WPS and International Human Rights

Assignment Sample on WPS and International Human Rights

Introduction

The report takes into consideration the agenda of the WPS or the women’s peace and security and discusses its various dynamics with respect to the global standards of resolving a conflict. The report carefully takes into consideration the operational mechanism of the standard empowering agenda that was founded with respect to the benefit of women all around the world. Women in the society have had to be a victim of various unfair agendas and prejudices. Ranging from professional to personal life choices, they have had to face many injustices in terms of their credibility. Empowering movements and agendas are necessary by legislation to encourage the women to not give up their position or truth and develop a system where they are able to feel empowered to speak their truth and make their concerns be heard. The report discusses the origin of the agenda and then goes on to discuss how it developed over time to be a part of the United Nations. Following that, the global implementation of the agenda with respect to conflict resolution for women has also been discussed followed by a summarized conclusion.

Women, peace and security agenda

There are certain strategies adopted by the United Nations with respect to the development of women, peace and security agenda. They are as follows,

  1. Considers the effect of war on women and acknowledge the importance of female to conflict prevention and settlement and their position in sustaining regional peace and safeguarding.
  2. Reiterates the previous commitments needed to resolve sexual abuse in war and demands the establishment of resources to tackle injustice by identifying suspects and developing surveillance, review and monitoring frameworks.
  3. Identifies problem-related sexual abuse as a tactic of combat employed by warring sides to pursue strategic or strategic objectives and manifest in immunity, and involve increased attempts to end sexual assault in battle[1].
  4. Demands all parties, along with the United Nations, to do something to enforce fast measures and to counter the privilege of incidence of sexual abuse in war. Recognizes the role of the community in combating and reacting to sexual misconduct in crisis contexts. Offers for more successful enforcement of Resolutions 1820, including the creation of a unique representation of the Secretary-head on Sexual Harassment in War to include elevated-level guidance and the establishment of Women’s Security Advisors in Peacekeeping Operations.
  5. Establish concrete steps to increase the involvement and inclusion of women in dispute settlement, in particular by leadership roles.
  6. Reiterates that gender equity is fundamental to the achievement of regional peace and safeguard. Determines the need for international assistance to provide access to a broad spectrum of reproductive-sexual health facilities.
  7. Concentrates on after-conflict development cooperation, provides a plan to expand the number of females involved in peace negotiations, and advocates for the establishment of global benchmarks to assess the adoption of United Nations and Member Countries Resolutions 1325. A series of 26 metrics have now been established to monitor and accountable for adoption, grouped into four pillars: mitigation, engagement, security and response and rehabilitation[2].
  8. Women’s positions in the battle against violent extreme-response and radical- statement and strengthened methods of work of the United Nations on female, peace, and stability
  9. Continuous improvement to counter sexual harassment and violence in peacekeeping operations.
  10. Advocates on respondents to wars across the globe to bring an appropriate reaction to sexual abuse, to discourage such actions in the prospective circumstance, and to establish disciplinary mechanisms for incidents of sexual assault and demands for appropriate assistance mechanisms for sufferers of sexual assault to be introduced[3].

Action plans

The Women, Safety and Reconciliation Strategy has a clear global context, expressed in the UN Security Council Resolution 1325 guidelines on Un peacebuilding missions. Currently, the policy has often been planned to be pursued domestically and globally, that is, via local state intervention, as well as via its participation in peace talks and activities both in the household and overseas. For this cause, it is valuable for national policy systems to allow an evaluation of potential national intervention on the women’s peace and security program. The position of the WPS initiative must be compatible with the administration’s promises to localize the 2030 Agenda and with the overall understanding that there could be no economic growth without stability[4]. The creation of women’s peace and security action plans should be carried out in an integrated, participative mechanism that draws along appropriate federal agencies, public security personnel, democratic institutions and, preferably, parliamentary bodies. In fact, though, the role of legislative bodies in the production of action plans has been complex. Most generally, the implementation phase of the WPS action plans has been driven by either the Federal Women’s Department or the Body of National Defence. The lead organization shall form a working committee, bringing along various parties to perform an issue review and to establish an implementation plan. The planning phase of the NAP is an incentive for Parliament to be active in determining the goals for the introduction of the WPS. Members will be personally interested in the preparation process and the resulting WPS action plan may be formally presented for review and ratification by the legislatures.

