics method supports towards decreasing the risk factor while increasing the company productivity. It also supports towards improving the product quality while reducing the company cost.
In like manner, it enables the firm to increase the concern towards environment in which company is dealing. So, ergonomics method also enables the firm to create positive brand image which supports towards increasing the goodwill of the firm in the market and supports towards increasing the profitability (Ostergaard, Timmermans and Kristinsson, 2011).
(Source: Gmelin and Seuring, 2014)
The major focus of any organization is towards their customers as customers are the king of the market. So, it is essential for the firm to increase the concern towards the customers as it enables towards creating long-term sustainability within the organization (Gmelin and Seuring, 2014).
Eliminating wastage, simplifying everything and creating the flow supports towards continuous improvement in the context of customer focus. Moreover giving focus towards relevant aspects of the exposure such as effective employee training, motivation, safety measurement, behavioral influence, etc. supports towards improving the employee performance which directly supports to fulfill the consumer demand.
It enables the firm towards increasing the concern towards environment which supports to influence the consumers as at present due to increase in literacy level and liberalization, consumers give huge focus towards environmental parameters.
Stanton, et al. (2014), stated that there are six different ergonomics methods such as Physical method, Psycho-physiological methods, Behavioral methods, Team methods, Macro-ergonomics methods and Environmental methods.
In support of this, Bolis, et al. (2014) explained that these all ergonomics methods play a vital role in development and improvement of the operation system and also in increasing productivity level of the process.
At the same time, Meena, et al. (2015) supported ergonomics methods by defining each six ergonomics methods, i.e.; physical methods is a method which is used to measure the work and doing an analysis of workplace risk and much more. The use of physical method is found very essential for collecting the data for management by indicating risk factors at work places.
Moreover, Cowley, et al. (2016) elaborated that Psycho-physiological methods is effective enough as it helps in evaluating and analyzing the human perception and psychophysiology while working. It is generally observed and accepted that many muscle disorders injuries begin with the worker discomfort and stress.
Adopting physical method reduces the levels of discomfort and stress to large extent as it decreases the risk factors related to injury or uncertain accidents cases. Psycho-physiological methods help in evaluating the ability and capability of human by defining their Psycho-physiological.
This method is discriminated between underload and overload, the former leading to reduced alertness and lowered attention (e.g., reflected in eye parameters), the latter to distraction, diverted attention, and insufficient time for adequate information processing.
In addition, Meyer and Fourie (2016) also stated that behavioral method is effective method for ergonomists as it helps in analyzing workers behavior towards workers in regards to workload, human predictions, tasks, etc. In this, observation of activities is done by grouping the people interviews that are performing those activities at work stations.
These approaches feed data into many other methods, such as hierarchical tasks analysis, cognitive task analysis, verbal protocol analysis, human error identification methodologies, and workload analyses.
(Source: Meyer and Fourie (2016) 
In simple words, these following methods i.e., physical method, psycho-physiological method and behavioral method are more concern towards individual person and their interaction within the organization and external part of organizations. Similarly, Berlin, et al. (2017) defined one of the method i.e., team method helps in evaluating the team spirit, team training, team decision making and much more.
This method covers the team structure, tools, methods, and strategies which help in implementing and evaluating team training. While there are numerous benefits to be gained by the implementation of teams, there are also a number of reasons teams fail.
These failures can often be traced back to errors in team implementation and training. In supporting to this, Stanton, et al. (2013) stated that environmental methods are a method which helps in analyzing environmental factors that includes vibration exposure, air quality, and thermal conditions and so on which creates impact on people.
The impact of modifying the physical environmental conditions at work helped to establish the groundwork for the emergence of the discipline of ergonomics. Ergonomists realized that our ability to perform work is inextricably linked to the prevailing environmental conditions in the workplace.
On the other hand, Karsh, et al. (2014) stated that macro-ergonomics methods evaluating and analyzing the work system of the firm efficiently and effectively. In context of macro-ergonomics, the focus team group targets people to work together in particular work system after they are interviewed in relation to specific aspects that are considered at work place system or in socio-technical environment.
Sometimes, a work-system change can be simulated, and the group members then are brought together in a focus group to gain their collective perceptions and opinions about specific aspects of the change.
In addition, Butlewski, et al. (2014) stated ergonomics process where there are five different phases which plays significant role in implementing ergonomics methods in working premises. These all five phases are identification of problem, analyzing the problem then developing alternative solutions, implementation of best effective solution to workstations and at last evaluating the performance.
Different Types of Ergonomics
Different Ergonomics Methods
(Source: Butlewski, et al., 2014)
From the above table, it can be understood that in the current scenario, there are different types of ergonomics methods which are used by the organizations which enable towards improving the work process of the firm. These methods support towards increasing the focus towards employees, customers, organizational working process, environmental perspective, etc. (Butlewski, et al., 2014).
In the research of Silvana, et al. (2012), the importance of ergonomics raised due to safety factor which it provide at work place so that workers can work effectively and synergistically enhance their performance with each other as well reduces the employer cost in terms of reduction in accidental cases.
For industrial production, importance of ergonomics is increasing rapidly as it helps in improving the working conditions as well as reduces accidental and injuries happening at the workplace. According to Carayon (2011), safety factor gives major advantage to the industry and also attracts other industries attention towards ergonomics method benefits and conditions.
Moreover, Karwowski (2012) illustrated that implementation of ergonomic process in working environment provide financial benefit in terms of safety measures which are followed in organization culture.
Top 10 Leading Causes of Disbling Workplace Injuries in 2012
(Source: Smith, et al., 2013)
In the study research of Oladeinde, et al. (2015), it is stated that safety factor plays vital role in production process with the help of ergonomic methods which are adopted to boost productivity, build work-man relationship and increase employee morale in order to achieve success.