Not all organizations have enacted a National Plan of response for WPS. In certain nations, WPS could not have been prioritized amid a host of other immediate current discourses. Other nations could have incorporated WPS problems into other planning and governance, acknowledging the value of regional cooperation in all industries, or ensuring that they generate the requisite funding and democratic will to enforce them. A gender mainstreaming policy would more generally be created, providing an overview of and suggestions on women’s protection. Any nations have enacted laws requiring such a gender policy to be created and submitted to Parliament, which is an effective place for Members to lobby for women security and peace concerns[5]. In certain nations, international humanitarian structures may implement policies to address the interests of conflict-affected females as an aspect of their comprehensive effort to restore disadvantaged groups. Rather or in contrast, national defence, policing, peacebuilding or protection policies can often provide gender research, guidelines and tools for WPS discrepancies or goals. Distributional programs, initiatives or management strategies which provide goals for the WPS, such as: creating Female’s Benches to Resolve Recovery and rehabilitation Concerns at Government Buildings; allowing the body responsible for human rights to collect War Abuse Grievances; or ensuring gender-sensible learning for defense personnel serving as peace operations.

The UN and WPS

Sustainable goals and WPS

The sustainable goals of the UN that enforce women peace and security are as follows,

  1. With the adoption of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325, several measures have been negotiated to offer more guidelines about how Member Countries should maintain the peace and stability of women. Around the same period, the world community has sought to place global mechanisms on this path. Following the release of two big UN publications on peace creating—the assessment of the Top Level Independent Committee on Conflict Operations and the International Review.
  2. Integration of security council measures 132512, the UN National Convention and United Nations adopted supplementary peace-building measures addressing reconciliation at all points of the dispute and in all its aspects, with particular references to the interests of the female group in accordance with United Nation conduct 1325 and corresponding measures.
  3. goal and strategy contribute nations to promoting gender equity and supporting both women and children. Concept of sustainable development 5 is categorized into six goals, with the Goal immediately calling for policymakers to “minimize all kinds of attacks against certain female group in the public and personal realms, including slavery and sexual harassment and other forms of corruption.” This follows directly with the female’s agendas, peace and stability, as do the objective is to develop for eliminating all aspects of violence towards women and rising the participation of children in judgment-making[6]. This concluding goal is of special interest to Representatives of Congress. Analysis by the connection- parliamentary Association has found that both woman MEPs and workers are prone to sexism, bullying and aggression as an aspect of their job atmosphere. Sustainable Development goal 5.5, as interpreted on the WPS agenda, invites Legislators to examine whether their own Government has legislation and processes to guarantee that women are willing to engage fairly in the function of the legislatures.
  4. Target 8 commitments nations to fostering balanced, efficient and inclusive economic development, complete and meaningful jobs and good jobs for all. Concept of sustainable development 8 is categorized into 10 goals, all of which contribute specifically to the requirement for females to have a stable career, even in problem-affected situations. Goal 8.5 aims for “decent jobs for all males and females,” while Resolution 8.7 advocates for a stop to child labour, sex exploitation and commercial sexual exploitation, and Goal 8.8 advocates for a secure working atmosphere for all employees, particularly immigrant women and others in insecure occupations. Target 16 is dedicated to fostering stable and equitable communities for sustainable growth, ensuring access to the courts for everyone and creating efficient, transparent and equitable structures at all grades[7]. There are also trade-levels in places where Sustainable development is much more essential for a nation’s development goals, with Concept of sustainable development 16 mostly being viewed as less relevant for policies that rely on productivity expansion, poverty alleviation, healthcare or schooling. That being said, the consequences of not engaging in SDG 16 are significant: tension and aggression can undo growth benefits; poverty and alienation can intensify conflict; instability, denial of available to equality and inequalities are gradual and mutually supportive and can contribute to the eruption of sectarian violence. 16 Concept of sustainable development 16 is sponsored by twelve goals, several of which concentrate on the legal system, freedom from aggression and resolving the reasons and consequences of violence[8]. Goal 16.7 reflects on maintaining sensitive, fair, collaborative, and inclusive judgment-making at all rates and emphasizes Parliamentarians’ position in supporting sex-responsive judgment-making. This strategy acknowledges that female’s peace and stability are indistinguishable from society’s peace and stability, and that parliamentarians have an integral responsibility in facilitating that stability, justice and equality legislation, particularly matters relevant to the WPS, are debated and implemented.