In support of this statement Gopinadh, et al. (2013), elaborated that high cost of investment on machinery, equipments, facilities are made by considering workers safety and occupational accidents and this safety benefits provide other financial benefits in terms of increase in productivity of goods and services.
In general terms, ergonomics method is effective and strong integration process which prevents from less injury but boost up the productivity level.
In India, the importance of ergonomics methods developed with an increase in issues related to production economy and social progress as well as to develop an economy regarding GDP (Gross Domestic Product).
Dul, et al. (2012) defined that to develop industrial production, ergonomics plays a significant role, so that workplace environment gets improves to some extent. In simple term, ergonomics methods assist developers and engineers to improve productivity in textile firms by bringing more discipline in the workplace environment.
In oppose it, Jeyaraj, et al. (2012) argued that adopting ergonomics methods will increase the production cost as well as affect the existing operational activities as workers are not skillful to adopt the changes.
In support of this, Resta, et al. (2014) depicted that ergonomics might increase and improve the operation system performance but for firm it is required to focus on spending production cost so that change in environment take place effectively.
Additionally, Salmon, et al. (2017) defined that role of ergonomics methods are very effective in terms of bringing improvement or development in firms by managing the physical work practices in relation to manual material handling and various tasks like accidents or production loss.
Moreover, companies are adopting ergonomics methods with lean manufacturing process to make working environment more effective in terms of minimum wastage as well as in value creation. In simple words, ergonomics methods are easily included in lean manufacturing process in order to improve and evaluate the performance of the workers towards risk assessment and quality.
At the same time, Meena and Dangayach (2015) elaborated that importance of ergonomics for organizations in increasing in such a manner that it assist and supports in managing human factors by increasing workers safety, comfort and their efficiency level.
In support of this, Silvana, et al. (2012) explained that ergonomics methods gives full consideration towards both workers and working environment of the company as a whole. For organization, ergonomics is becoming necessity as it increases health and human well-being of company as a whole.
In simple terms, importance of ergonomics gets limited due to investment which is required to be made for effective working practices at workplace. The reason behind this increase in importance of ergonomics is stated and discussed by Ngai, et al. (2014) in which they stated that brining ergonomics method in practices will reduce the time which occur to complete the task on time and in addition, it will reduces the absenteeism due to injuries and work-related stress.
On the other hand, Hoe, et al. (2012) depicted that to maintain the increase in productivity, companies are required to hire new trained and well-qualified employees (i.e., ergonomists) so that they teaches other remaining workers and make them comfortable with new surroundings.
Ergonomists are trained person in implementing analytical techniques or methods to the working environment so that they can identify different user’s characteristics should be considered while designing new operating system for developing and improving the system performances.
Further, in the study of Stanton, et al. (2013), it is observed that ergonomics helps in ensuring that work and man interaction has good relationships for which objects and elements are used at the place where both exists or lives together. Overall, ergonomics supports the companies to earn higher profit with respect to increase in productivity level.
Ergonomics manufacturing supports the firm to systematic implement the method towards decreasing the company cost while focusing towards various perspectives. It enables the firm to waste minimization without sacrificing the organizational productivity (Bedekar, et al., 2014).
Ergonomics methods enable the firm to focus towards recycling, reuse and refilling process which enables the firm towards decreasing the organizational cost and waste management. There are various kinds of wastes which takes place due to unevenness in workloads within the organization or from the side of consumers.
However, at present, consumers are willing to pay for the products which are produced by utilizing lean manufacturing. Consumers value for the action or process which is taken place for the welfare of society, surrounding and environment that a customer would be willing to pay for.
Beneficiary of Ergonomics Methods
Ways of Achieving Benefits
|Supports to increase the productivity||By giving concern towards effective machineries
|Enables to increase concern towards safety measurement||By employing the machineries which are designed while focusing towards safety measurement. Moreover, there is a need of hazard management.
|Increases employee satisfaction|
|Increases concern towards fulfilling CSR||Supports to fulfill the social responsibility as well as create positive brand image of the firm
|Supports to increase team building within the organization||Team building enables the firm to increase the productivity and improves the employee performance
|Supports to identify the interest area and ability of the employee||By giving concern towards behavioral, physical method and psycho-physiological methods|
Beneficiary and Ways of Achieving Ergonomics Methods
Ergonomics can be defined as the science of work which supports the people to recommend the ways to accomplish the task in an effective manner by giving focus towards various parameters (Bolis, Brunoro and Sznelwar, 2014). It supports towards increasing the speed, accuracy, innovation, creativity, positive working environment, increasing safety, etc.
Furthermore, it enables the firm to give concern towards environment, society, etc. which supports towards creating positive brand image. Ergonomic considerations support towards improving the postures, materials handling, proper movements, safety and health considerations, and much more.
According to Pandit, et al. (2013), ergonomic methods have both direct and indirect impact on textile firms that can be negative as well as in a positive manner.
In addition, Meena and Dangayach (2015) predicted that ergonomics methods create a positive impact on the firm as it focuses on improving and maintaining the work efficiency, human capabilities and most important workplace design. In general, ergonomics methods support textile firms in a positive manner by defining people attitude, their well-being nature towards the work helps firm in satisfying the worker’s needs as well as help in accomplishing organization goals.
In view point of Singh (2012), it is found that ergonomics has a negative impact on the workplace as this method for doing analysis and evaluation textile firms are required to hire more human resources which control and observe the production process.
Further, Ngai, et al. (2014) elaborated that ergonomics method increases the utilization of resources for which cost of production and training to workers also increases that leads to sustainable development. Moreover, Wilson and Sharples (2015)
explained that ergonomics methods are creating a positive and effective way for firms by maintaining the workers’ ability of labor force as well as helps in identifying in advance any hazards which are found and observed in the working environment. In research study of Tveito, et al. (2014), the use of ergonomics methods or tools has created huge potential impact on the reduction of accidental or injury cases to a large extent.
This reduction led to increase in production and reduction in labor turnover and so on. Moreover, Afshari, et al. (2015) also defined that ergonomic is creating positive impact on cost saving as well as on increased productivity ratio by significantly diagnosing the problems and solving itto minimum level.
According to Das and Mishra (2015), impact of ergonomics on production process, it can be easily observed that ergonomics creates strong relation between equipments or elements of ergonomics and output quality which is received after adopting ergonomics methods in the operation activities such as managing & controlling workstations activity in relation to workplace arrangements.
In general way, relation between human-hardware ergonomics develops physical and perceptual characteristics & data application which is designed in such a manner that operational activities and working environment displays effective workplace arrangements as similar like lean manufacturing process.
In context to above statement, Arezes, et al. (2015) illustrated that have strong & effective relationship between human-hardware ergonomics has a tremendous impact on the workplace quality.
In Similar context to above statement, Österman and Rose (2015) added his view point by stating that impact of ergonomics is also observed on workplace environment and on human who works in that working environment.
Huang, et al. (2014), stated its concerns by stating that there are various physical environmental factors like heat, noise, vibration and many more which creates negative impact on the workers performance. These all defined factors create huge impact and error on the performance as well as create high impact on human health in terms of muscle disorders or injuries.
This statement is also supported by Dekker, et al. (2013) where it stated that ergonomics is also adopted by companies because of mitigating health issues of human who works at very inefficient working environment where noise and illumination harms health of workers in increasing large number.
In concern to this statement, Karwowski (2012) added view point by stating that ergonomic is playing crucial role for improving and developing the working conditions of the organization by reframing and adopting new design which helps in effective and efficient flow of work and lead to minimization of risk.
In addition to it, Rochais, et al. (2014) also demonstrated that changes in working environment also affects the comfort zone of the workers but there is maximum risk.
But it is also determined that changes in working environment is useful and necessary for workers safety and other functional activities of company as a whole. In supporting to this, Hashim and Taha (2014) added his statement by explaining that ergonomics is creating on use of machinery, working environment and most important on worker’s behavior towards work and risks while working.
Causes and Effects of not Applying Ergonomics Method in Abhimithra Apparels
Above diagram supports to identify that there are various causes due to which Abhimithra Apparels has to face the issue of decrease in productivity and decrease organizational performance. These issues are less concern towards training, less concern towards environmental parameter, less concern towards R & D, high cost in power, less investment, less concern towards advancement, etc.
Research methodology is a systematic method including various activities, which are useful in determining research methods to conduct the research study. Research methodology is a critical element of research study that helps the researcher to present justification of selected methods and strategies to achieve aims and objectives.
It also helps the researcher to ensure the validity and reliability of research study in a significant way (Sekaran and Bougie, 2010). This chapter also discusses the methods of data collection and analysis of collected data in order to explore the relationship between ergonomics methods and operational effectiveness of textile firms.
Following methodology is employed by the researcher to conduct this study successfully:
Research philosophy explains the thinking of researcher about the development of knowledge of research issue. Research philosophy is generally taken to mean a set of beliefs, principles, values, rules and ideas that form the worldview held by a group or discipline.
An effective evaluation of research philosophy helps the researcher to investigate phenomena of interest, which helps in achieving research aims and objectives in the end. There are two types of research philosophies such as interpretive and positivism, which most of the researcher used in their research study.
The assumptions of both the philosophies are different from each other that impact on the whole research methodology (Olsen, 2011). In this, interpretive philosophy assumes that researcher and reality are inseparable and a researcher can develop his/her knowledge about the particular phenomena through experiencing it or by accessing person’s experience.
On the other hand, positivism philosophy assumes that reality is objective and it is fixed and measurable in nature.
For this study, interpretive philosophy is used over positivism philosophy due to its nature and relevancy with the research topic and objectives. The main aim of this research is to investigate the impact of ergonomics on operations, which is not possible without obtaining the employees’ responses as they can provide better views regarding these methods and their effect on operational efficiency.
On the other hand, positivism philosophy uses scientific principles to gather, analyze and understand data and information. It makes this philosophy irrelevant for this study because it is difficult to determine employees’ views in scientific manner. Interpretive research philosophy also helps researcher to evaluate motives, actions and intentions of participants and interpret these in order to fulfill the objectives of the research.
In the research study, research approach helps the researcher to improve the design of research in order to achieve aims and objectives. There are two types of research approaches such as inductive and deductive approach. In deductive research approach, idea is developed from the existing theory, which can be tested through collecting data.
On the other hand, in inductive research approach, data is collected initially and then analyzed to produce new knowledge (Olsen, 2011). For this study, inductive research approach is used over deductive approach as it provides detailed understanding about the context, which helps the researcher to establish research effectively in the related topic. It also helps the researcher to perform research from specific to general.
Along with this, in research, researcher is also interested to explore the views of participants about the use of different ergonomics methods and their impact on operational effectiveness in perspectives of quality, delivery, cost, productivity, etc. that increases the suitability of inductive approach for the study.
On the other hand, deductive approach focuses on the cause-and-effect relationship between variables that reduces its relevancy with this research study. In this study, inductive approach helps the researcher to make observations and draw conclusion on the basis of observation.