The Implementation of WPS globally with conflict resolution

Global awareness of the gender specific essence of violence and conflict resolution has evolved considerably from the year two thousand. Not only do they now recognize that females or girls encounter violence separately from male victims, but also because their positions in violence and peace making are diverse and nuanced. The representative of the female gender has often been objects of battle, routinely exposed to sex-oriented and gender-oriented abuse and subjugation as a result of the insurgents’ policy[9]. Sometimes left to maintain home environment while men go to fight, in several nations, females also have been instrumental in defending their household and societies. They can also be perpetrators of aggression serving as allies or fighters of militant gangs. They can, at the conclusion of the day, switch between these positions, based on the circumstance Women will serve as peacemakers, both by feminist groups and via the use of their presence in families and societies in which they find themselves and the resources they are offered. In recent years, when the fighting has changed from the inter-region confrontation between opposing forces to militant armed insurrection and violent terrorist organizations, the effect on women has been much more disturbing. Following centuries of attempts by the feminism rights to concentrate emphasis on the gender specific effects of war, the rise in UN humanitarian relief and peace-creation activities in the nineties also saw continuing introduction of broadly oriented military interventions, with little respect paid to resolve the basic experiences of males in conflict-oriented circumstances[10]. Females also often tended to be ignored in peacekeeping activities and removed from ongoing conflict resolution. In reaction to continuing gender-oblivious foreign approaches to violence, the feminist movement has stepped up its attempts to push policymakers to respond. This campaigning came to light in the dawn of new millenia, with the United Nations Security council using the diplomatic energy of the modern era to formally recognise women’s absence from peace-creation and peace-coordination and to appeal for intervention.

Parliamentary bodies and WPS

Since the founding of the United Nations, the defence and advancement of human rights have been at the core of the Participating Countries’ efforts to make sure that their citizens can lead a secure, prosperous, and stable existence. These obligations were laid out in the official announcement of the humanitarian rights and were accompanied by several additional resolutions and conferences on these basic values[11]. The enforcement of the responsibilities set out in these agreements and treaties shall continue to be supervised by the UN commissions and institutions and by non – governmental organisations. Members of parliament are important collaborators in promoting responsible, equitable, collaborative and open democracy that is critical to accomplish sustained development for everyone[12]. The key roles and forces of the Parliamentarians provide Representatives with ways to advance the women’s peace and security agenda. There are as many as four main roles that nearly all lawmakers have had as an aspect of their authority, although they can vary from place to place. These roles include policy, expenditure adoption and supervision, supervision and regulation of the federal government, and advocacy and mobilization.

The legislative change with respect to WPS

The goals for law change could have been already established in places where the WPS National Plan of action has indeed been created. The rights mechanisms can also provide proposals for the improvement of the legislation. Global sectoral policies, in regions such as sociological freedom, social empowerment, national safety protection and peacekeeping, may also provide recommendations on essential places for regulations[13]. Proposing, proposing, discussing and implementing rule change is a vital commitment that Legislatures should provide to help the adoption of the WPS program[14]. In favor of statutory changes to facilitate women’s stability and protection, Members will intend to invite parliamentary personnel to conduct a law change review to determine which legislation ought to be changed and if any additional legislation is required to enforce the WPS initiative.

Law reform issues

There have been no models for regulations to support women, stability and protection, but history across the globe indicates that legislatures have taken some steps to make laws on a variety of various topics. For instance:

  1. Non-distinction, dignity and equality of involvement[15]
  2. Significant Sexual Equality Legislation sets out normal principles for justice, non-distinction and feminist rights, or that might require the creation of key sex equality mechanisms (including the Gender Committee or the Regional Women’s Committee). Such regulations can also contain restrictions on the role of females in sustainable peace creation and dispute settlement.
  3. Laws banning gender inequality, likely having some sort of administrative structure to monitor its enforcement.
  4. Regulations implementing positive discrimination provisions for female involvement in government structures and judgment-making or recruiting for army, police, civil service, peacebuilding or diplomats
  5. Prevention and reaction to abuse and smuggling
  6. Laws to fix the Working classes, enacted as stand-alone laws or a set of rules, or subsequent legislation to the existing civil code[16].
  7. Law dealing with SGBV performed in the sense of war, including clauses granting extraterritorial authority to enable enforcement of crimes committed abroad
  8. Regulations establishing prosecutorial punishments for sexual assault in the workforce, in public transit or in general[17].
  9. Law banning trade in human beings, with unique clauses granting extrajudicial authority to enable enforcement of crimes perpetrated abroad
  10. Gender-sensible law on transformative reform, speaking in terms of process (including females) and specific concerns (i.e., issues significant to the female group).
  11. Gender-sensible laws targeting the avoidance of international terrorism and/or radicalism, taking into consideration the diverse backgrounds of males and females in these situations