Research strategy refers to the plan to answer the research questions. Through the research strategy, researcher ensures the availability of data and information throughout the research process. There are varieties of research strategies, which help the researcher to effectively accomplish the research study.
In this study, literature review, and survey strategies are used by the researcher to investigate the impact of ergonomics on operations (Wilson, 2010). Literature review strategy is helpful for the researcher to develop the conceptual framework about the research topic. It helped the researcher to summarize and evaluate existing data and information related to the impact of ergonomics on operations.
On the other hand, survey strategy helps the researcher to collect large amount of data from a sizable population in a highly economical way. In this research study, the survey strategy is used to collect the views of participants about the impact of ergonomics on operations in a systematic manner, which helped the researcher to produce reliable outcomes and results.
The main aim of this research is to analysis importance of ergonomics method for textile firms for improving its operation activities. In this research methodology, the researchers have to select and use the best effective method such as qualitative, quantitative and mixed research method for further investigation research.
The qualitative research method is used for understanding knowledge related to research topic by using subjective approach for analyzing qualitative data. On the other hand, quantitative data uses an objective approach to analysis quantitative data to develop relevant research outcomes.
In mixed research method, the researcher uses both qualitative and quantitative data to deeply understand and analysis the research topic. For this research, mixed research method is best suitable for this study. The use of qualitative research method helped the researcher to develop theoretical concepts related to ergonomics by developing literature review (Sekaran and Bougie, 2010).
Moreover, this study will add value and help in developing theoretical knowledge by doing in-depth analysis that also supports the use of qualitative research method. While quantitative method is used to analyze the numerical data to increase validity and reliability of the research outcomes.
Ostlund, et al., (2011) defined that data collection method is significantly used for conducting systematic research study by collecting relevant data and information from different sources.
To achieve research objective & goal, a researcher is required to use two types of data collection methods like primary data and secondary data for collecting data & information. According to Olsen (2011), both data collection methods are very useful for a researcher to understand and determine different theoretical and practical leaning and knowledge.
Primary data collection method is a method in which data collected fresh for particular and specific research purpose like survey, questionnaire, etc. On the other hand, Secondary data collection method is defined as a method which is already collected by other researchers or authors like newspaper articles, the internet, journals, etc.
Secondary data collection methods are easier than primary method because there is more availability of information on related research topic in advance. Researcher can access data and information regarding research topic with ease at low cost in less time.
For this research, a researcher used mixed data collection method by focusing on both primary and secondary data collection methods. Secondary data collection method helped in collecting relevant and already accessed data which supported the researcher in achieving research objective and aim successfully.
In order to collect primary information, researcher used survey through questionnaire method that helped in gathering fresh data from selected participants. Through this method, the researcher collected information related to the impact of ergonomics on operational activities of the textile firms (Smith, 2010).
These data collection methods will be crucial for the researcher to improve the validity and creditability of the research study. In primary data collection, researcher asked questions related to used methods of ergonomics and their effect on the operational activities of the firm.
In primary data collection method, sampling strategy is very important to calculate the sample size in order to obtain data and information. Through sampling strategy, researcher defines the focus group to collect primary information and data in the research study. In this strategy, researcher selected large number of participants, who will represent large population related to research study.
In quantitative research design, sampling is helpful for the researcher to develop interaction and collect accurate data in order to conduct the research study effectively. Sampling strategy is classified into two types namely probability and non-probability sampling strategy. For this research, researcher used probability sampling strategy, through which participants were selected on random basis (Gravetter and Forzano, 2011).
This strategy was helpful for the researcher to define the size of sample for the research study. Researcher selected50 employees from operational department of Abimithra Apparels Tiruppur City in Tamil Nadu, India in order to collect fresh data and information related to the research topic.
In this research methodology, data analysis plays a significant role in a research study as it help researcher in analyzing the data which is collected from different sources so that accuracy and relevancy of data can be found and collected in more effective way. In simple term, data analysis provides support to a researcher in accomplishing research aim and objective on time by using efficient analysis method in a research study.
The effective and efficient data analysis methods are a statistical method, thematic analysis, disclosure analysis and conversational analysis which help in generating valid and valuable research outcomes (Ostergaard, et al. 2011).
For this particular research, the statistical analysis method is used by the researcher by using SPSS software and Ms-Excel. In general, SPSS helps in defining and understanding research problem by analyzing the relation between two dependent variables and independent variables.
With the help of SPSS software, a researcher can develop understanding by defining and presenting the result outcomes in creative presentable form after analyzing the data (Gravetter and Forzano, 2011).
In research study, there are various ethical issues, which should be considered by the researcher. Researcher complied with all rules and regulations to conduct this research effectively. In a research study, main concern is security of information collected from participants.
In order to conduct this research study successfully, researcher considered all ethical guidelines, which were related to safety and security of participants’ information and data. In research study, researcher used authentic resources to obtain information and data for generating accurate outcomes.
As secondary data collection method, researcher used several authentic resources such as journals, articles, books, annual reports, websites of the company, etc. that increased the validity of the research outcomes (Wilson, 2010). In order to avoid plagiarism, standardized referencing style is considered by researcher that helped to conduct the study properly for the readers and other future researchers.
In this chapter, quantitative data analysis method is used by the researcher as it has supported towards analyzing the data through various graphs, charts and tables. In this section, primary research outcomes have correlated with secondary data which has supported towards increasing the relevancy of the research.
This section has enabled the researcher to conclude the research in an effective manner while focusing towards research objectives.
Following table and chart has supported to analyze the views of the respondents regarding physical ergonomics method and its utilization to analyze the risk factor which is involved at workplace.
|Options||Response||Analysis – Percentage|
From the above table and graph, it can be analyzed that 42% respondents have remained strongly agree that physical ergonomics method supports to analyze the risk factor which is involved at workplace. At the same time, 32% respondents remained agree to this point.
However, in the contrary, 4% respondents remained neutral and 22% respondents have shown denial to this statement. From the above data, it can be interpreted that huge percentage has shown their consensus that physical ergonomics method supports to analyze the risk factor however, the percentage of the respondents who are not agreed from this statement, their percentage is also not low.
So, it can be identified that physical ergonomics method play vital role in risk analysis but there are many other methods too which supports the firm towards risk analysis. Views of Meena, Dangayach and Bhardwaj (2015) has shown consensus with this statement that physical ergonomics method remains supportive to measure the work and to analyze the risk related to the workplace as it supports to collect the data for management while giving concern towards risk factors related to the work place.
Following table and chart has supported to analyze the views of the respondents regarding your utilization of psycho-physiological ergonomics method towards analyzing the psychophysiology of the human resources.
|Options||Response||Analysis – Percentage|
From the above table and graph, it can be identified that 78% respondents agreed thatAbimithra Apparels utilizes psycho-physiological ergonomics method to analyze the psychophysiology of the human resources. At the same time, 6% respondents remained neutral to this statement and 16% respondents have shown disagreement.
From this, it can be interpreted that Abimithra Apparels utilizes psycho-physiological ergonomics method within the organization which enables the firm to analyze the psycho-physiology of its human resources.
In this context, Cowley, et al. (2016) depicted that psycho-physiological method remains assistive to evaluate and analyze the human perception while focusing towards various parameters.
This method supports to reduce the level of discomfort and stress at a large extent and enable towards decreasing the risk factors which are related to manpower injury or uncertain accidents cases and I also enables towards evaluating the ability and capability of human and supports the managers
to discriminate between underload and overload which supports to minimize the chances of worker discomfort and stress and enable towards increasing the employees satisfaction.
Following table and chart has supported to analyze the views of the respondents regarding essentiality for the firm to utilize behavioral ergonomics method within the organization.
|Options||Response||Analysis – Percentage|
From the above table and graph, it can be determined that 42% respondents remained strongly agree that it is essential for the firm to utilize behavioral ergonomics method within the organization. 38% respondents remained agree from this statement, 8% respondents remained neutral.
On the other hand, 6% respondents remained disagree and 6% respondents remained strongly disagree from this statement. From the above analysis, it can be interpreted that the respondents who are not agreed to this statement, their percentage is negligible,
so it can be analyze that it is essential for the firm to focus towards behavioral ergonomics method as it remains assistive towards improving the organizational performance. In this context, Meyer and Fourie (2016) identified that behavioral method remains supportive to analyze the workers’ behavior while focusing towards various parameters such as workload, tasks, human predictions, etc.
For this purpose, firms utilize different methods, like hierarchical tasks analysis, cognitive task analysis, verbal protocol analysis, human error identification methodologies, workload analyses, etc.
Table 4: Utilization of Team Ergonomics Method
|Options||Response||Analysis – Percentage|
|Effective Team Training||11||22|
|Team Decision Making||12||24|
From the above table and graph, it can be identified that 16% respondents agreed that team ergonomics method supports the organization to develop team spirit, however, 22% respondents have shown consensus with effective team training and 24% respondents have agreed to team decision making and 38% respondents have selected the option of above all.
From the above primary findings, it can be identified that most of the respondents have shown consensus with above all option, which indicates that team ergonomic method enable Abimithra Apparels to develop team spirit, effective team training and team decision making.
Above finding has shown consensus with the views of Berlin, et al. (2017) that team ergonomics method supports the firm to focus towards various parameters while utilizing various methodsto lead the team in an effective manner.
Following table and chart has supported to analyze the necessity of environmental ergonomics method towards the organization development.
|Options||Response||Analysis – Percentage|
From the above table and chart, it can be analyzed that 84% respondents are agreed that it is necessary for the organization to focus towards environmental ergonomics method. However, 4% respondents remain neutral to this point and 12% respondents have shown disagreement.
Percentage of the respondents who have shown disagreement, their percentage is negligible. From this, it can be interpreted that organization should focus towards environmental parameters, in the society firm is dealing as it enables the firm to give consideration towards the surrounding and to fulfill their CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility).
Views of Stanton, et al. (2013) has shown consensus with this finding that environmental ergonomics methods support the firm to analyze the environmental factors which enables the firm to give focus towards vibration exposure, air quality, thermal conditions, waste management, reusability, etc.
which enables the firm to give concern towards environmental parameter. Moreover, it is identified that environmental ergonomics methods enables the firm to increase the ability to perform better while linking the prevailing environmental conditions in the workplace.
Following table and chart has supported to analyze the views of respondents regarding macro-ergonomics method and change management.
|Options||Response||Analysis – Percentage|
From the above table and chart, it can be analyzed that 33 respondents agreed that macro-ergonomics method supports the firm towards effective change management. However, 15 respondents have shown denial to this statement and 2 respondents remains neutral.
From the above interpretation, it can be evaluated that however, most of the respondents remained in the favor to this statement but the number of respondents who have shown denial their percentage is also not negligible.
From this, it can be interpreted that macro-ergonomics remains assistive towards change management however there are many other factors too which are responsible towards change management. Karsh, et al. (2014) has shown consensus with this statement that macro-ergonomics methods assist the firm to evaluate and analyze the work system of the firm in an effective manner.
It supports the firm to focus towards the team members to work together while understanding the changing needs of the organization. Team members work together towards change management with collective perceptions and opinions regarding specific aspects of the change.