Progressing Women peace and safety changes

Different bodies have various systems for writing, introducing and implementing regulations. Most generally, the administrative branch may be responsible for the initiation and preparation of laws or changes[18]. In such situations, while Legislators are less inclined to enact a measure, they will also press for reform, such as increasing the issue of rule enforcement, introducing a resolution or utilizing the subcommittee investigation mechanism as an avenue to address the WPS and recommend legislative amendments[19]. When a government bill has been finalized, it will be presented to the parliament by the Minister of Policy for discussion, alteration or implementation. Initial bills may usually be submitted to the appropriate legislative commission for further scrutiny throughout that phase[20]. This is an essential mechanism for representatives of the subcommittee and will use the chance to suggest changes to the bill. When the subcommittee process is finished, the proposed bill is referred to the key plenary for discussion, modification and confirmation decision[21]. The procedure will then be continued in the house of representatives in multiparty parliamentarians. In certain constitutional or semi-constitutional regimes, the parliament has more authority to enact its own legislation. In such situations, groups of Members of Parliament (categorized by community or by problem) or even single Members of The government can create their own bills of legislation and then campaign to demand that their bills be put on the healthcare legislation for a meeting. If a bill is approved for approval by the management of the parliament, it follows a procedure close to those mentioned above, typically including a committee revision, accompanied by a vote, modification and passage in the key plenary session[22]. In certain nations, an MP will be allowed to lobby through what is considered the Private Member’s Provision. Under other situations, the Member would draw up the draft legislation directly (often building on the resources of civil society organizations) and attempt to place it on the policy platform. This strategy is less effective in areas with great political movements, where generally only party-supported bills are introduced by the parliament as a whole. That being said, in certain situations, for instance, on an individual-focused topic such as women’s safety and peace, Private Members Measures can have intersectional-party appeals and may be approved.

Conclusion

The Women, Safety and stability Initiative has a transformational capacity. It is an important mechanism for shifting from exclusive to inclusive judgement-rendering, from social discrimination to gender equity, from war and violence to equitable and egalitarian harmony. The Project is now globally known, but there are always obstacles. Patriarchal society, inequality, militarized machismo and patriarchal power systems hinder successful prevention efforts, sustainable harmony, women’s rights, and involvement. In order to realize the strategic implications of the Female, Safety and Stability Initiative, it seeks to transition from rhetorical engagement to action: states, the Security Council, democratic institutions, the private industry and other stakeholders need to enforce appropriate agreements throughout all thematic fields. Guaranteeing a gender pov and female’s engagement, security and freedom are important, particularly in the fields of deterrence and demilitarization, security of resettlement, peacebuilding, judgment-making and rehabilitation.

References

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DiRienzo C, ‘The Effect Of Women In Government On Country-Level Peace’ (2018) 31 Global Change, Peace & Security

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‘Implementation Of The Women, Peace And Security Agenda’ (PeaceWomen, 2021) <https://www.peacewomen.org/who-implements> accessed 27 February 2021

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‘Women, Peace And Security – GSDRC’ (GSDRC, 2021) <https://gsdrc.org/document-library/women-peace-and-security/> accessed 27 February 2021

‘Women, Peace, Power’ (UN Women, 2021) <https://www.unwomen.org/en/news/in-focus/women-peace-security> accessed 27 February 2021

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[1](Google.com, 2021) <https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=&ved=2ahUKEwiqqJCc1orvAhVX6nMBHWCTDyMQFjAAegQIAhAD&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.un.org%2Fruleoflaw%2Ffiles%2Fwomenpeaceandsecurity.pdf&usg=AOvVaw13kYl7H26gwAMxHD7C9cyO> accessed 27 February 2021

[2]Claire Pierson, ‘Gendering Peace In Northern Ireland: The Role Of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 On Women, Peace, And Security’ (2018) 43 Capital & Class.

[3]Claire Pierson, ‘Gendering Peace In Northern Ireland: The Role Of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 On Women, Peace, And Security’ (2018) 43 Capital & Class.