Following table and chart has supported to understand the views of the respondents regarding the ergonomics and safety measurements.
|Options||Response||Analysis – Percentage|
From the above table and chart, it can be determined that 48% respondents strongly agree that ergonomics remain assistive to increase the safety measurements.
However, 28% respondents remained agreed, 12% disagree and 12% strongly disagree from this statement. From the above data, it can be interpreted that there is a need of increasing the concern towards safety measurement and ergonomics play vital role in this context.
In support of this, Silvana, et al. (2012) depicted that ergonomics supports to raise the concern towards safety factor at the work place which enables the workers to work effectively and synergistically while enhancing the employee performance. It enables the employer to reduce the accidental cases by improving the working conditions.
Following table and chart has supported to understand the views of the respondents regarding ergonomics and its support towards minimizing the accidents in Abimithra Apparels.
|Options||Response||Analysis – Percentage|
From the above table and chart, it can be determined that 64% respondents agreed that ergonomics remain assistive in Abimithra Apparels towards minimizing the accidents. However, 34% respondents have shown disagreement and 4% respondents remained neutral.
From the above data, it can be interpreted that Abimithra Apparels is focused towards utilizing the ergonomics method towards minimizing the accidents however; there is a need of increasing the concern towards this parameter as it supports towards minimizing the accidents and enable towards increasing the productivity while reducing the maintenance cost.
In this context, Resta, et al. (2014) depicted that ergonomics remain assistive towards improving the operation system performance while decreasing the production cost.
Lean manufacturing process remains assistive towards safety measurement while improving and evaluating the performance of the workers towards risk assessment as well as quality management.
Following table and chart has supported to understand the role of safety factor towards increasing the productivity within the organization.
|Options||Response||Analysis – Percentage|
From the above study, it can be identified that 32% respondents remained strongly agreed to this statement and 42% remained agreed. However, 4% remained neutral and 22% respondents have shown denial from the above statements.
From the above data, it can be evaluated that giving consideration towards safety factor remains assistive to increase the productivity within the organization. It enables the firm to increase the safety which supports to create positive image of the company in the mind of the employees.
At the same time, it enables towards employee satisfaction which enables the firm to increase the productivity. Above outcome has shown consensus with the findings of Oladeinde, et al. (2015) that safety measurement plays vital role in production process and ergonomic methods assist to boost up the productivity of the firm by creating effective relationship with the employees which supports to increase the employee morale in the context of achieving the success.
Moreover, in support of this Gopinadh, et al. (2013) has also shown their views that at present organizations are focused towards increasing the investment on high cost machinery, equipments and other facilities to consider workers safety and eliminating the chances of occupational accidents. This safety measurements offer the financial benefits by increasing the productivity of goods and services.
Following table and chart has supported to understand that ergonomics methods are supporting Abimithra Apparels to improve the organizational performance or not.
|Options||Response||Analysis – Percentage|
From the above table and chart, it can be identified that 70% respondents are agreed that ergonomics methods are supporting Abimithra Apparels to improve the organizational performance. However, 26% respondents have shown denial from the above statement and 4% respondents remained neutral.
From the above data, it can be analyzed that Abimithra Apparels is focused towards ergonomics methods which is supporting the firm to increase the organizational performance. Ergonomics method supports to offer effective and strong integration process which supports to preventing the organization from the cases of risk and enables to boost up the productivity level.
In this context, Dul, et al. (2012) stated that in India, the importance of ergonomics methods development is increasing as it enables the firm to increase the concern towards production economy and social progress.
It also plays a significant role towards improving the workplace environment which enables the firm to get improve at some extent. Moreover, ergonomics methods are highly assistive in textile industry to develop and improve the productivity of the firms by bringing more discipline in the workplace environment.
Following table and chart has enabled to evaluate that does adoption of ergonomics methods support to decrease the organizational cost?
|Options||Response||Analysis – Percentage|
From the above table and chart, it can be identified thatmost of the respondents agreed that ergonomics methods decreases the organizational cost. 28% respondents remained strongly agreed to this statement, 32% respondents remained agreed however 6% respondents remained neutral.
At the same time, 16%respondents has shown disagreement and 18% respondents remained strongly disagree. From the above data, it can be identified that most of the respondents have shown consensus from the above statement from which it can be interpreted that adoption of ergonomics methods decreases the organizational cost which supports towards increasing the profitability.
However, the views of Jeyaraj, et al. (2012) has shown disagreement from this statement that as he argued that adopting ergonomics methods increases the production cost and affects the existing operational activities as it increases the training cost.
However, the views of Resta, et al. (2014) has shown consensus with the statement that ergonomics increases the operational cost but it also improves the operation system performance which supports to increase the overall profitability of the firm.
At the same time, it enables the firm to eliminate the employer cost while decreasing the cases of accidents. In the context of textile industry, the importance of ergonomics is rapidly increasing as it enables the firm to improving the working conditions while minimizing the chances of injuries which happens at the workplace.
Following table and chart has enabled to evaluate the respondents’ views regarding Abimithra Apparels and environmental ergonomics.
|Options||Response||Analysis – Percentage|
|Reusability of the resources||16||32|
|Minimizing the water wastage||12||24|
|Eliminating the use of hazardous chemicals||4||8|
|Proper waste management||18||36|
From the above table and chart, it can be evaluated that according to the views of different respondents Abimithra Apparels give consideration towards various parameters. However, 32% respondents agreed from the option of reusability of the resources.
At the same time, 24% respondents agreed that organization is focused towards minimizing the water wastage and 8% respondents have shown consensus with eliminating the use of hazardous chemicals. At the same time, 36% respondents remained agreed to proper waste management.