[4]Oksana Yarosh, ‘UKRAINE’S STRATEGIES OF EMPOWERING WOMEN IN PEACE-BUILDING: IMPLEMENTATION OF UN SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTION 1325 ON WOMEN AND PEACE AND SECURITY’ [2020] The Copernicus Journal of Political Studies.

[5]Claire Pierson, ‘Gendering Peace In Northern Ireland: The Role Of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 On Women, Peace And Security’ (2018) 43 Capital & Class.

[6]Oksana Yarosh, ‘UKRAINE’S STRATEGIES OF EMPOWERING WOMEN IN PEACE-BUILDING: IMPLEMENTATION OF UN SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTION 1325 ON WOMEN AND PEACE AND SECURITY’ [2020] The Copernicus Journal of Political Studies.

[7]Oksana Yarosh, ‘UKRAINE’S STRATEGIES OF EMPOWERING WOMEN IN PEACE-BUILDING: IMPLEMENTATION OF UN SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTION 1325 ON WOMEN AND PEACE AND SECURITY’ [2020] The Copernicus Journal of Political Studies.

[8]Claire Pierson, ‘Gendering Peace In Northern Ireland: The Role Of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 On Women, Peace And Security’ (2018) 43 Capital & Class.

[9]Ana Lukatela, ‘Implementing The Women, Peace And Security Agenda In The Osce’ (2016) 27 Security and Human Rights.

[10]‘OHCHR | Women, Peace And Security’ (Ohchr.org, 2021) <https://www.ohchr.org/EN/Issues/Women/Pages/WomenPeaceAndSecurity.aspx> accessed 27 February 2021.

[11](Google.com, 2021) <https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=&ved=2ahUKEwiqqJCc1orvAhVX6nMBHWCTDyMQFjAAegQIAhAD&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.un.org%2Fruleoflaw%2Ffiles%2Fwomenpeaceandsecurity.pdf&usg=AOvVaw13kYl7H26gwAMxHD7C9cyO> accessed 27 February 2021

[12]‘Women, Peace, Power’ (UN Women, 2021) <https://www.unwomen.org/en/news/in-focus/women-peace-security> accessed 27 February 2021.

[13]‘Women, Peace, Power’ (UN Women, 2021) <https://www.unwomen.org/en/news/in-focus/women-peace-security> accessed 27 February 2021.

[14]‘OHCHR | Women, Peace And Security’ (Ohchr.org, 2021) <https://www.ohchr.org/EN/Issues/Women/Pages/WomenPeaceAndSecurity.aspx> accessed 27 February 2021.

[15]Yakin Ertürk, ‘The Political Economy Of Peace Processes And The Women, Peace And Security Agenda’ (2020) 20 Conflict, Security & Development.

[16](Google.com, 2021) <https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=&ved=2ahUKEwiqqJCc1orvAhVX6nMBHWCTDyMQFjAAegQIAhAD&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.un.org%2Fruleoflaw%2Ffiles%2Fwomenpeaceandsecurity.pdf&usg=AOvVaw13kYl7H26gwAMxHD7C9cyO> accessed 27 February 2021

[17]‘Women, Peace And Security – GSDRC’ (GSDRC, 2021) <https://gsdrc.org/document-library/women-peace-and-security/> accessed 27 February 2021.

[18]‘Women, Peace, Power’ (UN Women, 2021) <https://www.unwomen.org/en/news/in-focus/women-peace-security> accessed 27 February 2021.

[19](Google.com, 2021) <https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=&ved=2ahUKEwiqqJCc1orvAhVX6nMBHWCTDyMQFjAAegQIAhAD&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.un.org%2Fruleoflaw%2Ffiles%2Fwomenpeaceandsecurity.pdf&usg=AOvVaw13kYl7H26gwAMxHD7C9cyO> accessed 27 February 2021

[20]Cassandra E. DiRienzo, ‘The Effect Of Women In Government On Country-Level Peace’ (2018) 31 Global Change, Peace & Security.

[21]‘Implementation Of The Women, Peace And Security Agenda’ (PeaceWomen, 2021) <https://www.peacewomen.org/who-implements> accessed 27 February 2021.

[22]‘Implementation Of The Women, Peace And Security Agenda’ (PeaceWomen, 2021) <https://www.peacewomen.org/who-implements> accessed 27 February 2021.

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