From this, it can be identified that Abimithra Apparels give consideration towards various parameters however it gives major concern towards proper waste management however it shows less consideration towards eliminating the use of hazardous chemicals.
From the above data, it can be interpreted that Abimithra Apparels needs to increase concern towards eliminating the use of hazardous chemicals. In support of this, Carayon (2011) identified that ergonomics method supports towards attracting the stakeholders especially supports to increase the attention of the customers towards ergonomics method which increases the benefits for the employees.
Moreover, it is identified that the importance of ergonomics is increasing at a rapid pace as it helps towards improving the working conditions and supports to reduce the chances of accidents and injuries.
Following table and chart has enabled to evaluate that ergonomic methods enable Abimithra Apparels to decrease the production time or not.
|Options||Response||Analysis – Percentage|
From the above table and chart, it can be evaluated that 54% respondents have shown their consensus that ergonomic methods are supporting Abimithra Apparels to decrease the production time. However, 42% respondents have shown denial from the above point of view.
At the same time, 4% respondents remained neutral. From the above data, it can be interpreted that ergonomic methods are supporting Abimithra Apparels to decrease the production time however there are many other factors too which are also supporting the firm to decrease the production time.
This interpretation has shown consensus with the views of Sain and Meena (2016) that at the global platform, there are various other textiles firms which are focused towards adopting ergonomics methods as it enables the firm to improve the operation activities which enables the firm to create competitive advantage in the context of production process of textile products.
Due to this reason, In India textile firms have increased the concern towards adopting new ergonomics factors which are enabling the firm to manage and develop the firm’s performances as well as operation system.
Following table and chart has enabled to evaluate that ergonomic methods enable Abimithra Apparels to increase the productivity or not.
|Options||Response||Analysis – Percentage|
From the above data, it can be determined that 30% respondents remained strongly agreed, 24% remained agreed, 2% remained neutral, 24% remained disagree and 20% remained strongly agree from the above statement.
From the above finding, it can be interpreted that most of the respondents (54%) have shown agreement however, 44% percent respondents have shown denial from the above statement which shows that ergonomic methods is supporting Abimithra Apparels to increase the productivity but there are many other factors too which are responsible towards increasing the company productivity.
So, there is a need of focusing towards various other parameters however, ergonomics is also one of the major factors which is supporting towards increasing the firm productivity.
Views of Salvendy and Karwowski (2016) has shown consistency with this finding that ergonomics is the study of labor towards man adaption by designing an effective operating system and environment which improve the work-man relationship and productivity.
Creating good relationship with employees increases the employee satisfaction level and further improves the employee performance.
Following table and chart has enabled to evaluate that ergonomic methods support towards decreasing the waste and increasing the reusability of the material in the organization or not.
|Options||Response||Analysis – Percentage|
From the above table and chart, it can be identified that evaluated that 30% respondents remained strongly agreed, 28% remained agreed, 4% remained neutral, 26% remained disagree and 12% remained strongly agree from the above statement.
So, 58% respondents have shown consensus that ergonomic methods support towards decreasing the waste and increasing the reusability of the material in Abimithra Apparels.However, 38% respondents remained disagree from the statement and 4%respondents remained neutral. From this, it can be interpreted that
however, Abimithra Apparels is focused towards waste management but still there is a need of increasing the concern towards this parameter as it supports the firm to accomplish its corporate social responsibility and to give concern towards ethical practices which enables the firm to decrease the political and legal issues too.
In this concern, Carayon (2011) opined that it is essential for the firm to give concern towards the environment and the surroundings in which company is dealing asit supports towards increasing the interest of the stakeholders by attracting them through the ethical practices.
Following table and chart has enabled to evaluate that ergonomic methods support towards increasing the quality of the product.
|Options||Response||Analysis – Percentage|
From the above table and chart, it can be identified that 58% respondents remained agreed to this statement however, 36% respondents have shown disagreement that ergonomic methods support the firm towards increasing the quality of the product. However, 6% respondents remained neutral to this statement.
From the above findings, it can be determined that ergonomic methods are supporting Abimithra Apparels to increase the quality of the product as ergonomics method is focused towards various parameters and supports to improve the working condition in a manner so that firm becomes able to focus towards ethical practices while giving consideration towards employees, working condition, environment, etc.
So, it supports towards decreasing the production cost and to increase the company productivity while focusing towards quality parameters too in the context of textile industry. This outcome has shown consistency with the literature review that in the current scenario, it is essential to implement ergonomic process in working environment as it enables the firm to increase the financial benefit.
Ergonomics method supports towards quality management which enables the firm to attract the stakeholders especially supports to increase the attention of the customers towards ergonomics method which increases the benefits for the employees. Moreover, it is identified that the importance of ergonomics is increasing at a rapid pace as it helps towards improving the working conditions and supports to reduce the chances of accidents and injuries.
From the above study, it can be concluded that giving concern towards ergonomics methods remain assistive towards increasing the productivity of the firm while increasing organizational performance. At the same time, it enables the firm to decrease the organizational cost and to improve the employee performance.
Abhimithra Apparels is focused towards ergonomics method but still company not becomes able to apply it in an adequate manner as there are various challenges which are faced by the firm. From the study, it is identified that there are various challenges which is faced by Abhimithra Apparels to employ the methods of ergonomics in an effective manner such as investment, time, increase training needs, etc.
However it is also identified that applying the methods of ergonomics enable the firm to increase the company productivity and to improve the organizational performance as it supports to improve the employees skills while giving consideration towards employee safety and satisfaction.
It also enables the firm to focus towards environmental parameters too. So, organization should focus towards increasing concern towards ergonomics methods while increasing the focus towards applying the methods in an adequate manner so that organization become able to achieve the criteria of ergonomics and become able to develop competitive advantage.
Moreover, company needs to give consideration towards regular check to judge the efficiency of ergonomics and according to that take corrective actions. Increased focus towards ergonomics method will enable the firm to create competitive advantage in the industry while increasing the long-term sustainability.
In like manner, Abhimithra Apparels needs to improve the organization working process through the ergonomics method by applying the method according to the changing market need and changing working process.
|Postulation of problem||Offered solution||Responsible person||Term of realization|
Ergonomics method is a time consuming process
Initially, adaptability of a new ergonomics method remains time consuming as employees need to make well-worse according to it. However, after applying the ergonomics method it enables the firm to improve the organizational performance while decreasing the production time.
There is a need of continuous check that the ergonomics method applied in the organization in an effective manner or not. Moreover, there is a need of time to time amendment if any shortfall found.
To apply the ergonomics methods within the organization, the need of training increases to make the employees skilled according to the requirement.
Company needs to schedule the training according to the convenience while trying to add various perspectives related to ergonomics which will assist towards increasing the skills of the employees while utilizing the time in an effective manner.
There is a need of cross-checking the efficiency which has taken place by training and also need to design the further training program according to the shortfalls identified the firm.
|Ergonomics method increases the investment on machineries, equipment, human resource, etc.
There is a need of raising the fund through increasing the interest of investors, financers, etc. which will enable the firm to raise the funds and to apply effective working process which will enable towards creating competitive advantage
Top management, Operational Manager, Finance Manager & HR Manager
There is a need of focusing towards working process and its affectivity while giving consideration towards the current market need and the strategies used by the competitors, so according to that company can design effective future strategies.
Increase quality material, increases the production cost too.
There is a need of branding the company products on the basis of high quality rather than low price. Moreover, achieving economies of scale will remain assistive for the firm to offer the products to the consumers in an affordable price.
Quality Manager & Operational Manager
Effective branding on the perspective of quality will enable the firm to increase the profit margin while increasing the consumer base through positive brand image and consumer satisfaction.
From the above study, it can be concluded that Abhimithra Apparels need to increase concern towards environmental ergonomics method as textile industry pollute the environment at a greater extent and company is less concern towards this parameter.
In like manner, firm needs to increase concern towards the society in which it is dealing and needs to increase concern towards effective disposal of the chemicals which are used in the firm. Moreover, Abhimithra Apparels needs to increase concern towards proper waste management, water management, etc. to fulfill its social responsibility which will enable towards increasing the positive word of mouth.
Moreover, firm needs to increase concern towards behavioral methods related to employees as it supports towards motivating and encouraging them to perform better. In like manner, company needs to increase concern towards training parameters too.
From the above study, it can be recommended that:
- Abhimitra Apparels needs to increase concern towards employee training. However, employing training method increases the company cost and it is also a time consuming process but at the same time, it enables the firm to increase the skills of the employees which support towards creating competitive advantage as well as supports towards creating long-term sustainability.
- There is a need of increasing concern towards effectively disposal of chemicals as the chemicals used in textile industry can pollute the environment on a greater extent.
- There is a need of raising the funds through attracting and influencing the investors, so that advanced technology can be used by the firm while focusing towards increased safety level.
- Firm needs to give consideration towards economies of scale while focus towards quality too as it enables the company to offer quality product at a reasonable price.
- Moreover, it is essential to increase the concern towards behavioral aspects of the employees by applying behavioral ergonomics method.
This study has theoretical and practical implication and it can be used for academic as well as managerial purpose.
This study can be utilized for the future context to get the deeper understanding regarding the ergonomics which will support the mangers to improve the organizational working while saving the cost and time. In like manner, it will enable the scholars to get the deeper understanding regarding ergonomics so that they can use it for the future context.
In this paper, researcher has included only survey questionnaire method which has supported towards analyze the data through quantitative approach. However, including the personal interview method can remain supportive to analyze the views, point of view, suggestions, etc. of the respondents.
So, there is an opportunity for the future researchers to take qualitative approach as well. In like manner, researcher has taken small sample size so there is an opportunity for the future researchers to employ large sample size to get relevant research outcome.
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- According to your views, physical ergonomics method supports to analyze the risk factor which is involved at workplace?
- According to your views, does your organization utilize psycho-physiological ergonomics method to analyze the psychophysiology of the human resources?
- According to your views, is it essential for the firm to utilize behavioral ergonomics method within the organization?
- As per your views, team ergonomics method supports the organization to develop –
Effective Team Training
Team Decision Making
- Is it necessary for the organization to focus towards environmental ergonomics method?
- As per your perception, is macro-ergonomics method assistive to change management in an effective manner?
- Do you agree that ergonomics remain assistive to increase the safety measurements?
- As per your views, does ergonomics remain assistive in Abimithra Apparels towards minimizing the accidents?
- According to your views, giving consideration towards safety factor remains assistive to increase the productivity within the organization?
- Do you agree that ergonomics methods are supporting Abimithra Apparels to improve the organizational performance?
- In the context of your organization, does adoption of ergonomics methods decrease the organizational cost?
- As per your opinion, under environmental ergonomics, Abimithra Apparels give major consideration towards –
Reusability of the resources
Minimizing the water wastage
Eliminating the use of hazardous chemicals
Proper waste management
- According to your views, do ergonomic methods enable Abimithra Apparels to decrease the production time?
- According to your views, do ergonomic methods enable Abimithra Apparels to increase the productivity?
- Do you agree that ergonomic methods support towards decreasing the waste and increasing the reusability of the material in your organization?
- Do you agree that ergonomic methods support your firm towards increasing the quality of the product?